/laydh/, n., v., lathed, lathing.n.1. a machine for use in working wood, metal, etc., that holds the material and rotates it about a horizontal axis against a tool that shapes it.v.t.2. to cut, shape, or otherwise treat on a lathe.[1300-50; ME: frame, stand, lathe; cf. ON hlath stack (see LADE), Dan -lad in vaeverlad weaver's batten, savelad saw bench]
* * *Machine tool that performs turning operations in which unwanted material is removed from a workpiece rotated against a cutting tool.Lathes are among the oldest and most important machine tools, used in France from 1569 and important in the Industrial Revolution in England, when they were adapted for metal cutting (see Henry Maudslay). Lathes (usually called engine lathes) today have a power-driven, variable-speed horizontal spindle to which the workholding device is attached. Operations include turning straight or tapered cylindrical shapes, grooves, shoulders, and screw threads and facing flat surfaces on the ends of cylindrical parts. Internal cylindrical operations include most of the common hole-machining operations, such as drilling, boring, reaming, counterboring, countersinking, and threading with a single-point tool or tap. See also boring machine.
* * *machine tool that performs turning operations in which unwanted material is removed from a workpiece rotated against a cutting tool.The lathe is one of the oldest and most important machine tools. Wood lathes were in use in France as early as 1569. During the Industrial Revolution in England the machine was adapted for metal cutting. The rotating horizontal spindle to which the workholding device is attached is usually power driven at speeds that can be varied. On a speed lathe the cutting tool is supported on a tool rest and manipulated by hand. On an engine lathe the tool is clamped onto a cross slide that is power driven on straight paths parallel or perpendicular to the work axis. On a screwcutting lathe the motion of the cutting tool is accurately related to the rotation of the spindle by means of a lead screw that drives the carriage on which the cutting tool is mounted.Internal turning is known as boring and results in the enlargement of an already existing hole. For internal turning on solid workpieces, holes are drilled first; engine lathes are equipped for drilling coaxial holes. See also boring machine; drilling machinery.
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