/liz"euhrd/, n.1. any of numerous scaly reptiles of the suborder Sauria, order Squamata, typically having a moderately elongate body, a tapering tail, and two pairs of legs held outward from the body, comprising mostly terrestrial and burrowing species.2. any of various reptiles resembling a lizard, as a dinosaur or crocodile.3. leather made from the skin of the lizard, used for shoes, purses, etc.5. See lounge lizard.6. Naut. a pennant used as a leader for running rigging, having a thimble or bull's-eye.7. The Lizard. See Lizard Head.[1350-1400; ME liserd, var. of lesard(e) < MF lesarde < L lacerta]
* * *Any of about 3,000 species of reptiles constituting the suborder Sauria.They are most diverse and abundant in the tropics but are found from the Arctic Circle (one species) to southern Africa, South America, and Australia. Like snakes, lizards have scales, paired male copulatory organs, and a flexible skull. Typical lizards have a moderately cylindrical body, four well-developed legs (although some lizards are legless), a tail slightly longer than the head and body combined, and movable lower eyelids. They range in size from 1-in. (3-cm) geckos to the 10-ft (3-m) Komodo dragon, but most are about 12 in. (30 cm) long. Ornamentation includes crests on the head, back, or tail; spines; brightly coloured throat fans; and throat frills. Most species feed on insects and rodents, but some, such as the iguana, eat plants. See also Gila monster; horned toad.
* * *▪ reptileIntroductionany of nearly 4,450 species of reptiles (reptile) belonging in the order Squamata (which also includes snakes (snake), suborder Serpentes). Lizards are scaly-skinned reptiles that are usually distinguished from snakes by the possession of legs, movable eyelids, and external ear openings. However, some traditional (that is, non-snake) lizards lack one or more of these features. For example, limb degeneration and loss has occurred in glass lizards (Ophisaurus) and other lizard groups. Movable eyelids have been lost in some geckos (gecko), skinks (skink), and night lizards (night lizard). External ear openings have disappeared in some species in the genera Holbrookia and Cophosaurus. Most of the living species of lizards inhabit warm regions, but some are found near the Arctic Circle in Eurasia and others to the southern tip of South America.Snakes arose from lizards and are thus considered to be a highly specialized group of limbless lizards. In addition to those traits they have in common with non-snake lizards, snakes are often separated from other lizards in popular literature because they share a set of unique traits that are relatively easy to observe. For a full description of snakes, see snake.General featuresLizards are by far the most diverse group of modern reptiles (reptile) in body shape and size. They range from 2 cm (0.8 inch) snout to vent in geckos (gecko) (family Gekkonidae) to 3 metres (10 feet) in total length in monitor lizards (monitor) (family Varanidae). The weight of adult lizards ranges from less than 0.5 gram (0.02 ounce) to more than 150 kg (330 pounds). The popular conception of a lizard as a scampering reptile about 30 cm (12 inches) in total length with a slender tail may be applied accurately only to a small number of species. Representatives of several families are limbless and resemble snakes (snake), whereas others have long hind legs that permit bipedal locomotion. Male lizards may be outfitted with a wide array of ornamentation—such as extensible throat fans and frills, throat spines, horns or casques on the head, and tail crests.Lizards occupy diverse habitats (habitat) that range from underground warrens and burrows to the surface and elevated vegetation. Some move slowly and rely on cryptic coloration (coloration) for protection, whereas others can run swiftly across desert sands. Lizards of the family Mosasauridae (mosasaur), an extinct group, were strictly marine. Some mosasaurs were giants and grew to lengths of 10 metres (33 feet). One living lizard, the marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) of the Galapagos Islands, feeds on algae in the sea; however, it spends much of its time basking on lava rocks on the islands. No other extant lizard species is marine, but several are partially aquatic and feed on freshwater organisms.The role lizards play in human ecology is poorly known. Some lizards are sources of food and clothing or agents of pest control, whereas others are pests. Some larger lizards (such as the iguanas [Iguana and Ctenosaura] of Mexico, Central America, and South America) are eaten and are an important food source. Others are used for leather goods. Monitor lizards and tegus (tegu) (family Teiidae) are harvested for their skins, and these skins have a major effect on local economies of rural areas in Third World countries. Although lizards are often portrayed as insectivores (insectivore), many also consume small vertebrates (vertebrate) and at least some plant material; strict herbivory (herbivore) has evolved independently in several groups of lizards. Nevertheless, lizards eat large numbers of insects and other invertebrates (invertebrate), particularly in the tropics and in deserts. These insect-control services affect humans in many subtle ways; however, such effects have not been well studied. Large predatory lizards (such as monitors and tegus) can be pests—often preying on farm animals or stealing chicken eggs (egg)—that affect the livelihoods of ranchers and farmers.Some relatively small lizard species, such as geckos (gecko), have not only colonized many islands by rafting with humans on boats but have also invaded cities and towns throughout the world. For example, throughout Brazil, one of the best-known lizards, the Mediterranean gecko (Hemidactylus mabouia), is so common in houses and buildings that most Brazilians know more about it, based on their own observations, than they know about any of the endemic species. As is the case with many introduced lizards, the Mediterranean gecko appears to do very well living with people in disturbed areas but does not seem to invade undisturbed habitats.For the most part, lizards are not disease vectors and pose little danger to humans who take proper precautions when handling them. Lizards are often infected with various parasites (parasitism), including a type of malaria, but these parasites tend to be species specific. Salmonella bacteria may be transmitted from a lizard to a human, particularly if the lizard is placed in a person's mouth. tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and some viral and fungal infections may also pass from lizard to human. Persons handling lizards are advised to practice good personal hygiene.Only two species, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico and the Mexican beaded lizard (H. horridum) of western Mexico, are venomous. Both species bite humans only when provoked, and fatalities are very rare. Among the most harmless of lizards are geckos, which are falsely believed to be highly venomous by many indigenous cultures throughout the world. Reasons for this suspicion are unclear; however, the geckos' nocturnal activity, elliptical pupils, and ability to walk up smooth vertical surfaces could make them seem supernatural to some cultures.Lizards are also valued as subjects for biological research. Their varied modes of reproduction and their ability to regulate body temperatures are two of many areas studied by comparative physiologists (see thermoregulation). The great abundance and observability of numerous species make them ideal subjects for ecologists and ethologists. The ability of some species to regenerate (regeneration) broken tails has led to their use as research subjects by behavioral ecologists and developmental biologists. Since they are relatively clean and easy to keep, lizards are also quite popular as house pets.Natural historyLife cycleMost lizards reproduce