/ling"keuhn/, n.
1. Abraham, 1809-65, 16th president of the U.S. 1861-65.
2. Benjamin, 1733-1810, American Revolutionary general.
3. a city in and the capital of Nebraska, in the SE part. 171,932.
4. a city in Lincolnshire, in E central England. 73,200.
5. a town in N Rhode Island. 16,949.
6. a city in central Illinois. 16,327.
7. a town in S Ontario, in S Canada, on Lake Ontario. 14,196.
8. Lincolnshire.
9. one of an English breed of large mutton sheep noted for their heavy fleece of coarse, long wool.
10. a male given name.

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City (pop., 2000: 225,581), capital of Nebraska, U.S. Laid out in 1859 and called Lancaster, it was renamed for Abraham Lincoln when it was chosen as the capital in 1867.

The town was incorporated in 1869 and was the home of the politician William Jennings Bryan from 1887 to 1921. It is a railroad junction and commercial centre serving the surrounding agricultural region. Its institutions of higher education include the University of Nebraska, Union College, and Nebraska Wesleyan University.
ancient Lindum

City and administrative district (pop., 2001: 85,616), administrative and historic county of Lincolnshire, eastern England.

Under the name Lindum, it served as a Roman fortress, and by AD 71 it had become a settlement for retired soldiers. It later came under Danish rule, and in the Middle Ages it was one of England's major towns. Henry II gave the city its first charter in 1154. It is a market centre for an agricultural region and also possesses some manufacturing. It has many medieval buildings, including the cathedral (begun с 1075).

Lincoln cathedral, Lincolnshire

Ray Manley-Shostal/EB Inc.
(as used in expressions)
Kirstein Lincoln Edward
Lincoln Abraham
Lincoln Benjamin
Lincoln Douglas Debates
Steffens Joseph Lincoln

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      city, seat (1853) of Logan county, central Illinois, U.S. It lies about 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Springfield. Founded in 1853, the city was named for Abraham Lincoln (Lincoln, Abraham), then a Springfield attorney, who handled the legalities of its founding and christened it with the juice of a watermelon. It was the only U.S. community named for Lincoln before his presidency and with his knowledge and cooperation. Lincoln also tried cases in Postville, a settlement founded in 1835 and chosen as county seat in 1839, which became a part of Lincoln in the 1860s. A replica of the Postville Courthouse is maintained as a state historic site; another site preserves the Mount Pulaski Courthouse (1848).

      Lincoln is a trading centre for a rich agricultural area (corn [maize], soybeans, and livestock) and has some manufacturing, chiefly glassware, store fixtures, electrical controls, lawn and garden equipment, and corrugated boxes. The city is the seat of Lincoln (junior) College (1865) and Lincoln Christian College and Seminary (1944); the Lincoln College Museum contains thousands of items pertaining to the former president. Annual local events include an art and balloon festival (August) and the Abraham Lincoln National Railsplitting Festival (September). Just southwest of the city is Edward R. Madigan State Fish and Wildlife Area, a popular recreational site. Inc. 1857. Pop. (1990) 15,418; (2000) 15,369.

 city, capital and second largest city of Nebraska, U.S., and seat (1869) of Lancaster county, in the southeastern part of the state, about 60 miles (95 km) southwest of Omaha. Oto and Pawnee Indians were early inhabitants in the area. Settlers were drawn in the 1850s by the salt flats located nearby. The site was named Lancaster (for the Pennsylvania city) by a salt company representative in 1856. It was soon determined that salt mining would not be feasible (the salt basin is now underwater). The site was chosen as the state capital in 1867 (the year of Nebraska statehood) because crossing the Platte River to reach the territorial capital of Omaha was difficult for those living south of the river (“South Platters”). Lincoln was officially founded that year. A legislator who opposed the capital's move from Omaha named the new site for Pres. Abraham Lincoln (Lincoln, Abraham) in an unsuccessful attempt to persuade the South Platters—many of whom had favoured the Confederacy in the American Civil War—to vote against the change of location.

