/lang"gwij/, n.
1. a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition: the two languages of Belgium; a Bantu language; the French language; the Yiddish language.
2. communication by voice in the distinctively human manner, using arbitrary sounds in conventional ways with conventional meanings; speech.
3. the system of linguistic signs or symbols considered in the abstract (opposed to speech).
4. any set or system of such symbols as used in a more or less uniform fashion by a number of people, who are thus enabled to communicate intelligibly with one another.
5. any system of formalized symbols, signs, sounds, gestures, or the like used or conceived as a means of communicating thought, emotion, etc.: the language of mathematics; sign language.
6. the means of communication used by animals: the language of birds.
7. communication of meaning in any way; medium that is expressive, significant, etc.: the language of flowers; the language of art.
8. linguistics; the study of language.
9. the speech or phraseology peculiar to a class, profession, etc.; lexis; jargon.
10. a particular manner of verbal expression: flowery language.
11. choice of words or style of writing; diction: the language of poetry.
12. Computers. a set of characters and symbols and syntactic rules for their combination and use, by means of which a computer can be given directions: The language of many commercial application programs is COBOL.
13. a nation or people considered in terms of their speech.
14. Archaic. faculty or power of speech.
[1250-1300; ME < AF, var. sp. of langage, deriv. of langue tongue. See LINGUA, -AGE]
Syn. 2. See speech. 4, 9. tongue; terminology; lingo, lingua franca. LANGUAGE, DIALECT, JARGON, VERNACULAR refer to patterns of vocabulary, syntax, and usage characteristic of communities of various sizes and types. LANGUAGE is applied to the general pattern of a people or race: the English language. DIALECT is applied to certain forms or varieties of a language, often those that provincial communities or special groups retain (or develop) even after a standard has been established: Scottish dialect.
A JARGON is either an artificial pattern used by a particular (usually occupational) group within a community or a special pattern created for communication in business or trade between members of the groups speaking different languages: the jargon of the theater; the Chinook jargon. A VERNACULAR is the authentic natural pattern of speech, now usually on the informal level, used by persons indigenous to a certain community, large or small.

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System of conventional spoken or written symbols used by people in a shared culture to communicate with each other.

A language both reflects and affects a culture's way of thinking, and changes in a culture influence the development of its language. Related languages become more differentiated when their speakers are isolated from each other. When speech communities come into contact (e.g., through trade or conquest), their languages influence each other. Most existing languages are grouped with other languages descended "genetically" from a common ancestral language (see historical linguistics). The broadest grouping of languages is the language family. For example, all the Romance languages are derived from Latin, which in turn belongs to the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family, descended from the ancient parent language, Proto-Indo-European. Other major families include, in Asia, Sino-Tibetan, Austronesian, Dravidian, Altaic, and Austroasiatic; in Africa, Niger-Congo, Afro-Asiatic, and Nilo-Saharan; and in the Americas, Uto-Aztecan, Maya, Otomanguean, and Tupian. Relationships between languages are traced by comparing grammar and syntax and especially by looking for cognates (related words) in different languages. Language has a complex structure that can be analyzed and systematically presented (see linguistics). All languages begin as speech, and many go on to develop writing systems. All can employ different sentence structures to convey mood. They use their resources differently for this but seem to be equally flexible structurally. The principal resources are word order, word form, syntactic structure, and, in speech, intonation. Different languages keep indicators of number, person, gender, tense, mood, and other categories separate from the root word or attach them to it. The innate human capacity to learn language fades with age, and languages learned after about age 10 are usually not spoken as well as those learned earlier. See also dialect.
(as used in expressions)
Common Business Oriented Language.
HyperText Markup Language
Practical Extraction and Reporting Language.
Standard Generalized Markup Language
Structured Query Language.
Extensible Markup Language.
Assyro Babylonian language
Belarusan language
Bohemian language
fourth generation language
Gaelic language
Kanarese language
Cambodian language
Sephardic language
language philosophy of
Lettish language
Provençal language
Old Church Slavic language
Farsi language
Panjabi language
Serbo Croatian language
Slovenian language
Volga Tatar language
Ruthenian language
Adamawa Ubangi languages
Adamawa Eastern languages
Afro Asiatic languages
Hamito Semitic languages
Algonkian languages
Maipuran languages
Athapaskan languages
West Atlantic languages
Malayo Polynesian languages
Benue Congo languages
Sinitic languages
Eskimo Aleut languages
Finno Ugric languages
Voltaic languages
Hmong Mien languages
Miao Yao languages
Indo Aryan languages
Indic languages
Indo European languages
Manchu Tungus languages
Tungusic languages
Mayan languages
Mon Khmer languages
Niger Congo languages
Nilo Saharan languages
Paleo Siberian languages
Paleo Asiatic languages
Sino Tibetan languages
Slavonic languages
Tokharian languages
Uto Aztecan languages

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      a system of conventional spoken or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, communicate.

Characteristics of language

Definitions of language
      Many definitions of language have been proposed. Henry Sweet, an English phonetician and language scholar, stated: “Language is the expression of ideas by means of speech-sounds combined into words. Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts.” The U.S. linguists Bernard Bloch and George L. Trager formulated the following definition: “A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates.” Any succinct definition of language makes a number of presuppositions and begs a number of questions. The first, for example, puts excessive weight on “thought,” and the second uses “arbitrary” in a specialized, though legitimate, way (see below).

      A number of considerations enter into a proper understanding of language as a subject:

      1. Every physiologically and mentally normal person acquires in childhood the ability to make use, as both speaker and hearer, of a system of vocal communication that comprises a circumscribed set of noises resulting from movements of certain organs within his throat and mouth. By means of these he is able to impart information, to express feelings and emotions, to influence the activities of others, and to comport himself with varying degrees of friendliness or hostility toward persons who make use of substantially the same set of noises.

      2. Different systems of vocal communication constitute different languages; the degree of difference needed to establish a different language cannot be stated exactly. No two people speak exactly alike; hence, one is able to recognize the voices of friends over the telephone and to keep distinct a number of unseen speakers in a radio broadcast. Yet, clearly, no one would say that they speak different languages. Generally, systems of vocal communication are recognized as different languages if they cannot be understood without specific learning by both parties, though the precise limits of mutual intelligibility are hard to draw and belong on a scale rather than on either side of a definite dividing line. Substantially different systems of communication that may impede but do not prevent mutual comprehension are called dialects of a language. In order to describe in detail the actual different speech patterns of individuals, the term idiolect, meaning the speech habits of a single person, has been coined.

      3. Normally, people acquire a single language initially—their first language, or mother tongue, the language spoken by their parents or by those with whom they are brought up from infancy. Subsequent “second” languages are learned to different degrees of competence under various conditions, but the majority of the world's population remains largely monolingual. Complete mastery of two languages is designated as bilingualism; in a few special cases—such as upbringing by parents speaking different languages at home—speakers grow up as bilinguals, but ordinarily the learning, to any extent, of a second or other language is an activity superimposed on the prior mastery of one's first language and is a different process intellectually.

      4. Language, as described above, is species-specific to man. Other members of the animal kingdom have the ability to communicate, through vocal noises or by other means, but the most important single feature characterizing human language (that is, every individual language), against every known mode of animal communication, is its infinite productivity and creativity. Human beings are unrestricted in what they can talk about; no area of experience is accepted as necessarily incommunicable, though it may be necessary to adapt one's language in order to cope with new discoveries or new modes of thought.

       animal communication systems are by contrast very tightly circumscribed in what may be communicated. Indeed, displaced reference, the ability to communicate about things outside immediate temporal and spatial contiguity, which is fundamental to speech, is found elsewhere only in the so-called language of bees (bee). Bees are able, by carrying out various conventionalized movements (referred to as bee dances) in or near the hive, to indicate to others the locations and strengths of nectar sources. But nectar sources are the only known theme of this communication system. Surprisingly, however, this system, nearest to human language in function, belongs to a species remote from man in the animal kingdom and is achieved by very different physiological activities from those involved in speech. On the other hand, the animal performance superficially most like human speech, the mimicry of parrots and of some other birds that have been kept in the company of humans, is wholly derivative and serves no independent communicative function. Man's nearest relatives among the primates, though possessing a vocal physiology very similar to that of humans, have not developed anything like a spoken language.

      Language interacts with every other aspect of human life in society, and it can be understood only if it is considered in relation to society. This article attempts to survey language (both spoken and written) in this light and to consider its various functions and the purposes it can and has been made to serve. Because each language is both a working system of communication in the period and in the community wherein it is used and also the product of its past history and the source of its future development, any account of language must consider it from both these points of view.

      The science of language is known as linguistics. It includes what are generally distinguished as descriptive linguistics and historical linguistics. Linguistics is now a highly technical subject; it embraces, both descriptively and historically, such major divisions as phonetics, grammar, and semantics, dealing in detail with these various aspects of language. For a full account of the theory and methods of linguistic science, see the article linguistics.