by laying eggs (egg). In some small species, the number of eggs is rather uniform for each laying or clutch. For example, all anoles (anole) (Anolis) lay but a single egg at a time, many geckos (gecko) lay one or two eggs (depending upon the species), and some skinks (skink) have clutches of two eggs. A more general rule is that clutch size varies with the size, age, and condition of the mother. A clutch of four to eight eggs may be considered typical, but large lizards such as the iguanas (iguana) may lay 50 or more eggs at one time. Lizard eggs are usually leathery-shelled and porous; they can expand by the absorption of moisture as the embryos (embryo) grow. An exception occurs in the majority of egg-laying geckos, whose eggs have shells that harden soon after they are deposited and then show no further change in size or shape.Embryonic development and sex determinationviviparity, or the birthing of live young, occurs in some lizard species. For skinks, this is true for about one-third of the species, many of which live in tropical climates. In most other families that have live-bearing representatives, the species that are frequently exposed to cold conditions—either at high altitude or at extreme latitude—tend to be live-bearers. For example, all New Zealand geckos give birth to live young, yet all other geckos lay eggs. A great diversity of mechanisms exists that results in the production of live young. In some lizards the only difference between egg laying ( oviparity) and live bearing (viviparity) is that shells never form around the “eggs.” The female retains them inside the oviduct until development is complete, and each egg already contains all of the energy necessary for development in its large yolk. In these cases, no additional nutrients (nutrient) pass from the mother to the offspring.In other lizards, eggs released from the ovary contain most, but not all, of the energy necessary for development in the yolk. Several kinds of placentae (placenta) can develop, depending on the species of lizard. The result is that some nutrients pass from the mother to the offspring during development. In just a few species, such as Mabuya heathi, tiny eggs with almost no yolk are released from the ovary and deposited in the oviduct. An advanced and complex placenta develops, and more than 99 percent of the nutrients required for embryonic development pass from the mother to the offspring. In these species the gestation period is usually very long (8–12 months).sex in most lizards is genetically and rigidly determined; a hatchling normally has either male or female reproductive structures. In representatives of most iguanian lizard families (Iguania) and in some species of whiptails, tegus, geckos, and skinks, the males have dissimilar sex chromosomes (sex chromosome), comparable to the sex-chromosome system of most mammals (mammal). Some female geckos and wall lizards and all monitor lizards (monitor) have sex-chromosome differences that are similar to those found in snakes. In a few lizard species (some iguanids, geckos, and wall lizards), no sex chromosomes exist. They rely on temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)—that is, temperatures occurring within the nest during egg development control the sex of the hatchlings.Most lizard populations are evenly divided between females and males. Deviations from this pattern are found in parthenogenetic species, in which the young are produced from unfertilized eggs. parthenogenesis in lizards was first discovered in all-female races of Lacerta in the Caucasus, but it is now known to occur in all-female species of whiptail lizards (Aspidoscelis) in the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico, several other Teiidae and Gymnophthalmidae (spectacled lizards or microteiids) in South America, and a few Gekkonidae. Parthenogenetic lizards appear to live in areas that are ecologically marginal for representatives of their genera. In Aspidoscelis and several other parthenogenetic species, convincing evidence exists that parthenogenetic forms arose through the hybridization of two bisexual species. The number of chromosomes (chromosome) in such species is usually double that in sexually reproducing species, but in a few cases, the number of chromosomes is triple. This results from the mating of a sexually reproducing species with one that is parthenogenetic. These offspring are called allotriploid because they represent a backcross that produces three sets of chromosomes.Parental careParental care among lizards tends to be minimal following egg deposition, but there are striking exceptions. Many species dig holes in which the eggs are placed, whereas others bury them under leaf litter or deposit them in crannies of trees or caves. In contrast, females of some species, notably the five-lined skink (Eumeces fasciatus) of the United States and many of its relatives, remain with their eggs throughout the incubation time (about six weeks); they leave the clutch infrequently to feed. These skinks turn their eggs regularly and, if the eggs are experimentally scattered, will return them to the nest cavity. As soon as the young disperse, family ties are severed. Glass lizards (glass lizard) (Ophisaurus, family Anguidae) appear to do the same thing. In addition, a number of viviparous lizards remove and eat the placental membranes from young when they are born.In Australia, juvenile sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) remain in their mother's home range for an extended period, and this behaviour suggests that they gain a survival advantage by doing so. Female sleepy lizards and those of the Baudin Island spiny-tailed skink (Egernia stokesii aethiops) recognize their own offspring on the basis of chemical signals. Consequently, parental care in lizards may be more widespread than previously thought. Nevertheless, since recognition systems are subtle, they are difficult to study.Certain lizards, particularly some species of Gekkonidae, are known to be communal egg layers, with many females depositing their eggs at the same site. In addition, it appears that the same individual female may return to a particular site throughout her lifetime to deposit clutches of eggs. In Tropidurus semitaeniatus and T. hispidus, two species of South American ground lizards, females nest communally under slabs of rock situated on top of large boulders. In this specialized habitat, only a few appropriate nest sites are available, and thus they are limited resources. Males appear to take advantage of this situation, especially if nesting sites are located within their territories. It is likely that if a male defends a good nesting site, he should have access to more females than males who govern areas without high-quality nesting sites.Juvenile lizards are essentially miniature adults; they do not go through any larval phase or any other stage where they are dependent upon adults. They often differ from the adult in body colour or pattern and in certain body proportions. For example, the heads of hatchling lizards of some species tend to be proportionally larger than the heads of adults. Certain ornamental structures, such as the throat fan of the male green anole (Anolis) or the horns of some true chameleons (chameleon) (family Chamaeleonidae), develop as the lizards become sexually mature. The tails of juveniles in many lizard species are coloured differently from those of adults. Juvenile tails are brilliant blue, orange, or red and easily discarded (autotomized) when escaping a predator. Tail colour usually changes when the lizards reach sexual maturity.Some of the smaller lizards mature very quickly, and population turnover (that is, the replacement of one generation by another) is essentially an annual event. For example, in the small, side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana) of western North America, the young hatch in July and reach sexual maturity