      The Burlington and Missouri River Railroad from Plattsmouth arrived in 1870, and Lincoln became a railroad junction for the major routes from Chicago to Denver and from Kansas City, Mo., to Billings, Mont. By the 1890s the city had 19 different rail routes. Railroads furnished Lincoln with its most important industry through the establishment of major repair and locomotive shops in suburban Havelock. Havelock, University Place, College View, and Bethany, previously separate towns, were annexed by Lincoln during 1926–30. German settlers from Russia became the city's largest ethnic group in the early 20th century.

      Lincoln is a regional centre of government, commerce, finance, arts, education, and health care. It has extensive rail connections and an airport. Agricultural products include soybeans, corn (maize), sorghum, wheat, hogs, and poultry. Lincoln is a major grain market with milling, grain storage, meatpacking, and farm-equipment distribution businesses. Manufactures include industrial rubber products, motorcycles, watercraft, software, scientific instruments, wireless communication equipment, electrical products, construction materials, turf maintenance equipment, bricks, and pharmaceuticals. Of economic significance is Lincoln's growth as an insurance centre, with dozens of firms having home offices there. Aviation services, communication technology, railroading, business services, medical research, and printing are also important. Government-operated institutions, including several correctional facilities, also contribute to the economy.

      Educational institutions include the University of Nebraska (1869), Union College (1891; Seventh-day Adventist), Nebraska Wesleyan University (1887; Methodist), and a campus of Southeast Community College (1973). There are also several notable museums and art galleries on the grounds of the University of Nebraska. The Nebraska Art Association, the Lincoln Symphony Orchestra, and the Lincoln Community Playhouse provide cultural opportunities. The state capitol, completed in 1932 and Lincoln's third, was designed by U.S. architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue; its central tower, rising 400 feet (120 metres) from a massive three-story base, is a highly visible landmark. The legislature that meets there became unicameral in 1937 (unique in the United States).

      In the early 20th century the political life of the city was dominated by William Jennings Bryan (Bryan, William Jennings), who lived there from 1887 to 1921. As a young lawyer, Bryan entered politics and went to Congress (1890) from Lincoln, where, after his defeat in the presidential election of 1900, he published his weekly journal, the Commoner. Fairview (1903), the Bryan home, which is today on the grounds of a medical centre, has been restored.

      Lincoln is the site of the Nebraska State Fair (August). Museums devoted to state history and natural history are located in the city. Pioneers Park has a nature centre with trails and interpretive exhibits. Spring Creek Prairie preserves more than 500 acres (200 hectares) of unplowed tallgrass prairie southwest of the city. Several state recreation areas are located on nearby lakes. Inc. village, 1869; city, 1871. Pop. (2000) city, 225,581; Lincoln MSA, 266,787; (2007 est.) city, 248,744; Lincoln MSA, 292,219.

      county, southern Maine, U.S. It is located in a coastal region bounded on the south by Sheepscot and Muscongus bays and includes several islands in the Atlantic Ocean; the coastline is deeply indented. The county is drained by the Eastern, Sheepscot, Damariscotta, and Medomak rivers. Damariscotta Lake State Park is located on the northern shore of Damariscotta Lake. Timberland consists of spruce, pine, and fir forests.

      Monhegan Island, recorded by Italian explorer John Cabot (Cabot, John) in 1498, was visited by English colonist John Smith (Smith, John) in 1614. Bristol is the site of Nahanda Village, a prehistoric Indian encampment, and of Fort William Henry (built 1692). The county was formed in 1760 and named for Lincoln, Eng. Wiscasset, the county seat, flourished as a centre of shipping and lumbering in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Nearby Fort Edgecomb, which never saw battle, was built in 1808 as a bulwark against British warships. Several extant lighthouses were built in the 1820s. Boothbay Harbor, a 17th-century English settlement, and Waldoboro, an 18th-century German settlement, are resort towns that developed as shipbuilding centres. Tourism is a major industry in the county. Area 456 square miles (1,180 square km). Pop. (2000) 33,616; (2007 est.) 34,800.