Historical attitudes toward language
      As is evident from above, human life in its present form would be impossible and inconceivable without the use of language. People have long recognized the force and significance of language. Naming (name)—applying a word to pick out and refer to a fellow human being, an animal, an object, or a class of such beings or objects—is only one part of the use of language, but it is an essential and prominent part. In many cultures men have seen in the ability to name an ability to control or to possess; this explains the reluctance, in several primitive and other communities, with which names are revealed to strangers and the taboo restrictions found in several parts of the world on using the names of persons recently dead. Lest it be thought that attitudes like this have died out in modern civilized communities, it is instructive to consider the widespread and perhaps universal taboos on naming directly things considered obscene, blasphemous, or very fearful. Indeed, use of euphemistic substitutes for words referring to death and to certain diseases actually seems to be increasing in some civilized areas.

      Not surprisingly, therefore, several independent traditions ascribe a divine or at least a supernatural origin to language or to the language of a particular community. The biblical account, representing ancient Jewish (Hebrew language) beliefs, of Adam's naming the creatures of the Earth under God's guidance is well known:

So out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the air, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name (Gen. 2:19).

      Norse mythology (Germanic religion and mythology) preserves a similar story of divine participation in the creation of language, and in India the god Indra is said to have invented articulate speech. In the much more sophisticated debate on the nature and origin of language given in Plato's (Plato) Socratic dialogue Cratylus, Socrates is made to speak of the gods as those responsible for first fixing the names of things in the proper way.

      A similar divine aura pervades early accounts of the origin of writing. The Norse god Odin was held responsible for the invention of the runic alphabet. The inspired stroke of genius whereby the ancient Greeks (Greek alphabet) adapted a variety of the Phoenician (Phoenician alphabet) consonantal script so as to represent the distinctive consonant and vowel sounds of Greek, thus producing the first alphabet such as is known today, was linked with the mythological figure Cadmus, who, coming from Phoenicia, was said to have founded Thebes and introduced writing into Greece. The Arabs had a traditional account of their script, together with the language itself, being given to Adam by God.

      The later biblical tradition of the Tower of Babel (Babel, Tower of) (Gen. 11:1–9) exemplifies three aspects of early thought about language: (1) divine interest in and control over its use and development, (2) a recognition of the power it gives to man in relation to his environment, and (3) an explanation of linguistic diversity, of the fact that people in adjacent communities speak different and mutually unintelligible languages, together with a survey of the various speech communities of the world known at the time to the Hebrews.

      The origin of language has never failed to provide a subject for speculation, and its inaccessibility adds to its fascination. Informed investigations of the probable conditions under which language might have originated and developed are seen in the late-18th-century essay of the German philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder (Herder, Johann Gottfried von), “Abhandlung über den Ursprung der Sprache” (“Essay on the Origin of Language”), and in numerous other treatments. But people have tried to go further, to discover or to reconstruct something like the actual forms and structure of man's first language. This lies forever beyond the reach of science, in that spoken language in some form is almost certainly coeval with Homo sapiens (human being). The earliest records of written language, the only linguistic fossils man can hope to have, go back no more than about 4,000 or 5,000 years. Attempts to derive human speech from imitations of the cries of animals and birds or from mere ejaculations of joy and grief, as if onomatopoeia were the essence of language, were ridiculed for their inadequacy by the Oxford philologist F. Max Müller (Müller, Max) in the 19th century and have been dubbed the bowwow and pooh-pooh theories.

      On several occasions attempts have been made to identify one particular existing language as representing the original or oldest tongue of mankind, but, in fact, the universal process of linguistic change rules out any such hopes from the start. The Greek historian Herodotus told a story that King Psammetichus of Egypt caused a child to be brought up without ever hearing a word spoken in its presence. On one occasion it ran up to its guardian as he brought it some bread, calling out “bekos, bekos”; this, being said to be the Phrygian word for bread, proved that Phrygian was the oldest language of mankind. The naïveté and absurdity of such an account have not prevented its repetition elsewhere and at other times.

      In Christian Europe the position of Hebrew as the language of the Old Testament gave valid grounds through many centuries for regarding Hebrew, the language in which God addressed Adam, as the parent language of all mankind. Such a view continued to be expressed even well into the 19th century. Only since the mid-1800s has linguistic science made sufficient progress finally to clarify the impracticability of speculation along these lines.

      When people have begun to reflect on language, its relation to thinking (thought) becomes a central concern. Several cultures have independently viewed the main function of language as the expression of thought. Ancient Indian grammarians speak of the soul apprehending things with the intellect and inspiring the mind with a desire to speak; and in the Greek intellectual tradition Aristotle declared, “Speech is the representation of the experiences of the mind” (On Interpretation). Such an attitude passed into Latin theory and thence into medieval doctrine. Medieval grammarians envisaged three stages in the speaking process: things in the world exhibit properties; these properties are understood by the mind of man; and, in the manner in which they have been understood, so they are communicated to others by the resources of language.

      Rationalist (Rationalism) writers on language in the 17th century gave essentially a similar account: speaking is expressing thoughts by signs invented for the purpose, and words of different classes (the different parts of speech) came into being to correspond to the different aspects of thinking.

      Such a view of language continued to be accepted as generally adequate and gave rise to the sort of definition proposed by Henry Sweet and quoted above. The main objection to it is that it either gives so wide an interpretation to thought as virtually to empty the word of any specific content or gives such a narrow interpretation of language as to exclude a great deal of normal usage. A recognition of the part played by speaking and writing in social cooperation in everyday life has highlighted the many and varied functions of language in all cultures, apart from the functions strictly involved in the communication of thought, which had been the main focus of attention for those who approached language from the standpoint of the philosopher. To allow for the full range of language used by speakers, more comprehensive definitions of language have been proposed in recent years on the lines of the second one quoted above (i.e., “A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates”).

      A rather different criticism of accepted views on language began to be made in the 18th century, most notably by the French philosopher Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (Condillac, Étienne Bonnot de) in “Essai sur l'origine des connaissances humaines” (1746; “Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge”) and by Johann Gottfried von Herder. These men were concerned with the origin and development of language in relation to thought in a way that earlier students had not been. The medieval and rationalist views implied that man as a rational, thinking creature invented language to express his thoughts, fitting words to an already developed structure of intellectual competence. With the examination of the actual and the probable historical relations between thinking and speaking, it became more plausible to say that language emerged not as the means of expressing already formulated judgments, questions, and the like but as the means of thought itself, and that man's rationality developed together with the development of his capacity for speaking.

      The relations between thought and speech are certainly not fully explained today, and it is clear that it is a great oversimplification to define thought as subvocal speech, in the manner of some behaviourists (behaviourism). But it is no less clear that propositions and other alleged logical structures cannot be wholly separated from the language structures said to express them. Even the symbolizations of modern formal logic are ultimately derived from statements made in some natural language and are interpreted in that light.

      The intimate connection between language and thought, as opposed to the earlier assumed unilateral dependence of language on thought, opened the way to a recognition of the possibility that different language structures might in part favour or even determine different ways of understanding and thinking about the world. Obviously, all people inhabit a broadly similar world, or they would be unable to translate from one language to another; but, equally obviously, they do not all inhabit a world exactly the same in all particulars, and translation is not merely a matter of substituting different but equivalent labels for the contents of the same inventory. From this stem the notorious difficulties in translation, especially when the systematizations of science, law, morals, social structure, and so on are involved. The extent of the interdependence of language and thought—linguistic relativity, as it has been termed—is still a matter of debate, but the fact of such interdependence can hardly fail to be acknowledged.

Ways of studying language
      Languages are immensely complicated structures. One soon realizes how complicated any language is when trying to learn it as a second language. If one tries to frame an exhaustive description of all the rules embodied in one's language—the rules by means of which a native speaker is able to produce and to understand an infinite number of correct, well-formed sentences—one can easily appreciate the complexity of the knowledge acquired by a child in mastering his mother tongue. The descriptions of languages written so far are in most cases excellent as far as they go, but they still omit more than they contain of an explicit account of a native speaker's competence in his language, by virtue of which one calls him a speaker of English, French, Swedish, or Swahili. The most recent developments in the study of language have served to reveal just how much more there is to do to bring palpable fact within systematic statement.

      A detailed treatment of the science of linguistics is found elsewhere (see linguistics). Here it is proposed simply to give a brief outline of the way language or languages can be considered and described from different points of view, or at different levels, each contributing something essential and unique to a full understanding of the subject.

Phonetics and phonology
      The most obvious aspect of language is speech. Speech is not essential to the definition of an infinitely productive communication system, such as is constituted by a language. But, in fact, speech is the universal material of human language, and the conditions of speaking and hearing have, throughout human history, shaped and determined its development. The study of speech sounds and of the physiology of speaking is called phonetics; this subject is dealt with further below. Articulatory phonetics relates to the physiology of speech and acoustic phonetics to the physics of sound waves, their transmission and reception.