the following autumn. At this time, males undergo spermatogenesis and mating takes place. Female side-blotched lizards accumulate large quantities of fat, which appear to be utilized in the production of eggs the following spring. Adult mortality in this species is 90 percent or more per year and may be a result of predation, inclement weather, or other factors. Conversely, the population dynamics of a single species living under a variety of environmental conditions may be very different from one region to another. For example, in areas with long winters where lizards experience long periods of hibernation, they may have greater longevity and slower population turnover.On the other hand, large lizards may take several years to reach sexual maturity, and little information exists on the dynamics of natural populations of most lizard species. In captivity, many species are long-lived. Gila monsters (Gila monster) (Heloderma) have been kept in captivity for more than 25 years, and even some small geckos have been kept for as long as 20 years. There is a report of a 46-year-old captive male slowworm (Anguis fragilis) mating with a 20-year-old female.EcologyThe most important environmental variable to a lizard is almost certainly temperature. Like fish and amphibians (amphibian), lizards are ectothermic (cold-bloodedness); they receive heat from their surroundings. Although the term cold-blooded (cold-bloodedness) is typically applied to such organisms, it is a misnomer. The blood of lizards is not cold unless the lizard is cold. Under conditions where normal activities occur, lizard blood is as warm as or warmer than that of mammals (mammal). Nevertheless, all temperatures are not equally acceptable to lizards. Most species seek out relatively specific body temperatures, called “preferred temperatures,” that mostly range from 28 to 38 °C (82 to 100 °F).Although metabolic energy is not utilized to control body temperature, considerable thermoregulation is accomplished through behavioral means, if the lizard has a choice. Typically, a diurnal lizard emerges early in the morning and suns itself, orienting the body to maximize exposure to the sun, until the preferred temperature is achieved. The ability to absorb heat from solar radiation may permit the lizard to warm itself well above air temperatures. For example, Liolaemus multiformis, a small lizard that lives high in the Andes, has the ability to raise its body temperature to 35 °C (95 °F) while air temperatures are at 10 °C (50 °F) or lower.The preferred body temperature plays a critical physiological role in the life of a lizard. All physiological processes are temperature-dependent, and physiological function influences behaviour. In most instances, the lizard's “performance,” (that is, the lizard's ability to execute various behaviours or function well metabolically) is optimal within a small range of temperatures. To maximize performance, the lizard should seek to maintain its body temperature within this temperature range when at all possible.Traditionally, the immediate environment in which a lizard lives has been considered the primary determinant of the lizard's body temperature; however, since thermoregulation is complex, there are constraints. Lizards living in hot deserts (desert) might be expected to be active at higher body temperatures than those living in well-shaded tropical habitats. Nonetheless, a combination of factors including evolutionary history (evolution), the immediate thermal conditions, and the “costs” associated with behavioral thermoregulation determines temperatures at which a lizard will operate.The effect of evolutionary history is obvious when comparing certain groups of lizards. All whiptail lizards and racerunners (racerunner) in the genera Aspidoscelis and Cnemidophorus are active at body temperatures between 37 and 40 °C (99 and 104 °F) whether they live in the hottest part of the Mojave Desert of southern California or along trails in the Amazon Rainforest. In addition, all lizards in the family Xantusiidae, a group distributed from the Mojave Desert southward through the rainforests (rainforest) of Central America, are active at body temperatures between 25–28 °C (77–82 °F). Whiptails adjust their activity periods to take advantage of heat sources in environments where temperatures are relatively low, whereas the tiny desert night lizard (Xantusia vigilis) occupies a microhabitat that remains cool in an otherwise hot place. Although some desert lizards have slightly higher body temperatures than their close relatives in more moderate habitats, the immediate thermal conditions often determine when and where a lizard will be active rather than what its body temperature will be.Several costs to thermoregulation exist, but only a few have been studied. Time spent basking to gain heat or escaping extremely high or extremely low temperatures cannot be used for feeding or reproduction. Basking in direct sunlight to gain heat places a lizard in an exposed location where predators can capture it. Lizards whose body temperatures are outside of the optimal range for their species may not perform as well in social interactions as those lizards at optimal body temperatures. Some of the lesser-known costs include reduced growth rates and longer time to sexual maturity, increased incubation times for eggs or embryos when optimal temperatures cannot be reached, and a reduced ability to escape falling temperatures, which may result in the freezing of body tissues.Water loss and other variablesWater is less of a problem to lizards than is temperature regulation. All reptiles excrete uric acid and thus do not need great amounts of liquid to rid themselves of nitrogenous wastes. All insectivorous lizards take in a large amount of water in the prey that they consume, and herbivorous lizards have salt glands for the active excretion of mineral salts. Because of their low metabolic rates relative to those of birds (bird) and mammals, lizards use less water. This may account for their success at colonizing oceanic islands and surviving in extreme deserts. Some lizards in extreme environments harvest water from the dew that collects on their skin in early morning, and thus deserts do not pose severe problems to them. In addition, lizards form a conspicuous portion of the fauna of oceanic islands, where the species diversity of amphibians and mammals is generally low. Even while riding on mats of floating vegetation in rivers and oceans, many lizards can survive for long periods without fresh water. This quality makes them ideal colonizers, and hard-shelled gecko eggs seem to be particularly equipped for such journeys.Other variables that affect lizards are day length (photoperiod (photoperiodism)) and rainfall. Lizards living far from the Equator experience marked variation in photoperiod, with short winter days and long summer days. Certain species are adapted to respond to such cues. Anolis carolinensis of the southeastern United States ceases reproduction in the late summer and accumulates fat for winter hibernation. This change occurs while the days are still warm and appears to be triggered by decreasing day length. This environmental trigger is adaptive for the species, because eggs laid in September would essentially be wasted, as the young hatched in November would likely starve or freeze to death. Some tropical species respond to alternations between rainy and dry seasons, and egg-laying activities may cease during the driest months of the year when food resources are low. Under these conditions it is advantageous for the parent not to channel valuable energy into the production of eggs, and the eggs themselves might be less viable because of the threat of desiccation.Niche partitioningLizards provide valuable models for the study of competition between species. On some Caribbean islands as many as 10 species of anoles (anole) (Anolis) may live in a single