      county, southeastern Nevada, U.S., bordering on Utah and Arizona and sited immediately north of Clark county (and the city of Las Vegas). A region of mountains (including the Pahroc, Groom, and Wilson Creek ranges) and desert, Lincoln county contains a large segment of Nellis Air Force Range (southwest). Much of the economy depends on military-related activities and on perlite mining. The county was created in 1866, and its seat is Pioche. Area 10,635 square miles (27,544 square km). Pop. (2000) 4,165; (2007 est.) 4,759.

      county, south central New Mexico, U.S. It is a rugged region in the Basin and Range Province, with green hills and large plains surrounding and separating high mountain ranges. The plains are eroded, with canyons and the beds of dry streams; the tree-covered mountains include the Sierra Blanca, Sierra Oscura, Gallinas (with 8,615-foot [2,625-metre] Gallinas Peak), Jicarilla (with 9,650-foot [2,941-metre] Carrizo Mountain), and Capitan (with 10,083-foot [3,073-metre] Capitan Peak). Much of southwestern Lincoln county is covered by the Malpais, a region of lava beds whitened by dust; the lava originated in Little Black Peak. Valley of Fires National Recreation Area is in the Malpais; the county also includes the Lincoln and Cibola national forests, White Mountain Wilderness, Lincoln State Monument, and Smokey Bear Capitan Historical State Park.

      The town of Lincoln was settled in 1849 and became the county seat when Lincoln county was established in 1869; at that time Lincoln was the largest county in the United States, covering one-fourth of New Mexico. The town was the centre of the Lincoln County War (1878), fought between rival merchants for economic domination. It began with accusations of cattle rustling and escalated to murder and a five-day gun battle at the courthouse. The teen-aged killer Billy the Kid (William Bonney) figured prominently in the carnage, killing a sheriff and escaping from jail. Gold was discovered at White Oaks in 1879, leading to development of the county's mineral resources.

      Tourism and recreation and livestock raising drive the economy. Carrizozo is the county seat, and Ruidoso is the largest town. Area 4,831 square miles (12,513 square km). Pop. (2000) 19,411; (2007 est.) 20,783.

      city (district), administrative and historic county of Lincolnshire, England. It stands 200 feet (60 metres) above sea level on an impressive site at the point where the River Witham cuts a deep gap through the limestone escarpment of Lincoln Edge. Lincoln is the market centre for a major arable agricultural district, and many of its industries are agriculturally based, including food processing; it also has manufacturing of heavy machinery. The convergence of the major eastern English road and rail routes on Lincoln contributes to its importance.

      Lincoln was a significant Roman town; called Lindum, it lay on the line of Fosse Way and Ermine Street and served as a fortress for the 9th Legion. By 71 CE it had become a colonia, serving as a settlement for retired legionary soldiers. The town walls were first established in this period, and relics of these still remain, including Newport Arch. Exchequer Gate, Potter Gate, and Stonebow are medieval gates built much later. The many other Roman finds include a public fountain, cemeteries, baths, and kilns, and the museum has an extensive collection of Roman antiquities.

      Lincoln became one of the five boroughs under Danish rule in eastern England, and by the late Middle Ages it was one of England's major towns. Henry II gave the city its first charter in 1154, and citizens gained many privileges and a freedom somewhat similar to that of the City of London. Lincoln's importance continued when it was made a staple (trading) town dealing in wool, leather, and skins, activities that contributed to its prosperity at the end of the 13th century.

      Many of Lincoln's famous buildings are medieval. Lincoln Castle, standing on the Lincoln Edge opposite the cathedral, dates from 1068 and contains Norman fragments. The castle keep dates from the 12th century. The cathedral, also Norman, stands on an elevated site overlooking the city. Built of local limestone, it is severely weathered on the outside, but inside it contains noted examples of Gothic architecture. The surrounding cathedral close contains the polygonal Chapter House (1225), the earliest English example of its kind. Area 14 square miles (36 square km). Pop. (2001) 85,963.

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Universalium. 2010.

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