      Phonetics covers much of the ground loosely referred to in language study as pronunciation. But, from a rather different point of view, speech sounds are also studied in phonology. Every language makes use of a very wide range of the articulations and resultant sounds that are available within the human vocal and auditory resources. Each language uses a somewhat different range, and this is partly responsible for the difficulty of learning to speak a foreign language and for speaking it “with an accent.” But mere repertoires of sounds are not all that is involved. Far fewer general classes of sounds are distinctive (carry meaning differences) in any language than the number of sounds that are actually phonetically different. The English t sounds at the beginning and end of “tot” and in the two places in “stouter” are all different, though these differences are not readily noticed by English speakers; and, rightly, the same letter is used for them all. Similar statements could be made about most or all of the other consonant and vowel sounds in English.

      What is distinctive in one language may not be distinctive in another or may be used in a different way; this is an additional difficulty to be overcome in learning to speak and understand a foreign language. In Chinese and in several other languages loosely called tone languages, the pitch, or tone, on which a syllable is said helps to distinguish one word from another: ma in northern Chinese on a level tone means “mother,” on a rising tone means “hemp,” and on a falling tone means “to curse.” In English and in most of the languages of Europe (though not all—Swedish and Norwegian are exceptions) pitch differences do not distinguish one word from another, but form part of the intonation tunes that contribute to the structure and structural meaning of spoken sentences.

      Languages differ in the ways in which consonant and vowel sounds can be grouped into syllables in words. English and German tolerate several consonants before and after a single vowel: “strengths” has three consonant sounds before and three after a single vowel sound (ng and th stand for one sound each). Italian does not have such complex syllables, and in Japanese and Swahili, for example, the ratio of consonant and vowel sounds in syllables and in words is much more even. Speakers of such languages find English words of the sort just mentioned very hard to pronounce, though to an Englishman they are perfectly “natural,” “natural” in this context meaning “within the sounds and sound sequences whose mastery is acquired in early childhood as part of one's mother tongue.”

      All these considerations relating to the use of speech sounds in particular languages fall under the general heading of phonology; phonology is often regarded as one component of language structure.

      The other component is grammar. There is more to language than sounds, and words are not to be regarded as merely sequences of syllables. The concept of the word is a grammatical concept; in speech, words are not separated by pauses, but they are recognized as recurrent units that make up sentences. Very generally, grammar is concerned with the relations between words in sentences. Classes of words, or parts of speech, as they are often called, are distinguished because they occupy different places in sentence structure, and in most languages some of them appear in different forms according to their function (English “man,” “men”; “walk,” “walked”; “I,” “me”; and so on). Languages differ in the extent to which word-form variation is used in their grammar; Classical Chinese had almost none, English does not have much, and Latin and Greek had quite a lot. Conversely, English makes much more use of word order in grammar than did Latin or Greek.

      Traditionally, grammar has been divided into syntax and morphology, syntax dealing with the relations between words in sentence structure, morphology with the internal grammatical structure of words. The relation between “boy” and “boys” and the relationship (irregular) between “man” and “men” would be part of morphology; the relation of concord between “the boy [or “man”] is here” and “the boys [or “men”] are here” would be part of syntax. It must, however, be emphasized that the distinction between the two is not as clear-cut as this brief illustration might suggest. This is a matter for debate among linguists of different persuasions; some would deny the relevance of distinguishing morphology from syntax at all, referring to grammatical structure as a whole under the term syntax.

      Grammar is different from phonology, though the word grammar is often used comprehensively to cover both aspects of language structure. Categories such as plural, past tense, and genitive case are not phonological categories. In spoken language they are, like everything else, expressed in speech sounds, but within a language these may be very different for one and the same category. In English noun plurals, the added -s in “cats,” the vowel changes in “man, men” and in “goose, geese,” and the -en in “oxen” are quite different phonologically; so are the past-tense formatives such as -ed in “guarded,” -t in “burnt,” vowel change in “take, took,” and vowel and consonant change in “bring, brought.” In Latin the genitive case can be represented in singular nouns by -ī, -is, -ae, -ūs, and -. The phonological difference does not matter, provided only that the category distinction is somehow expressed.

      The same is true of the orthographic representation of grammatical differences, and the examples just given illustrate both cases. This is why the grammar of written language can be dealt with separately. In the case of dead languages, known with certainty only in their written forms, this must necessarily be done; insofar as the somewhat different grammar of their spoken forms made use of sound features not represented in writing (e.g., stress differences), this can, at best, only be inferred or reconstructed.

      Grammatical forms and grammatical structures are part of the communicative apparatus of languages, and along with vocabulary, or lexicon (the stock of individual words in a language), they serve to express all the meanings required. Spoken language has, in addition, resources such as emphatic stressing and intonation. This is not to say, however, that grammatical categories can be everywhere directly related to specific meanings. Plural and past tense are fairly clear as regards meaning in English, but even here there are difficulties; in “if I knew his address I would tell you,” the past-tense form “knew” refers not to the past but to an unfulfilled condition in the present. In some other languages greater problems arise. The gender distinctions of French, German, and Latin are very much part of the grammar of these languages, but only in a small number of words do masculine, feminine, and neuter genders correspond with differences of sex, or with any other category of meaning in relation to the external world (see also linguistics).

      Language exists to be meaningful; the study of meaning, both in general theoretical terms and in reference to a specific language, is known as semantics. It embraces the meaningful functions of phonological features, such as intonation, and of grammatical structures and the meanings of individual words. Once again, it must be stressed that questions arising from the relations between grammar and meaning and between grammar and phonology are the subjects of continuing controversy today.

Language variants
      The word language contains a multiplicity of different designations. Two senses have already been distinguished: language as a universal species-specific capability of mankind, and languages as the various manifestations of that capability, as with English, French, Latin, Swahili, Malay, and so on. There is, of course, no observable universal language over and above the various languages that have been or are spoken or written; but one may choose to concentrate on the general and even the universal features, characteristics, and components of different languages and on the ways in which the same sets of descriptive procedures and explanatory theories may be applied to different languages. In so doing one may refer to language (in general) as one's object of study. This is what is done by linguists, or linguistic scientists, persons devoting themselves to the scientific study of languages (as opposed to the popular sense of polyglots, persons having a command of several different languages).

Dialects (dialect)
      It has already been pointed out that no two persons speak exactly alike, and within the area of all but the smallest speech communities (groups of people speaking the same language) there are subdivisions of recognizably different types of language, called dialects, that do not, however, render intercommunication impossible nor markedly difficult. Because intercomprehensibility lies along a scale, the degree required for two or more forms of speech to qualify as dialects of a single language, instead of being regarded as separate languages, is not easy to quantify or to lay down in advance, and the actual cutoff point must in the last resort be arbitrary. In practice, however, the terms dialect and language can be used with reasonable agreement. One speaks of different dialects of English (English language) (Southern British English, Northern British English, Scottish English, Midwest American English, New England American English, Australian English, and so on, with, of course, many more delicately distinguished subdialects within these very general categories), but no one would speak of Welsh and English or of Irish and English as dialects of a single language, although they are spoken within the same areas and often by people living in the same villages as each other.

Robert Henry Robins Ed.

      Sometimes, as in the case of criminal argots, part of the function of special languages is deliberately to mislead and obstruct the rest of society and the authorities in particular; they may even become wholly impenetrable to outsiders. But this is not the sole or main purpose of most specialized varieties of language. Professions whose members value their standing in society and are eager to render their services to the public foster their own vocabulary and usage, partly to enhance the dignity of their profession and the skills they represent but partly also to increase their efficiency. An example of this is the language of the law and of lawyers.

      The cultivation and maintenance of specialized types of language by certain professions should not be regarded as trivially or superficially motivated. In general usage, languages are necessarily imprecise, or they would lack the flexibility and infinite extensibility demanded of them. But for certain purposes in restricted situations much greater precision is required, and part of the function of the particular style and vocabulary of legal language is the avoidance, so far as may be possible, of all ambiguity and the explicit statement of all necessary distinctions. This is why legal texts, when read out of their context, seem so absurdly pedantic and are an easy target for ridicule. Similar provision for detail and clarity characterizes the specialist jargons of medicine and of the sciences in general and also of philosophy. Indeed, one might regard the formulas of modern symbolic logic (formal logic) as the result of a consciously developed and specialized written language for making precise the relations of implication and inference between statements that, when couched in everyday language, are inexact and open to misinterpretation. Some would go as far as to say that traditional metaphysics is no more than the result of misunderstanding everyday discourse and that the main purpose of philosophy is to resolve the puzzles that arise from such misunderstandings.

      The use of specialized types of language in fostering unity is also evidenced in the stereotyped forms of vocabulary employed in the playing of certain games (sports). Tennis scores use the sequence “love, 15, 30, 40, and game”; cricketers (cricket) verbally appeal to the umpire when a batsman may be out by calling “How's that?” and the ways of being out are designated by stereotypes, “run out,” “leg before wicket,” “stumped,” and so forth. The esoteric language of horse racing and its associated wagering of money is well known, though not readily understood by outsiders.