restricted area. For so many species to be accommodated, each must be specialized for a rather precise niche. The species come in a variety of sizes, feed on different sizes of prey, and have different preferences for structural and climatic niches. Some anoles live in tree crowns, whereas others live on trunks, and still others live in grass. Some species prefer the open sun, whereas others live in “filtered” sun environments, and still others live in deep shade. Thus, with 10 anole species in a single area, each has its own characteristic microhabitat.Likewise, the deserts of Australia contain the greatest numbers of lizard species known, with 40 or more species occurring together in some areas. These lizard species separate themselves along three fundamental niche axes: time, food, and place. Some lizards are active only at night, others are active in the morning, and still others are active at midday. Some are generalists that eat almost anything that walks by them, whereas others specialize on termites or ants. Some species occur only within small shrubs, whereas others occur only in areas of open sand or on tree trunks. These differences between species, combined with a habitat containing high structural diversity (that is, many places to live), allow large numbers of species to coexist within a small area. Lizard assemblages in the Amazon rainforest are arranged along niche axes similar to Australian desert lizards; however, species that are the most ecologically similar are also the most closely related. This pattern suggests that evolutionary history has played some part in determining where and how lizards live.BehaviourFeeding habitsMost lizards are active during daylight hours, when their acute binocular vision can be used to its greatest advantage, and vision is necessary for most nonburrowing species. The family Gekkonidae, however, is composed predominantly of species that are most active from dusk to dawn. In conjunction with night activity, geckos are highly vocal and communicate by sound, whereas most other lizards are essentially mute.Lizards spend considerable time obtaining food, usually insects (insect). Iguanian lizards—iguanas, anoles, agamas (agama), chameleons (chameleon), and others—tend to perch motionless at familiar sites and wait for prey. They detect their prey using visual cues, dash from their perches to where the prey item is, and capture it with their tongue in a process known as lingual prehension. Iguanian lizards are typically referred to as “sit-and-wait” predators. The true chameleons are the most extreme examples of this mode of foraging; they move slowly, scan the habitat with eyes that move independently of one another, and capture their prey by shooting out a sticky projectile tongue. (In some cases, their tongues can extend to twice their body length.) Chameleons effectively eliminate the need to pursue their prey, which is the most risky aspect of the sit-and-wait foraging mode.In contrast, autarchoglossan lizards (the non-gecko scleroglossan lizards such as amphisbaenians, skinks, whiptails, and others) actively search for prey by probing and digging, using their well-developed chemosensory system in a process called vomerolfaction, as well as visual cues. These lizards do not use the tongue to capture prey; rather, they grab their prey in their jaws (jaw prehension). As a result, the tongue is free for use as an organ of chemoreception (see also Jacobson's organ). Geckos also use jaw prehension, but they use olfaction for discriminating between chemical cues rather than vomerolfaction.Some lizards are herbivorous. The largest of the iguanian lizards, such as the iguanas ( iguana, Ctenosaura, and Cyclura) and the spiny-tailed agamid (Uromastyx), eat plants. However, large body size is not necessary for herbivory (many small herbivorous species in the genus Liolaemus exist), and the very largest lizards, such as the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) and other monitor lizards (monitor), are carnivorous (carnivore).Defensive strategiesMany birds, mammals, invertebrates, and other reptiles prey on lizards. In response, lizards have a variety of defensive strategies to draw upon. For example, chuckwallas (chuckwalla) (Sauromalus) typically remain close to rock piles. When danger threatens, they move into small crevices and puff up their bodies to make their extrication difficult. A number of spiny-tailed lizards (spiny-tailed lizard) also move into crevices and leave only a sharp, formidable tail exposed. The African armadillo lizard (Cordylus cataphractus) holds its tail in its mouth with its forefeet and presents a totally spiny form to an attacker. Predators, such as snakes, that attempt to swallow an armadillo lizard will often fail because the lizard offers no start point from which swallowing can begin. The frilled lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii) of Australia extends a throat frill that frames its neck and head to intimidate intruders on its territory. This frill is almost as wide as the lizard is long. In addition, the tails of many lizards break off (autotomize (autotomy)) easily. This broken-off section wriggles rapidly and often distracts the predator as the tailless lizard scurries for cover. Autotomized tails are often regenerated quickly.Courtship and territorialitySocial interactions among lizards are best understood for the species that respond to visual stimuli. Many lizards defend certain areas against intruders of the same or closely related species. Territorial (territorial behaviour) defense does not always involve actual combat. Presumably to avoid physical harm, elaborate, ritualized displays (display behaviour) have evolved in many species. These presentations often involve the erection of crests along the back and neck and the sudden increase in the apparent size of an individual through puffing and posturing. Many species display bright colours by extending a throat fan or exposing a coloured patch of skin and engage in stereotyped movements such as push-ups, head bobbing, and tail waving.Large, colourful horns and other forms of conspicuous head and body ornamentation are often restricted to males, but females of many species defend their territories by employing stereotyped movements similar to those of males. A displaying male that stands out against his surroundings is vulnerable to predation; however, territoriality is evidently advantageous and has evolved through natural selection. Territories are usually associated with limited resources (such as nest sites, food, and refuges from predators), and a male that possesses a territory will likely attract females. Thus, he will have a higher probability of reproductive success than one living in a marginal area. The displays used by males in establishing territories may also function to “advertise” their presence to females; in species that breed seasonally, territoriality typically diminishes during the nonbreeding season. In iguanids, actual courtship displays differ from territorial displays in that males approach females with pulsating, jerky movements.In addition to the visual cues used for bringing the sexes together, chemical stimuli play a role in some species of iguanian lizards. For example, desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) can discriminate between their own odours and those of other desert iguanas. In addition, numerous lizard species have femoral pores, which are small blind tubes along the inner surface of the thighs, whose function may be the secretion of chemical attractants and territorial markers.The social systems of autarchoglossan lizards are fundamentally different. Rather than visual displays, chemical communication between individuals is used. Autarchoglossan males that rely heavily on vomerolfaction can distinguish species, sex, and sexual receptivity using chemical cues alone. Some lizards (such as those of families