      The ancient but persistent recognition of the power of language is apparent in the respect for correctness in the use of language in any sphere of life having supernatural connections. Those credited with such connections employ special formulas and rigidly prescribed modes of diction; examples of the language of magic and of magicians are widespread, ranging from the usages of shamans and witch doctors to the ritual “abracadabra” of the mock magic displayed by conjurors at children's parties.

      The efficacy of religious worship and of prayers (prayer) is frequently associated with the strict maintenance of correct forms of language, taught by priests to their successors, lest the ritual become invalid. In ancient India the preservation in all its supposed purity of the language used in the performance of certain religious rituals (Sanskrit (Sanskrit language)) gave rise to one of the world's most important schools of linguistics and phonetics. In the Christian churches one can observe the value placed by Church of England and Episcopalian churchmen on the formal English of the Authorized Version of the Bible and of The Book of Common Prayer, despite recent attempts at replacing these ritual forms of language by forms taken from modern spoken vernaculars.

Pidgins and creoles
      Some specialized languages were developed to keep the outsider at bay. In other circumstances, languages have been deliberately created to facilitate communication with outsiders. This happens when people speaking two different languages have to work together, usually in some form of trade relation or administrative routine. In such situations the so-called pidgins (pidgin) arise, more or less purposively made up of vocabulary items from each language, with mutual abandonment of grammatical complexities that would cause confusion to either party. Pidgins have been particularly associated with areas settled by European traders; examples have been Chinook Jargon, a lingua franca based on an American Indian language and English and formerly used in Washington and Oregon, and Beach-la-mar, an English-based pidgin of parts of the South Seas.

      Sometimes, as the result of relatively permanent settlement and the intermixture of two speech communities, a pidgin becomes the first language, or mother tongue, of later generations, ultimately displacing both the original languages. First languages arising in this way from artificially created pidgins are called creoles (creole languages). Notable among creoles is the language of Haiti, Haitian Creole, built up from the French of the settlers and the African language of the former slaves; it shows lexical and grammatical features of both sources.

      Creoles differ from pidgins in that, as first languages, they are subject to the natural processes of change like any other language (see below Linguistic change (language)); and, despite the deliberately simplified form of the original pidgin, in the course of generations creoles develop their own complexities. The reason is plain to see. The restricted uses to which pidgins were first put and for which they were devised did not require any great flexibility. Once such a language becomes the first or only language of many people, it must perforce acquire the resources (i.e., the complexity) to respond adequately to all the requirements of a natural language.

Nonverbal language
      Speech and writing are, indeed, the fundamental faculties and activities referred to by the term language. There are, however, areas of human behaviour for which the term is used in a peripheral and derivative sense.

      When individuals speak, they do not normally confine themselves to the mere emission of speech sounds. Because speaking usually involves at least two parties in sight of each other, a great deal of meaning is conveyed by facial expression, tone of voice, and movements and postures of the whole body but especially of the hands; these are collectively known as gestures. The contribution of bodily gestures to the total meaning of a conversation is in part culturally determined and differs in different communities. Just how important these visual symbols are may be seen when one considers how much less effective telephone conversation is as compared with conversation face to face; the experience of involuntarily smiling at the telephone receiver and immediately realizing that this will convey nothing to the hearer at the other end of the line is common. Again, the part played in emotional contact and in the expression of feelings by facial expressions and tone of voice, quite independently of the words used, has been shown in tests in which subjects have been asked to react to sentences that appear as friendly and inviting when read but are spoken angrily and, conversely, to sentences that appear as hostile but are spoken with friendly facial expressions. It is found that it is the visual accompaniments and tone of voice that elicit the main emotional response. A good deal of what goes under the heading of sarcasm exploits these contrasts.

      Just as there are paralinguistic activities such as facial expressions and bodily gestures integrated with and assisting the communicative function of spoken language, so there are vocally (vocalization) produced noises that cannot be regarded as part of any language, though they help in communication and in the expression of feeling. These include laughter, shouts and screams of joy, fear, pain, and so forth, and conventional expressions of disgust, triumph, and so on, traditionally spelled “ugh!,” “ha ha!,” etc., in English. Such nonlexical ejaculations differ in important respects from language: they are much more similar in form and meaning throughout mankind as a whole, in contrast to the great diversity of languages; they are far less arbitrary than most of the lexical components of language; and they are much nearer the cries of animals produced under similar circumstances and, as far as is known, serve similar expressive and communicative purposes. As noted above, some people have tried to trace the origin of language itself to them.

      A language is a symbol system. It may be regarded, because of its infinite flexibility and productivity, as the symbol system par excellence. But there are other symbol systems recognized and institutionalized in the different cultures of mankind. Examples of these exist on maps and blueprints and in the conventions of representational art (e.g., the golden halos around the heads of saints in religious paintings). Other symbol systems are musical notation and dance notation, wherein graphic symbols designate musical pitches and other features of musical performance and the movements of formalized dances. More loosely, because music itself can convey and arouse emotions and certain musical forms and structures are often associated with certain types of feeling, one frequently reads of the “language of music” or even of “the grammar of music.” The terms language and grammar are here being used metaphorically, however, if only because no symbol system other than language has the same potential of infinite productivity, extension, and precision.

      Languages are used by human beings to talk and write to other human beings. Derivatively, bits of languages may be used by humans to control machinery, as when different buttons and switches are marked with words or phrases designating their functions. A recent and specialized development of man-machine language is seen in the various “computer languages (computer programming language)” (Cobol, Algol, and Fortran, for example) now in use. These are referred to as programming languages, and they provide the means whereby sets of “instructions” and data of various kinds can be supplied to computers in forms acceptable to these machines. Various types of such languages are employed for different purposes. The development and use of computer languages must now be regarded as a distinct science in itself (for more information, see computer science: Programming languages (computer science)).

Physiological and physical basis of speech
      For an adequate understanding of human language, it is necessary to keep in mind the absolute primacy of speech. In societies in which literacy is all but universal and language teaching at school begins with reading and writing in the mother tongue, one is apt to think of language as a writing system that may be pronounced. In point of fact, language is a system of spoken communication that may be represented in various ways in writing.

      The human being has almost certainly been in some sense a speaking animal from early in the emergence of Homo sapiens as a recognizably distinct species. The earliest known systems of writing go back perhaps some 5,000 years. This means that for many hundreds of thousands of years human languages were transmitted from generation to generation and were developed entirely as spoken means of communication. Moreover, in the world as it is today, literacy is still the privilege of a minority in many language communities. Even when literacy is widespread, some languages remain unwritten if they are not economically or culturally important enough to justify creating an alphabet for them and teaching them; then literacy is acquired in a second language learned at school. Such is the case with many speakers of South American Indian languages, who become literate in Spanish or Portuguese. A similar situation prevails in some parts of Africa, where reading and writing are taught in languages spoken over relatively wide areas. In all communities, speaking is learned by children before writing, and all people act as speakers and hearers much more than as writers and readers.

      It is, moreover, a total fallacy to suppose that the languages of illiterate or so-called primitive peoples are less structured, less rich in vocabulary, and less efficient than the languages of literate civilizations. The lexical content of languages varies, of course, according to the culture and the needs of their speakers, but observation bears out the statement that the U.S. anthropological linguist Edward Sapir (Sapir, Edward) made in 1921: “When it comes to linguistic form, Plato walks with the Macedonian swineherd, Confucius with the head-hunting savage of Assam.”

      All this means that the structure and composition of language and of all languages have been conditioned by the requirements of speech, not those of writing. Languages are what they are by virtue of their spoken, not their written, manifestations. The study of language must be based on a knowledge of the physiological and physical nature of speaking and hearing. The details of these aspects of language are covered in phonetics and speech; only the essentials are given here.

Speech production (phonetics)
      Speaking is in essence the by-product of a necessary bodily process, the expulsion from the lungs of air charged with carbon dioxide after it has fulfilled its function in respiration. Most of the time one breathes out silently; but it is possible, by adopting various postures and by making various movements within the vocal tract, to interfere with the egressive airstream so as to generate noises of different sorts. This is what speech is made of.

      The vocal tract comprises the passage from the trachea (windpipe) to the orifices of the mouth and nose; all the organs used in speaking lie in this passage. Conventionally, these are called the organs of speech, and the use in several languages of the same word for the tongue as a part of the body and for language shows the awareness people have of the role played by this part of the mouth in speaking. But few if any of the major organs of speech are exclusively or even mainly concerned with speaking. The lips, the tongue, and the teeth all have essential functions in the bodily economy, quite apart from talking; to think, for example, of the tongue as an organ of speech in the same way that the stomach is regarded as the organ of digestion is fallacious. Speaking is a function superimposed on these organs, and the material of speech is a waste product, spent air, exploited to produce perhaps the most wonderful by-product ever created.