Teiidae, Varanidae, and Helodermatidae) have deeply forked tongues and may be able to use them to determine the direction of chemical signals in a manner similar to snakes. Geckos use auditory cues in social interactions, but they also have the ability to discriminate between chemical signals using olfaction.Copulation (sexual intercourse) follows a common pattern. The male grasps the female by the skin, often on the neck or side of the head, and places his forelegs and hind legs over her body. He then pushes his tail beneath hers and twists his body to bring the cloacae (cloaca) together. One hemipenis is then everted and inserted into the cloaca of the female. Depending upon the species, copulation may last from a few seconds to 15 minutes or more.Form and functionRather than present a detailed anatomical report of a lizard, this section discusses certain structures that are either characteristic of lizards in general or specializations of certain groups.Skull and jawsThe skull is derived from the primitive diapsid condition, but the lower bar leading back to the quadrate bone is absent, however, giving greater flexibility to the jaw. In some burrowers (such as Anniella and the worm lizards (Florida worm lizard)) as well as some surface-living forms (such as the geckos (gecko)), the upper and lower temporal bars have been lost. Small burrowing lizards have thick, tightly bound skulls with braincases that are well protected by bony walls. In most lizards, the front of the braincase is made up of thin cartilage and membrane, and the eyes are separated by a thin, vertical interorbital septum. In burrowing forms with degenerate eyes, the septum is reduced and adds to the compactness of the skull. Most lizard skulls, particularly in the Scleroglossa, are kinetic (that is, the upper jaw can move in relation to the rest of the cranium). Since the anterior part of the braincase is cartilaginous and elastic, the entire front end of the skull can move as a single segment on the back part, which is solidly ossified. This increases the gape of the jaws and probably assists in pulling struggling prey into the mouth.DentitionMost lizards eat a variety of arthropods (arthropod), with sharp, tricuspid teeth adapted for grabbing and holding. In most lizards, teeth are present along the jaw margin (on the maxilla, premaxilla, and dentary bones); however, in some forms, teeth may also be found on the palate. In the embryo, an egg tooth develops on the premaxilla bone and projects forward from the snout. Although it aids in piercing the shell, it is lost soon after hatching. This is a true tooth, unlike the horny epidermal point in turtles (turtle) and crocodilians (crocodile).The teeth of some large predators are conical and slightly recurved. The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), for example, has serrated teeth that are curved like a scalpel blade; these teeth can cut through the leg muscle of a full-grown water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cause it to bleed to death. In contrast, mollusk and crustacean feeders, such as the caiman lizard (Dracaena), have blunt, rounded teeth in the back of the jaw designed for crushing. Some herbivorous (herbivore) species (such as iguanas (iguana)) have leaf-shaped tooth crowns with serrated cutting edges. The venomous lizards (Heloderma) have a longitudinal groove or fold on the inner side of each mandibular tooth; these grooves conduct the venom from the lizard to its victim.The common mode of tooth implantation is pleurodonty, in which the teeth are fused to the inner side of the labial wall. In the other mode, acrodonty, teeth are fused to the tooth-bearing bone, often to the crest of the bone. Acrodont teeth are rarely replaced once a certain growth stage is reached. The dentition of the Agamidae is usually described as acrodont, but most species have several pleurodont teeth at the front of the upper and lower jaws.Locomotion and limb adaptationsMost lizards are quadrupedal and have a powerful limb musculature. They are capable of rapid acceleration and can rapidly change direction. The racerunners (racerunner) or whiptails (Aspidoscelis) can attain speeds of 29 km (18 miles) per hour, which, in terms of their own body length (less than 50 cm [20 inches] long), puts them in a class with fast terrestrial mammals. A tendency toward elongation of the body is found in some families, and a reduction of limb length or a complete loss of limbs often accompanies such elongation. Such lizards propel themselves entirely by lateral undulations emanating from highly complicated ventral abdominal muscles. Limbless lizards that move quickly on the surface or through sand (such as glass snakes [Ophisaurus]) tend to have elongate tails, whereas the burrowers have extremely reduced tails. Some burrowers (such as the amphisbaenians) dig by ramming the head into the substrate. This is followed by the rotation of the head around the head joint to compress the substrate. Others, like the California legless lizards (Anniella), literally “swim” through the sand.Many modifications of the toes occur in lizards. Some desert geckos, the iguanid Uma, and the lacertid (Lacerta) Acanthodactylus have fringes on the toes that provide increased surface area, preventing the lizard from sinking into loose desert sand. Arboreal geckos and anoles (anole) (Anolis) have lamellae (fine plates) on the undersides of the toes. Each lamella is made up of brushlike setae. The tips of each seta divide hundreds of times into tiny spatulae (spoon-shaped strands); the final strand is less than 0.25 micrometre (0.00001 inch) in diameter. (A tokay gecko [Gekko gecko], for example, has about half a million setae on each foot.) These fine hairlike processes greatly enhance the clinging ability of the lizards, allowing some to easily climb vertical panes of glass. Intermolecular forces between spatulae on the gecko's setae and the surface provide the adhesion.The true chameleons (chameleon) (family Chamaeleonidae), a predominantly arboreal group, have a different type of highly specialized limb. The digits on each foot are divided into two groups by webs of skin. On each hind limb, three of the toes face away from the body, whereas two face toward the body; on each forelimb, the pattern is reversed. Each foot can thus be divided into an outer and an inner portion, which can be opposed as the branch is gripped. Chameleons and some other lizards have prehensile tails, which also aid in grasping branches.Several terrestrial lizards are able to run bipedally. basilisk lizards (Basiliscus) are actually able to run across water for short distances. During bipedal locomotion the tail is held out backward and upward and acts as a counterweight. The frilled lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii) can also run bipedally.Some lizards are able to parachute or glide through the air and make soft landings. The most highly adapted of these are the flying lizards (Draco) (Draco), a group of agamids from Southeast Asia. The “wings” that enable this lizard to glide are extensible lateral folds of skin that are supported by elongate ribs.Scales and colour changeExcept for openings of nostrils, mouth, eyes, and cloaca, most lizards are completely covered in scales (scale). Scales may be smooth and overlapping, form a mosaic of flat plates, or have keels or tubercles. The arrangement varies among species and by body part. The outer parts of the scales are composed of dead horny tissue made up largely of the protein keratin. The dead layer is shed at intervals and is replaced by proliferating cells in the deep part of the epidermis. In some lizards, osteoderms, which are bony plates that develop in the dermis, underlie head and body scales. In addition, certain lizards have scale organs, with a stiff projecting seta emerging from the serrated edge of the scale. Presumably, these setae are responsive to touch.Many lizards can change colour. The most notable groups in this regard are the chameleons (chameleon) and the anoles (anole). Some species can change from bright green to deep, chocolate brown, and patterns such as lines and bars may appear and disappear along their bodies. Melanophores are the pigment cells that permit colour change, and the concentration of pigment granules within these cells determine the type of colour that is produced. In general, the animal appears lighter coloured when pigment is concentrated and dark when pigment is dispersed throughout the cells. The animal's colour state at any given time is controlled by a complex interaction of hormones (hormone), temperature, and the nervous system.Evolution and classificationThe common ancestor to all lizards was similar to the tuatara (Sphenodon), the only living representative of order Sphenodontida and sister group to the squamates. The tuatara is lizardlike in overall appearance; however, it differs from squamates in important ways. Male tuataras have no paired copulatory organ; they have saclike structures from which the paired hemipenes of squamates were likely derived. In addition, the tuatara does not have a movable quadrate bone in the jaw; this characteristic is present in all squamates.Relationships between the major groups of squamates remain in flux. One hypothesis posits that early in the evolutionary history of lizards an important split occurred that not only influenced the disposition of taxonomic units but had cascading effects on the ecology of lizards and led to the diversification of snakes. This first split produced the iguanians (infraorder Iguania) and the scleroglossans (infraorder Scleroglossa), two large groups within order Squamata that were fundamentally different from each other. The ancestors of all lizards possessed an ability to capture and manipulate prey with the tongue (lingual prehension). Iguania retained the ability; however, this likely precluded the development of the tongue into an organ that transmitted chemical signals to a rudimentary vomeronasal system in this group (see Jacobson's organ).Another hypothesis, based largely on unclear gene sequence data, posits that the group containing geckos (gecko) (and possibly the dibamids) diverged from all other squamates and that the iguanians are nested deeply within the stock of remaining lizards (that is, the autarchoglossans). If additional data support this hypothesis, then the presence of many of the ecological, morphological, and behavioral traits in iguanians suggests that the iguanians evolved independently within a group of squamates that had already diverged considerably from its squamate ancestors. At present, herpetologists operate under the assumption that the first hypothesis is better supported.For the most part, Iguania is composed of foraging lizards that use cryptic coloration, morphology, and behaviour to escape detection by predators. Typically, they can be described as territorial, sit-and-wait predators that rely on visual cues to detect prey (usually by movement) and in social interactions. Within Iguania, one family, Iguanidae, retained the ancestral pleurodont dentition similar to the tuatara, in which teeth are essentially cemented to the inside of the jawbones. In contrast, the ancestor of two other families within Iguania, Agamidae and Chamaeleonidae (chameleon), developed acrodont teeth, which are characterized by their attachment to the surfaces of jawbones. The most striking deviation from the typical Iguanian consumptive pattern is the evolution of herbivory (herbivore) in lizards, which occurred independently in several lineages. Herbivory evolved in the ancestor to the Leiolepinae (family Agamidae), the ancestor to the Iguaninae (family Iguanidae), and in some members of the Liolaeminae (family Iguanidae).In some of these groups, the tongue is used less for prey capture and more for chemoreception. Scleroglossan ancestors retained pleurodont dentition, but use of the tongue in prey capture was replaced by grasping jaws (jaw prehension). Freed from its direct involvement in feeding, the scleroglossan tongue was allowed to develop into a carrier of chemical information. Although the actual sequence of events will never be known with certainty, the vomeronasal system grew in importance, and lizard evolution proceeded in an entirely new direction.An early split within Scleroglossa produced the Gekkota (geckos) and the Autarchoglossa (snakes (snake), skinks (skink), and their relatives). Use of the vomerolfaction system did not develop within Gekkota to the extent that it did within Autarchoglossa; however, the tongue was increasingly used as a tool for cleaning the spectacle, a transparent scale covering the eye. A nasal chemosensory system became enhanced in the Gekkota, but many retained (or redeveloped) the sit-and-wait foraging mode of their ancestors.Autarchoglossans took maximum advantage of the vomeronasal (Jacobson's organ) chemosensory system. It dominates social behaviour (Social behaviour in animals) in extant groups. The vomeronasal system allows members of this group to discriminate species, sex, and sexual receptivity on the basis of chemical cues; it also allows lizards to discriminate among prey types. Autarchoglossans can select particularly energy-rich prey and avoid those containing noxious chemicals. They also can seek out prey that may not be visible on the surface, such as colonies of social insects (social insect) and insect larvae (larva) in the soil and vegetation. Moreover, cryptic-coloured invertebrates (invertebrate) that might never be detected visually by iguanian lizards are detectable chemically by autarchoglossans; by searching the habitat, autarchoglossans can locate prey not otherwise available. In contrast to the sit-and-wait foraging mode of the iguanians, autarchoglossans developed an active foraging mode where much time is spent searching for energy-rich prey items. An important trade-off must have existed in which the benefits of searching large areas for prey outweighed the benefits of maintaining defended territories.The development of the vomeronasal system caused a major shift in social systems. Autarchoglossans developed a sort of sequential polygyny mating system in which a single male guards a number of females as they move about. This is quite different from the territorial systems in the Iguania in which males defend particular places where females reside. Maintaining all of this activity required autarchoglossans to make some major physiological adjustments. They have higher activity levels, appear more alert, use more energy while foraging, take in more energy, and often have higher body temperatures than iguanians.An active, energy-intensive lifestyle, combined with keen chemosensory abilities, sets the stage for the evolution of limblessness and the use of subterranean habitats. Limblessness evolved independently in several groups of autarchoglossans, but it did not evolve within the Iguania. The extreme development of the tongue and vomeronasal system in superfamily Varanoidea (a group made up of monitor lizards (monitor), snakes, and their relatives) set the stage for the evolution of snakes (snake).Annotated classificationThe taxonomy of squamates has been in flux, and new revolutionary approaches to the study of evolution, particularly the science of cladistics (evolution) and the use of DNA in reconstructing evolutionary relationships, has resulted in major taxonomic rearrangements. These rearrangements are designed to reflect the evolutionary history of squamates much more accurately. For example, DNA analysis has clarified the evolutionary relationships among the “worm lizards,” or amphisbaenians, and facilitated their placement into four separate lizard families (Amphisbaenidae, Bipedidae, Rhineuridae, and Trogonophidae).The boundaries of most lizard families remained stable until the cladistic (evolution) approach