      Relatively few types of speech sounds are produced by other sources of air movement; the clicks (click) in some South African languages are examples, and so is the fringe linguistic sound used in English to express disapproval, conventionally spelled “tut.” In all languages, however, the great majority of speech sounds have their origin in air expelled through the contraction of the lungs. Air forced through a narrow passage or momentarily blocked and then released creates noise, and characteristic components of speech sounds are types of noise produced by blockage or narrowing of the passage at different places.

      If the vocal cords (vocal cord) (really more like two curtains) are held taut as the air passes through them, the resultant regular vibrations in the larynx produce what is technically called voice, or voicing. These vibrations can be readily observed by contrasting the sounds of f and v or of s and z as usually pronounced; “five” and “size” each begin and end with voiceless and voiced sounds, respectively, which are otherwise formed alike, with the tongue and the lips in the same position. Most consonant sounds and all vowel sounds in English and in the majority of languages are voiced, and voice, in this sense, is the basis of singing and of the rise and fall in speaking that is called intonation, as well as of the tone distinctions in tone languages. The vocal cords may be drawn together more or less tightly, and the vibrations will be correspondingly more or less frequent. A rise in frequency causes a rise in perceived vocal pitch. Speech in which voice is completely excluded is called whispering (whisper).

      Above the larynx, places of articulation in frequent use are between the back of the tongue and the soft palate, between the blade of the tongue and the ridge just behind the upper front teeth, and between the lips. Stoppage and release (technically, plosion) at these places form the k (often written as c, “cat”), t, and p sounds in English and, when voicing is also present, the g (as in “gay”), d, and b sounds. Obstruction at these and other places sufficient to cause noise gives rise to what are called fricative sounds; in English these include the normal pronunciations of s, z, f, and v and the th sounds in “thin” and “then.” A vowel is characterized as the product of the shape of the entire tract between the lips and larynx, without local obstruction though usually with voicing from the vocal cords. It is contrasted with a consonant, though the exact division between these two categories of speech sound is not always easy to draw. Different shaping of the tract produces the different vowel sounds of languages.

      The soft palate may be raised or lowered. It is lowered in breathing and allows air to pass in and out through the nose. In the utterance of most speech sounds it is raised, so that air passing through the mouth alone forms the sound; if it is lowered, air passes additionally or alternatively through the nose, producing nasal sounds. All but a few languages have nasal consonants (the English sounds m, n, and ng as in “sing”), and some, such as French, have nasalized vowels as well. A few people regularly allow air to pass through their nasal passages while they speak; such persons are said to “speak through the nose.”

      All articulatory movements, including the initial expulsion of air from the lungs, may be made with greater or less vigour, giving rise to louder or softer speech or to greater loudness on one part of what is said.

      Every different configuration and movement of the vocal tract creates corresponding differences in the air vibrations that comprise and transmit sound. These vibrations, like those of all noises, extend outward in all directions from the source, gradually decreasing to zero or to below the threshold of audibility. They are called sound waves, and they consist of rapid rises and falls in air pressure. The speed at which pressure rises and falls is the frequency. Speech sounds involve complex waves containing vibrations at a number of different frequencies, the lowest being the voice pitch of singing and intonation, produced by the vocal cords in voiced sounds.

      The eardrum (tympanic membrane) responds to the different frequencies of speech, provided they retain enough energy, or amplitude (i.e., are still audible). The different speech sounds that make up the utterances of any language are the result of the different impacts on one's ears made by the different complexes of frequencies in the waves produced by different articulatory processes. As the result of careful and detailed observation of the movements of the vocal organs in speaking, aided by various instruments to supplement the naked eye, a great deal is now known about the processes of articulation. Other instruments have provided much information about the nature of the sound waves produced by articulation. Speech sounds have been described and classified both from an articulatory viewpoint, in terms of how they are produced, and from an acoustic viewpoint, by reference to the resulting sound waves (their frequencies, amplitudes, and so forth). Articulatory descriptions are more readily understood, being couched in terms such as nasal, bilabial lip-rounded, and so on. Acoustic terminology requires a knowledge of the technicalities involved for its comprehension. In that almost every person is a speaker and a hearer, it is clear that both sorts of description and classification are important, and each has its particular value for certain parts of the scientific study of language.

Language acquisition
      In regard to the production of speech sounds, all humans are physiologically alike. It has been shown repeatedly that children learn the language of those who bring them up from infancy. In most cases these are the biological parents, especially the mother, but one's first language is acquired from environment and learning, not from physiological inheritance. Adopted infants, whatever their race or physical type and whatever the language of their actual parents, acquire the language of the adoptive parents.

      Different shapes of lips, throat, and other parts of the vocal tract have an effect on voice quality; this is part of the individuality of each person's voice referred to above. Physiological differences, including size of throat and larynx, both overall and in relation to the rest of the vocal tract, are largely responsible for the different pitch ranges characteristic of men's, women's, and children's speech. These differences do not affect one's ability or aptitude to speak any particular language.

      Speech is species-specific to humankind. Physiologically, animal communications systems are of all sorts. The animal sounds superficially most resembling speech, the imitative cries of parrots and some other birds, are produced by very different physiological means: birds have no teeth or lips but vocalize by means of the syrinx, a modification of the windpipe above the lungs. Almost all mammals and many other animal species make vocal (vocalization) noises and evince feelings thereby and keep in contact with each other through a rudimentary sort of communication, but those members of the animal kingdom nearest to humans genetically, the great apes, lack the anatomic apparatus necessary for speech.

      The development of speech has been linked to upright posture and the freeing of the vocal cords from the frequent need to “hold one's breath” in using the arms for locomotion. Certainly, speaking and hearing—as a primary means of communication—have a number of striking advantages: speech does not depend on daylight or on mutual visibility, it can operate in all directions over reasonably wide areas, and it can be adjusted in loudness to cope with distance. As is seen in crowded rooms, it is possible to pick out some one person's voice despite a good deal of other noise and in the midst of other voices speaking the same language. Also, the physical energy required in speaking is extremely small in relation to the immense power wielded by speech in human life, and scarcely any other activity, such as running, walking, or tool using, interferes seriously with the process.

      The characteristics just outlined pertain to all of the world's languages. What is more a matter of controversy is the extent to which biological inheritance is involved in language acquisition and language use. The fact that language traditionally has been viewed as species-specific to human beings argues an essential cerebral or mental component, and in the 19th century certain aspects of speech control and use were located in a particular part of the human brain (Broca's convolution).

 Whether or not the great apes have the mental capacity to acquire at least a rudimentary form of language has developed into an area of active research. While apes lack the anatomic structures that are necessary for the vocalization of human speech, many investigators nevertheless claim to have taught chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans to communicate in languages whose “words” are composed of hand signs or geometric symbols. These claims have been hotly disputed, with critics arguing that the apes have not demonstrated true language acquisition in the sense of understanding the “words” as symbolic abstractions that can be used in new and grammatically meaningful constructions. Researchers working with the apes, however, maintain that at least some of the apes have learned to understand and manipulate the “words” as abstractions.

      No one inherits the ability to speak a particular language, but normal children are born with the ability and the drive to acquire a language—namely, the one to which they are predominantly exposed from infancy. Children bring to this task considerable innate ability, because their exposure is largely to a random selection of utterances (apart from any attempts at systematic teaching that they may encounter) occurring within earshot or addressed to them. Yet by late childhood they have, through progressive stages, acquired the basic vocabulary of the language, together with its phonological and grammatical structure. This is substantially the same situation the world over, among literate and illiterate communities, and much the same number of years of childhood is taken up by the process. Thus, it would appear that all languages are roughly equal in complexity and in difficulty of mastery.

      It is, therefore, clear that all normal humans bring into the world an innate faculty for language acquisition, language use, and grammar construction. The last phrase refers to the internalization of the rules of the grammar of one's first language from a more or less random exposure to utterances in it. Human children are very soon able to construct new, grammatically acceptable sentences from material they have already heard; unlike the parrot in human society, they are not limited to mere repetition of utterances.

      What is under debate is the part played by this innate ability and its exact nature. Until the 1950s scholars considered language acquisition to be carried out largely by analogical creation from observed patterns of sentences occurring in utterances heard and understood by the child. Such a view, much favoured by persons inclined to a behaviourist (behaviourism) interpretation of human learning processes (e.g., the U.S. linguist Leonard Bloomfield (Bloomfield, Leonard)), stressed the very evident differences between the structures of different languages, particularly on the surface. Since the late 1950s, a number of linguists have been placing much more emphasis on the inherent grammar-building disposition and competence of the human brain, which is activated by exposure to utterances in a language, especially during childhood, in such a way that it fits the utterances into predetermined general categories and structures. Such linguists, inheritors of the 17th- and 18th-century interest in “universal grammar,” put their stress on the underlying similarities of all languages, more especially in the deeper areas of grammatical analysis (for the distinction between deep structure and surface structure in grammar, see the article linguistics: Transformational-generative grammar (linguistics)).

Meaning and style in language
      The whole object and purpose of language is to be meaningful. Languages have developed and are constituted in their present forms in order to meet the needs of communication in all its aspects.