to systematics—a process created by German zoologist Willi Hennig (Hennig, Willi) in 1966—changed the fundamental way in which evolutionary relationships (evolution) among organisms are examined. The use of derived shared traits to group taxa provides a powerful way to place the evolution of taxa at all levels into a single, unified framework. Phylogenetic systematics (cladistics) is a rapidly moving area, and new phylogenies are routinely published in scientific journals. Although many such studies simply confirm the relationships based on antiquated methods (such as numerical taxonomy), some have drastically changed the taxonomies depicted in classical textbooks. Most important, traditional taxonomic categories (such as order, suborder, superfamily, and the like) are fast becoming obsolete, largely because they have no evolutionary meaning. For example, the word family is simply a descriptor. To some extent, it is then rather arbitrary whether one refers to a particular group as family, subfamily, or other division. What is most important is the content of the group. Each group, or clade, must include an ancestor and all of its descendents, each of which shares one or more derived (new) traits.For convenience, the following lizard classification is adapted from Vitt and Caldwell (2008) and Pianka and Vitt (2003), recognizing that some taxa have already been revised on the basis of cladistic analyses. The dates of earliest fossils (fossil) are taken from R. Hoffstetter (1962), Evans et al. (2002), and Datta and Ra (2006). Extinct groups are not listed. For a classification of snakes, see snake.Suborder SauriaReptiles with a single temporal opening lying above the bar formed by postorbital and squamosal bones. Pectoral girdle and interorbital septum always present. Well-developed male copulatory organs (hemipenes) and saclike ovaries in females are examples of common structures. About 4,450 species (not including snakes) of lizards are known.Infraorder Iguania (iguanians)Group sharing a fleshy tongue and lingual prehension of prey with their ancestor the tuatara. (Sphenodon)AcrodontaMost teeth merged to the top of the jaw margin. Fossils date to the late Triassic.Family Agamidae (agamas (agama))Late Cretaceous to present. Old World tropics and subtropics, except Madagascar. 2 subfamilies, 52 genera, and more than 400 species (31 in genus Agama).Family Chamaeleonidae (chameleons (chameleon))Group characterized by zygodactylous, grasping feet and a long, slender, extensile tongue. 4 genera (Bradypodion, Brookesia, Chamaeleo, and Rhampholeon) with about 130 species. About half are restricted to Madagascar, and the remainder is primarily African. 2 species occur in western Asia, 1 in India, and 1 reaching Mediterranean region. Most are insectivores and 17–25 cm (7–10 in.) long; the largest reaches 60 cm (24 in.) and will eat birds.PleurodontaDentition pleurodont; teeth are fused, but not rooted, to the inner sides of the jawbone. Teeth are replaced when lost.Family Iguanidae ( iguanid lizards)Lizards with well-developed limbs and movable eyelids. Oligocene, possibly late Eocene to present. Dominant family of North, Central, and South America, the West Indies, and the Galapagos Islands. 1 genus on Fiji and Tonga, 2 genera on Madagascar. Adult lengths from 10 cm (4 in.; Uta) to 2 metres (6.6 feet; Iguana). A family of diverse forms including spiny desert dwellers (Phrynosoma), arboreal species (Anolis), and seagoing iguanas (Amblyrhynchus). 8 subfamilies, 50 genera, 300 or more species (200 in 1 genus, Anolis).Clade ScleroglossaLizards with jaw prehension for prey capture and well-developed chemosensory system.Infraorder GekkotaFamily Dibamidae (blind lizards)Small to moderate-sized lizards that are snakelike in body form with reduced limbs. Apparently, they live underground. 2 genera with 11 species are known. The distribution includes Mexico and eastern Indochina and the East Indies.Family Gekkonidae (geckos (gecko) and pygopodids)Small to medium-sized lizards covered dorsally and ventrally by small granular scales often containing tubercles. Limbs present but greatly reduced in pygopodids. Approximately 100 genera, about 1,200 species.Subfamily Eublepharinae (banded and leopard geckos)Geckos with movable eyelids and no adhesive toe pads. In general, they use an active foraging mode. They live in southwestern North America, Central America, southern Asia, and Africa south of the Sahara. 6 genera and about 25 species are known.Subfamily Gekkoninae (geckos)Geckos that may or may not have adhesive toe pads. They usually have spectacles over their eyes and granular skin (often with small tubercles). They occur throughout the world in the tropics, subtropics, and deserts. 77 genera and over 800 species are known.Subfamily Pygopodinae (flap-footed lizards (flap-footed lizard))About 8 genera, 35 species. Australia and New Guinea. Some burrowers, others surface dwelling; hind limbs represented by scaly flaps.Clade AutarchoglossaActive foraging lizards with extensible hydrostatic tongues used to obtain and transmit chemical information to a well-developed vomeronasal organ in the roof of the mouth.Infraorder Scincomorpha9 characters are unique to all lizard families in this group, including loss of the nasal-prefrontal contact and flat imbricate scales on the tongue.Superfamily Lacertoidea7 characters unique to all members, including presence of a prearticular crest and a pit (or sulcus) present on the dorsal surface of the retroarticular process.Family Gymnophthalmidae (spectacled lizards or microteiids)Small lizards with relatively small limbs, reduced limbs, or no limbs. Restricted to the Neotropics. 38 genera with more than 160 species.Family Lacertidae (lacertids (Lacerta) and wall lizards)Osteoderms absent, supratemporal fossa roofed over. Eocene (possibly Cretaceous) to present, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Morphologically uniform, conical heads, scaly bodies, movable eyelids, well-developed limbs and tail. Length 15–60 cm (6–24 in.). Approximately 30 genera, 220 species.Osteoderms absent, supratemporal fossa open. Late Cretaceous to present. New World only, primarily in tropics and subtropics. Great variation in the family, including large terrestrial predators (Tupinambis), large semiaquatic snail eaters (Dracaena), and lacertid-like “racerunners” (Cnemidophorus). Size range 7–120 cm (3–48 in.). 2 subfamilies, 10 genera, 122 species.Family Xantusiidae (night lizards (night lizard))Small secretive lizards with spectacles over the eyes, the ability to clean the spectacle with the tongue, and all members producing live young. They occur in southwestern North America, Mexico, Central America, and Cuba. 3 genera are known, the best-known being Xantusia, 24 species.Superfamily ScincoideaAt least 16 unique characters are shared by members of this group.Heavily armored small to moderately large lizards. They occur in Africa south of the Sahara. The head has 4 parietal scales. Most species live in arid or semiarid habitats and are usually associated with rocks. They use rock crevices for refuge from predators and many species are highly flattened dorsoventrally so that they can enter narrow crevices. 1 genus, Chamaesaura, is nearly limbless and snakelike. 3 genera and about 55 species.Family Gerrhosauridae (African plated lizards)Lizards with 2 parietal scales on the head and each nostril enclosed in 3–4 scales. Diurnal lizards that live in a variety of habitats. Some are semiaquatic, some swim through sand, and many live on the ground. They occur in Africa south of the Sahara and Madagascar. 5 genera and about 34 species.Family Scincidae (skinks (skink))Skull arches present, osteoderms (dermal bone) present. Late Cretaceous to present. Worldwide (except in polar and subpolar regions), greatest diversity in Old World tropics and Australian deserts. Typically with conical heads, cylindrical bodies, tapering tails. Primarily ground dwelling or burrowing, some arboreal, some semiaquatic. Limb reduction common. Majority below 12 cm (5 in.), largest reaches 60 cm (24 in.). 2 subfamilies, about 137 genera, and nearly 1,250 species.Infraorder AnguimorphaOne of the best supported clades of lizards with many shared derived traits.Superfamily AnguoideaFamily Anguidae (Alligator lizards (alligator lizard), glass lizards (glass lizard), galliwasps, and California legless lizards)Skull arches, osteoderms present. 6 mandibular bones. Late Cretaceous to present. Most in Americas, a few Eurasian. Glass lizards (Ophisaurus) are limbless “grass swimmers” reaching 120 cm (48 in.). Alligator lizards (Gerrhonotus) and galliwasps (Diploglossus) have 4 limbs, somewhat elongate bodies, and reach 37 cm (15 in.). California legless lizards are limbless burrowers with no skull arches. Length 11–25 cm (4–10 in.). California and Baja California. 4 subfamilies, 13 genera, and just over 100 species.Family Xenosauridae (knob-scaled lizards)Shape of interclavicle bone and presence of tubercles in the osteoderms distinguishes the family. Late Cretaceous from North America. Presently, 2 genera, 1 in Mexico (Xenosaurus) with about 6 species and 1 in China (Shinisaurus) with 1 species.Superfamily VaranoideaFamily Helodermatidae (Gila monsters (Gila monster) and beaded lizards)Venomous; grooved hollow fangs in lower jaw; heavy-bodied. Skin texture “beaded.” Oligocene to present; southwest United States and Mexico. Adult length to 50 cm (20 in.) in Gila monster, 80 cm (32 in.) in beaded lizard. 1 genus (Heloderma), 2 species. These lizards feed on vertebrates, which they swallow whole, and vertebrate eggs.Family Lanthanotidae (earless monitor lizards)This group is similar to Varanidae in most respects. The earless monitor is the only member of Lanthanotus, the only genus of this group.Family Varanidae (monitor lizards (monitor))Osteoderms reduced, 7 cervical vertebrae, postorbital arch incomplete. Restricted to Old World tropics and subtropics. Fossils from Cretaceous of North America. Smallest species is adult at 20 cm (8 in.), largest exceeds 3 metres (10 feet). General uniformity of appearance with elongate head and neck, relatively heavy body, long tail, well-developed limbs. 2 subfamilies, 2 genera; Lanthanotus (subfamily Lanthonotinae) contains a single species (L. borneensis), and Varanus (subfamily Varainae) contains 50 species. This group includes the largest extant lizard, the Komodo dragon.Suborder AmphisbaeniaFamily Bipedidae (two-legged worm lizards)Worm lizards with front limbs that are molelike. 1 genus, Bipes, is known and contains 3 species. Restricted to western Mexico and Baja California.Family Amphisbaenidae (worm lizards)Limbless, wormlike lizards that are found through much of the tropical world but are entering the temperate zones of South Africa, South America, Europe, and Asia. They have short stubby tails and reduced eyes. 17 genera and about 130 species are known.Family Rhineuridae (Florida worm lizards (Florida worm lizard))A single species, Rhineura floridana, is known and is restricted to peninsular Florida. It is limbless and small, often mistaken for an earthworm.Family Trogonophidae (short-headed worm lizards)Limbless worm lizards with spade-shaped heads. They occur in North Africa, the eastern Arabian Peninsula, and the Horn of Africa. 4 genera with 6 species are recognized.Critical appraisalAdvances in gene sequencing (especially the use of nuclear genes) and analytical techniques have resulted in rapid changes in the taxonomy of lizards and other reptiles and in a better understanding of their evolutionary history. Throughout the field of zoology, taxonomic structures are shifting from the Linnean approach, which groups organisms according to their visible anatomical structures, to the phylogenetic (or cladistic) approach, which groups organisms on the basis of their evolutionary relationships. As a result, long-standing taxonomies have changed dramatically and will likely continue to change as more information becomes available. At present, different taxonomic arrangements of lizard families can be found in a variety of books and research articles and on the Internet.As the genetic relationships between different groups of lizards continue to be examined using modern techniques of DNA analysis, many groups of lizards have been reclassified; however, zoologists are finding out that the taxonomic hierarchy of the Linnean structure cannot accommodate all of the new information. Since this work is only partially complete and most zoologists continue to be heavily influenced by the Linnean approach, modern taxonomies of lizards are not straightforward, and several different classifications exist.This confusion also extends to the hierarchical ranking of different groups of lizards. Under Linnean rules, subfamilies are nested within families, families within orders, and so on. In modern taxonomic arrangements based on evolutionary history, the most important point to consider is whether all members of a given taxonomic group can be traced to a single common ancestor. All descendants of this ancestor are related on the basis of homology and shared derived traits. Whether one refers to a clade of lizards as a family or subfamily is arbitrary, and some classifications do not assign ranks (such as order, family, and genus) at all. For convenience, the classification above is a fusion of the traditional Linnean classification and one based on phylogenetic relationships.George C. Gorman Laurie VittAdditional ReadingA succinct overview of the various evolutionary adaptations possessed by lizards is presented in Eric R. Pianka, Lizards: Windows to the Evolution of Diversity (2006).General surveys of lizards and their life histories, with many photographs, are found in Harold G. Cogger and Richard G. Zweifel (eds.), Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians, 2nd ed. (1998). General herpetology textbooks include George R. Zug, Laurie J. Vitt, and Janalee P. Caldwell, Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles, 2nd ed. (2001); and F. Harvey Pough et al., Herpetology, 3rd ed. (2004). Summaries of modern trends in research as they relate to lizard ecology, physiological ecology, and behaviour include Raymond B. Huey, Eric R. Pianka, and Thomas W. Schoener (eds.), Lizard Ecology: Studies of a Model Organism (1983); Laurie J. Vitt and Eric R. Pianka (eds.), Lizard Ecology: Historical and Experimental Perspectives (1994); John W. Wright and Laurie J. Vitt (eds.), Biology of Whiptail Lizards: Genus Cnemidophorus (1993); and Stanley F. Fox, J. Kelly McCoy, and Troy A. Baird (eds.), Lizard Social Behavior (2003).Worthy regional accounts of lizards and other herpetofauna include Christopher J. Glasby, Graham J.B. Ross, and Pamela L. Beesley (eds.), Amphibia & Reptilia (1993), a packed but highly readable technical manual with summary accounts of the biology and anatomy of all families of Australian amphibians and reptiles; Roger Conant and Joseph T. Collins, A Field Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America, 3rd ed., expanded (1998), an excellent guide to the herpetofauna of eastern North America; and Brian I. Crother (ed.), Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, 6th ed. (2008), an annotated list of all amphibians and reptiles in North America with comments on the validity of each species.Important taxonomic works, not easily read by the layperson but fundamental to the understanding of lizard classification, include Steven C. Anderson, The Lizards of Iran (1999); T.C.S. Avila-Pires, Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata) (1995); Brian I. Crother (ed.), Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles (1999); and Albert Schwartz and Robert W. Henderson, Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History (1991).Laurie Vitt
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