      It is because the needs of human communication are so various and so multifarious that the study of meaning is probably the most difficult and baffling part of the serious study of language. Traditionally, language has been defined, as in the definition quoted above, as the expression of thought, but, as was seen, this involves far too narrow an interpretation of language or far too wide a view of thought to be serviceable. The expression of thought is just one among the many functions performed by language in certain contexts.

Types of meaning
Structural, or grammatical, meaning
      First, one must recognize that the meaning of any sentence comprises two parts, the meanings of the words it contains and the structural or grammatical meaning carried by the sentence itself. In English “the dog chased the cat” and “the boy chased the cat” differ in meaning because “dog” and “boy” are different words with different word meanings; the same applies to equivalent sentences in other languages. The two sentences “the dog chased the cat” and “the cat chased the dog,” though containing exactly the same words, are different in meaning because the different word orders distinguish what are conventionally called subject and object. In Latin the two corresponding sentences would be distinguished not by word order, which is grammatically indifferent and largely a matter of style, but by different shapes in the lexical equivalents of “dog” and “cat.” In Japanese the grammatical distinction of subject and object, normally marked by the word order subject-object-verb, can be reinforced by a subject particle after the first word and an object particle after the second.

      The formal resources of any language for making distinctions in the structural meanings of sentences are limited by two things: the linear (time) dimension of speaking and the limited memory span of the human brain. writing copies the time stream of speech with the linear flow of scripts. Diagrams and pictures employ two dimensions, and models employ three; but writing is partially relieved of memory-span restrictions by the permanence of visual marks. Because written texts are almost entirely divorced from oral pronunciation, sentence length and sentence complexity can be carried to extremes, as may be observed in some legal and legislative documents that are virtually unintelligible if read aloud.

      Within these linear restrictions, distinctions corresponding to the main uses of language can be made. All languages can employ different sentence structures to state facts (declarative), to ask questions (interrogative), and to enjoin or forbid some course of action (imperative). More delicate means exist to soften or modify these basic distinctions: e.g., “It's cold today, isn't it?”; “Isn't it still raining?”; “Shut the door, would you mind”; “Don't be long, will you?” Languages use their resources differently for these purposes, but, generally speaking, each seems to be equally flexible structurally. The principal resources are word order, word form, syntactic structure, and, in speech, pitch and stress placement. In English, as an example, a word or phrase can be highlighted by being placed first in the sentence when it would not normally occur there: compare “he can't bear loud noises” with “loud noises he can't bear” or “loud noises, he can't bear them.” The object noun or noun phrase can also be put first by making the sentence passive; this allows the original subject to be omitted if one does not know or does not want to refer to an agent: “the town was destroyed (by the revolutionaries).” Within and together with all these possibilities, almost any word can be made contrastively prominent by being stressed (stress) (spoken more loudly) or by being uttered on a higher pitch, and very often these two are combined: “I asked you for red roses (not yellow)”; “I meant it for you (not her)”; ”I know nothing about it (someone else may).” Prominence is especially associated with intonation, itself an important carrier of structural meaning in speech. One may state facts, ask questions, and give instructions with a variety of intonations indicating, along with visible gestures, different attitudes, feelings, and social and personal relations between speaker and hearer.

      The possibilities of expressing structural meanings are a most important part of any language. They are acquired along with the rest of one's first language in childhood and are learned more slowly and with more difficulty in mastering a second or later language. Scholars are still only at the beginning of a full formal analysis of these resources, as far as most languages are concerned, and are still further from an adequate understanding of all the semantic functions performed by means of these resources.

      The other component of sentence meaning is word meaning, the individual meanings of the words in a sentence, as lexical items. The concept of word meaning is a familiar one. Dictionaries list words and in one way or another state their meanings. It is regarded as a sensible question to ask of any word in a language, “What does it mean?” This question, like many others about language, is easier to ask than to answer.

      It is through lexical resources that languages maintain the flexibility their open-ended commitments demand. Every language has a vocabulary of many thousands of words, though not all are in active use, and some are known only to relatively few speakers. Perhaps the commonest delusion in considering vocabularies is the assumption that the words of different languages, or at least their nouns, verbs, and adjectives, label the same inventory of things, processes, and qualities in the world but unfortunately label them with different labels from language to language. If this were so, translation would be easier than it is; but the fact that translation, though often difficult, is possible indicates that people are talking about similar worlds of experience in their various languages.

      Languages in part create the world in which men live. Of course, many words do name existing bits and pieces of earth and heaven: “stone,” “tree,” “dog,” “woman,” “star,” “cloud,” and so on. Others, however, do not so much pick out what is there as classify it and organize one's relations with it and with each other with regard to it. A range of living creatures are mammals or are vertebrates, because people classify them in these ways, among others, by applying selected criteria and so determining the denotation of the words mammal and vertebrate. Plants are vegetables or weeds according as groups of people classify them, and different plants are included and excluded by such classifications in different languages and different cultures.

       time and its associated vocabulary (“year,” “month,” “day,” “hour,” “minute,” “yesterday,” “tomorrow,” and so on) do not refer to discrete sections of reality but enable people to impose some sort of order, in agreement with others, on the processes of change observed in the world. Personal pronouns pick out the persons speaking, spoken to, and spoken about; but some languages make different distinctions in their pronouns from those made in English. For example, in Malay, kita, which means “we,” including the person addressed, is distinct from kami, a form for “we” that includes the speaker and a third person or persons but excludes the person addressed. In Japanese and in several other languages, a variety of words denoting the 1st and 2nd persons indicate additionally the observed or intended social relationship of those involved.

      Other word meanings are even more language and culture bound, and in consequence harder to translate. “Right” and “wrong,” “theft,” “inheritance,” “property,” “debt,” “sin,” and “crime” (as different sorts of wrongdoing) are just a few of the words regulating one's conduct and relations with one's fellows in a particular culture. Translation becomes progressively harder as one moves to languages of more remote cultures, and it has been said that it requires “a unification of cultural context.” Insofar as a person's understanding of the universe and of the relations between himself and other people is closely linked with the language he speaks, it must be assumed, and the evidence confirms this assumption, that the child progressively acquires such understanding along with his language.

      The great majority of word shapes bear no direct relation to their lexical meanings. If they did, languages would be more alike. What are called onomatopoeic (onomatopoeia) words are rather similar in shape through different languages: French coucou, English “cuckoo,” and German Kuckuck directly mimic the call of the bird. English “dingdong” and German bim-bam share several sound features in common that partially resemble the clanging of bells. More abstractly, some direct “sound symbolism (perception)” has been seen between certain sound types and visual or tactile shapes. Most people agree that the made-up word “oomboolu” would better designate a round, bulbous object than a spiky one. In addition, the appropriateness of the vowel sound represented by ee in English “wee” and i in French petit “small” and Italian piccolo “small” for expressing things of small size has been traced in several languages.

      All this, however, is a very small part of the vocabulary of any language. For by far the largest number of words in a language there is no direct association between sound and meaning. English “horse,” German Pferd, French cheval, Latin equus, and Greek hippos are all unrelated to the animal so named, except that these words are so used in the languages concerned. This is what is meant by the term arbitrary in the second definition of language quoted at the beginning of this article. Vocabulary has to be largely arbitrary, because the greater part of the world and of man's experience is not directly associated with any kind of noise, and it is a contingent, though universal, fact of history and biology that sound and not the material of some other sense is the basis of human language.

      The relations between sentence structure and structural meanings are also largely arbitrary and tacitly conventional. Though loudness and stress for emphasis and certain linguistic indications of anger, excitement, and the like are more closely akin to nonlinguistic ejaculations and are somewhat similar across language divisions, actual intonations and features such as word order, word inflection, and grammatical particles, used in maintaining distinctions in structural meaning, differ markedly in different languages.

Semantic (semantics) flexibility
      Not only are word meanings somewhat different in different languages; they are not fixed for all time in any one language. Semantic changes take place all along (see below), and at any moment the semantic area covered by a word is indeterminately bordered and differs from context to context. This is a further aspect and condition of the inherent and necessary flexibility of language.

General and specific designations
      A person can be as precise or as imprecise as he needs or wishes to be. In general, words are fairly imprecise; yet for particular purposes their meanings can be tightened up, usually by bringing in more words or phrases to divide up a given field in more detail. “Good” contrasts generally with “bad”; but one can, for example, grade students as “first-class,” “excellent,” “very good,” “good,” “fair,” “poor,” and “failed” (or “bad”). In this case, “good” now covers a restricted and relatively low place in a field of associated terms. Colour words get their meanings from their mutual contrasts. The field of visually discriminable hues is very large and goes far beyond the resources of any vocabulary as it is normally used. Children learn the central or basic colour words of their language fairly early and at the same time; such terms as red and green are normally learned before subdivisions such as crimson and scarlet or chartreuse. It is well known that languages make their primary divisions of the spectrum of colours in different places; Japanese aoi covers many of the hues referred to in English by “green” and “blue,” while “blue” covers much of the range of the two Russian words goluboy and siny. While the actual colour vocabularies of languages differ, however, recent research by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay has tried to show that “there exist universally for humans eleven basic perceptual color categories” that serve as reference points for the colour words of a language, whatever number may be regularly employed at any time.

      Ordinarily, considerable areas of indeterminate designation in colour vocabulary and in other fields are tolerated; between “red” and “purple” and between “purple” and “blue” there are hues that one would hesitate to assign firmly to one or the other and on which there would be considerable personal disagreement. When greater precision than normal is required—as, for example, in listing paint or textile colours—all kinds of additional terms can be brought into service to supplement the usual vocabulary: “off-white,” “light cream,” “lemon,” “blush pink,” and so on.

      The vocabulary of kinship (kinship terminology) terms varies from language to language, reflecting cultural differences. English distinguishes the nearer kinsfolk by sex: “mother, father”; “sister, brother”; “aunt, uncle”; and others. Other languages, such as Malay (Malay language), make a lexical distinction of age the primary one, with separate words for elder brother or sister and younger brother or sister. Still other languages—for example, some American Indian ones—use different words for the sister of a man and for the sister of a woman. But beyond this any language can be as precise as the situation demands in kin designation. When it is necessary, English speakers can specify “elder sister” and “female cousin,” and within the overall category it is possible to distinguish “first and second cousins” and “cousins once removed,” distinctions that it is ordinarily pedantic to make.

      The best example of infinite precision available from a strictly limited lexical stock is in the field of arithmetic (mathematics). Between any two whole numbers a further fractional or decimal number may always be inserted, and this may go on indefinitely: between 10 and 11, 10 1/2 (10.5), 10 1/4 (10.25), 10 1/8 (10.125), and so on. Thus, the mathematician or the physical scientist is able to achieve any desired degree of quantitative precision appropriate to his purposes; hence the importance of quantitative statements in the sciences—any thermometric scale contains far more distinctions of temperature than are reasonably available in the vocabulary of a language (“hot,” “warm,” “cool,” “tepid,” “cold,” and so on). For this reason mathematics has been described as the ideal use of language, but for many purposes in everyday life the very imprecision of natural languages is the source of their strength and adaptability.

      Every living language can readily be adapted to meet changes occurring in the life and culture of its speakers, and the main weight of such changes falls on vocabulary. Grammatical and phonological structures are relatively stable and change noticeably over centuries rather than decades (see below Linguistic change (language)); but vocabularies can change very quickly both in word stock and in word meanings. Consider as an example the changes wrought by modern technology in the vocabularies of all European languages since 1945. Before that date “transistor” and “cosmonaut” did not exist, and “nuclear disarmament” would scarcely have had any clear meaning.

      Every language can alter its vocabulary very easily, which means that every speaker can without effort adopt new words, accept or invent new meanings for existing words, and of course, cease to use some words or cease to use them in certain meanings. Dictionaries list some words and some meanings as “obsolete” or “obsolescent” to indicate this process. No two speakers share precisely the same vocabulary of words readily used and readily understood, though they may speak the same dialect. They will, however, naturally have the great majority of words in their vocabularies in common.

      Languages have various resources for effecting changes in vocabulary. Meanings of existing words may change. With the virtual disappearance of falconry as a sport in England, “lure” has lost its original meaning of a bunch of feathers on a string by which hawks were recalled to their handler and is used now mainly in its metaphorical sense of enticement. The additional meaning of “nuclear” has already been mentioned; one may list it with words such as computer and jet, which acquired new ranges of meaning in the mid-20th century.

      All languages have the means of creating new words to bear new meanings. These can be new creations; “Kodak” is one such, invented at the end of the 19th century by George Eastman; “chortle,” now in general use, was a jocular creation of the English writer and mathematician Lewis Carroll (creator of Alice in Wonderland); and “gas” was formed in the 17th century by the Belgian chemist and physician Jan Baptist van Helmont (Helmont, Jan Baptista van) as a technical term in chemistry, loosely modelled on the Greek chaos (“formless void”). But mostly languages follow definite patterns in their innovations. Words can be made up without limit from existing words or from parts of words; the sources of “railroad,” “railway,” and “aircraft” are obvious, and so are the sources of “disestablishment,” first cited in 1806 and thereafter used with particular reference to the status of the Church of England. The controversy over the relations between church and state in the 19th and early 20th centuries gave rise to a chain of new words as the debate proceeded: “disestablishmentarian,” “antidisestablishmentarian,” “antidisestablishmentarianism.” Usually, the bits and pieces of words used in this way are those found in other such combinations, but this is not always so. The technical term permafrost (terrain that never thaws, as in the Arctic) contains a bit of “permanent” probably not hitherto found in any other word.

      A particular source of technical neologisms in European languages has been the words and word elements of Latin (Latin language) and Greek (Greek language). This is part of the cultural history of western Europe, in so many ways the continuation of Greco-Roman civilization. “Microbiology” and “dolichocephalic” are words well formed according to the rules of Greek as they would be taken over into English, but no records survive of mikrobiologia and dolichokephalikos ever having been used in Ancient Greek. The same is true of Latinate creations such as “reinvestment” and “longiverbosity.” The long tradition of looking to Latin and, since the Renaissance, to Greek also as the languages of European civilization, keeps alive the continuing formation of learned and scientific vocabulary in English and other European languages from these sources. The dependence on the classical languages in Europe is matched by a similar use of Sanskrit (Sanskrit language) words for certain parts of learned vocabulary in some modern Indian languages (Sanskrit being the classical language of India). Such phenomena are examples of loanwords, one of the readiest sources for vocabulary extension.

      Loanwords are words taken into a language from another language (the term borrowing is used for the process). Most obviously, this occurs when new things come into speakers' experiences as the result of contacts with speakers of other languages. This is part of the history of every language, except for one spoken by an impossibly isolated community. “Tea” from Chinese, “coffee” from Arabic, and “tomato,” “potato,” and “tobacco” from American Indian languages are familiar examples of loanwords designating new products that have been added to the vocabulary of English. In more abstract areas, several modern languages of India and Pakistan contain many words that relate to government, industry, and current technology taken in from English. This is the result of British rule in these countries up to independence and the worldwide use of English as a language of international science since then.

      In general, loanwords are rapidly and completely assimilated to the prevailing grammatical and phonological patterns of the borrowing language. The German word Kindergarten, literally “children's garden,” was borrowed into English in the middle of the 19th century to designate an informal school for young children. It is now regularly pronounced as an English word, and the plural is kindergartens (not Kindergärten, as in German). Occasionally, however, some loanwords retain marks of their foreign origin: examples include Latin plurals such as cacti and narcissi (as contrasted with native patterns such as cactuses and narcissuses).

      Languages differ in their acceptance of loanwords. An alternative way of extending vocabulary to cope with new products is to create a descriptive compound from within one's own language. English “aircraft” and “aeroplane” are, respectively, examples of a native compound and a Greek loan creation for the same thing. English “potato” is a loan; French pomme de terre (literally, “apple of the earth”) is a descriptive compound. Chinese is particularly resistant to loans; “aircraft,” “railway,” and “telephone” are translated by newly formed compounds meaning literally “fly machine,” “fire vehicle,” and “lightning (electricity) language.”

Language and conceptualization
      The ability to speak and the ability to conceptualize (thought) are very closely linked, and the child learns both these skills together at the same time. This is not to say that thinking is no more than subvocal speech, as some behaviourists have proposed; most people can think pictorially and in simple diagrams, some to a greater degree than others, and one has the experience of responding rationally to external stimuli without intervening verbalization. But, as 18th-century thinkers saw, man's rationality developed and still goes hand in hand with his use of language, and a good deal of the flexibility of languages has been exploited in man's progressive understanding and conceptualizing of the world he lives in and of his relations with other men. Different cultures and different periods have seen this process differently developed. The anthropological linguist Edward Sapir (Sapir, Edward) put it well: “The ‘real world' is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group.”

      Much of this lies in the irrecoverable prehistory of languages. The idea that there are still some primitive, almost “fossil” languages, embodying a very low level of conceptualization, is a vain one. All that can be said is that languages are different and that, in part, the world is seen differently through the eyes of speakers of different languages. But, in some cases, part of the lexical adaptation of a language to developing thought patterns can be followed through. Ancient Greece saw a wholly unique growth and flowering of civilization in the 1st millennium BC, which has put virtually the entire civilized world in its debt ever since. In Greek, along with the emergence of certain abstract concepts and ways of thinking, one can follow some of the changes of word meanings and the coining of new words that accompanied this. As an example, the word dikē originally meant “way” or “manner”; thereafter, it acquired the meaning of the right way of doing something, the right way of behaving, and finally abstract right. Its derivative dikaiosynē, traditionally translated “justice,” became the subject of philosophical debate and analysis by the Greek philosophers and covered almost the whole range of moral obligation involved in the relations of one person with others in society. Similar debate and refinement of key terms in the various branches of thought covered by Greek philosophy can be followed through; indeed, the term philosophy is directly taken from Greek philosophia, a compound formed not later than the 5th century BC from philo- (compare philein “to love”) and sophia “wisdom” to refer to abstract speculation and debate of a fundamental nature about the world and man's place in it.

      More recently, the development of the lexical resources of the languages of civilization can be observed, in one way or another, as they keep up with the scientific progress that dominates contemporary life.

      An examination of the lexical structure of languages throws some light on the relations among various aspects of man's conceptualization. Spatial (space) relations and their expression seem to lie very deep in the content of vocabulary. Words referring to time are drawn metaphorically from spatial words with great frequency: “a long/short time,” “the near future,” “far ahead/separated in time.” Although time is a continuum, people readily divide it up into bits and record it rather as they do materials extended in space: “five years,” “three months,” “six seconds.” This last use of vocabulary may be a particular trait of European languages and some others. An American Indian language is reported not to do this nearly so readily; it uses cardinal numbers only for discrete, countable objects. A separate class of words aligns the vocabulary of sequential time with that of intensity, so that repetition of the same activity again and again (to a European) is rather the intensification of a single activity. Certain differences in cultural attitudes and world outlook are said to accompany this kind of linguistic difference.

      Spatial terms are also freely used in the expression of other, more abstract relationships: “higher temperature,” “higher quality,” “lower expectations,” “summit of a career,” “far removed from any sensible course of action,” “a distant relationship,” “close friends,” “over and above what had been said.” It has been theorized that the linguistic forms most closely associated semantically with the expression of relations—case inflections (inflection) in languages exhibiting this category—are originally and basically spatial in meaning. This “localist” theory, as it has been called, has been debated since the beginning of the 19th century and probably cannot be accepted as it stands, but the fact that it can be proposed and argued shows the dominant position that spatial relations hold in the conceptualization and verbalization of relations in other realms of thought.

      It has been maintained that the human brain has a preference for binary oppositions, or polarities. If this is so, it will help explain the numerous pairs of related antonyms that are found: “good, bad”; “hot, cold”; “high, low”; “right, wrong”; “dark, light”; and so on. For finer discriminations, these terms can be put into more narrowly specified fields containing more than two terms taken together, but their most general use is in binary contrasts. Here, however, one term seems to represent the fundamental semantic category in question. In asking about size, one asks “How big is it?”; about weight, “How heavy is it?”; and about evaluation, “How good is it?” It is possible to ask how small, how light, or how bad something is, but such questions presuppose that the thing in mind has already been graded on the small side, on the light side, or on the bad side.

      The capacity for conceptualization possessed and developed by languages is by no means the only purpose language serves. A person's speech, supplemented by facial expression and gesture when speaker and hearer are mutually in sight, indicates and is intended to indicate a great deal more than factual information, inquiries, and requests. The fact that some of these other functions are performed by parts of a language usually mastered later by foreign learners gives rise to misinterpretation and often makes foreign speakers appear rude or insensitive when they are, in actuality, simply deploying fewer resources in the language.

      Within the range of the structural and lexical possibilities of a language, speakers are able to convey their emotional attitudes and feelings toward the person or persons they are addressing and toward the subject matter of what they are saying. They are also able to conceal such feelings as one form of linguistic deception, though this is usually a harder task. These same resources are also exploited to arouse appropriate feelings and responses in others, again independently of any factual content. This is the chosen field of the propagandist, the preacher, the orator, the barrister, and the advertiser. All languages make use of intonation and voice qualities in these different ways; a person can produce and recognize the intonation and type of voice employed in coaxing, in pleading, in browbeating, and in threatening, in pleasure, and in anger, as well as those appropriate for matter-of-fact statements and the exposition of details about which the speaker has little or no emotional involvement. To describe exactly which phonetic features are brought into play is quite another matter, involving advanced competence in phonetic discrimination and analysis. This is one of the areas of speech about which all too little is currently known. Grammar and vocabulary are equally involved, though differently in each language. English speakers know the difference between “Come and give me a hand!” and “Could you possibly come and help me?”; “He's got the gift of gab” and “He is undoubtedly a fluent and persuasive speaker” are each appropriate for different occasions. By greetings and leave-takings a great deal of intended interpretation of the social relations between individuals can be expressed. Much of this is the “good manners” taught to children and expected of adults; these aspects of language behaviour vary from culture to culture, but in none are they wholly absent. It is, of course, equally possible to be deliberately bad mannered or deliberately to flout a linguistic convention or expectation, but this can be done only by knowing what is expected in the situation. The refinements of rudeness, like the refinements of politeness, insofar as the use of language is involved, require a very good knowledge of a language if it is other than one's mother tongue.

      Written language is no less adapted to conveying more than just factual information, asking factual questions, and giving instructions. Intonation and tone of voice are clearly not reproducible in existing orthographic systems, but part of the skill of a novelist or a reporter is to convey these features of speech in his descriptions. Additionally, grammatical and lexical choices are available to the writer, as reading the examples above will show, and everyone knows the special artistry and techniques involved in composing written memorandums or letters if they are to achieve precisely the purpose for which they are intended.

      These variations, written and spoken, within a language or within any dialect of a language, may be referred to as styles. Each time a person speaks or writes he does so in one or another style, deliberately chosen with the sort of considerations in mind that have just been mentioned, even though in speech the choice may often be routine. Sometimes style, especially in literature, is contrasted with “plain, everyday language.” In using such plain, unmarked types of speaking or writing, however, one is no less choosing a particular style, even though it is the most commonly used one and the most neutral in that it conveys and arouses the least emotional involvement or personal feelings.

      Stylistic differences are available to all mature native speakers and in literate communities to all writers, as well as to foreigners who know a second language really well. But there is undoubtedly a considerable range of skills in exploiting all the resources of a language, and, whereas all normal adults are expected to speak correctly and, if literate, to write correctly, communities have always recognized and usually respected certain individuals as preeminently skilled in particular styles, as orators, storytellers, preachers, poets, scribes, belletrists, and so forth. This is the material of literature. Once it is realized that oral literature (folk literature) is just as much literature as the more familiar written literature, it can be understood that there is no language devoid of its own literature.

      In all languages certain forms of utterance have been considered worthy of preservation, study, and cultivation. In writing, the nature of written surfaces makes this fairly easy, though not all written material is deliberately preserved; much of it is deliberately destroyed, and, although the chance survival of inscriptions on stone or clay is of the greatest value to the archaeologist and historian, a good deal of such material was never intended to survive. Literature, on the other hand, is essentially regarded as of permanent worth. Printing and, in earlier days, the copying of manuscripts are the means of preserving written literature. In illiterate communities certain persons memorize narratives, poems, songs, prayers, ritual texts, and the like, and these are passed on, with new creations in such styles, to succeeding generations. Such skills, preservative as well as creative, are likely to be lost along with much of the surrounding culture under the impact of literacy. Here, modern technology in the guise of the tape recorder has come to the rescue, and many workers in the field of unwritten languages are recording specimens of oral literatures with transcriptions and translations while speakers having the requisite knowledge and skills are still available. A great amount of such material, however, must have been irretrievably lost from illiterate cultures before the 20th century.

      All languages have a literature, but different types of literature flourish in different languages and in different cultures. A warrior caste or a general respect for martial prowess fosters heroic verse or prose tales; strongly developed magical and mystery cults favour ritualistic types of oral or written literature; urban yearnings for the supposed joys of country life encourage the development of pastoral (pastoral literature) poetry, itself an outgrowth of the songs of shepherds and rural workers; and the same sense of the jadedness of city life is the best ground for the cultivation of satirical verse and prose, a form of literature probably confined largely to urban civilizations. Every language has the resources to meet these and other cultural requirements in its literature as the occasions arise, but some literary forms are more deeply involved in the structure of the language itself; this is made clear by the relative difficulty of translating certain types of literature and literary styles from one language to another. Poetry, in particular, is closely bound to the structure of the language in which it is composed, and poetry is notoriously difficult to translate from one language into another.

      The special vocabularies and linguistic forms used in several games have already been mentioned. Here one may point to the widespread existence of verbal games themselves, based on the accidental features of a particular language. English-speaking children are accustomed to riddles, puns, and spelling games: “I spy with my little eye something beginning with p” (notice the regular formula with which this opens). These and similar word games have been found all over the world. Homer records the punning (pun) use by Odysseus of No-man (Greek Outis) as his name when he was about to attack Cyclops, who then roared out “No-man is killing me!” and so failed to attract any help (Odyssey 9:366–408). In some languages that make use of lexically distinctive tones, tone puns (words alike but for having different tones) are a form of word play.

      As an intellectual challenge, the crossword puzzle in all its varieties, originally an American development early in the 20th century, has maintained and indeed greatly increased its popularity over much of the literate world that employs the Latin (Roman) alphabet. Crossword-puzzle solvers rely heavily on the relative probabilities of letter sequences in written words to suggest an answer to a partly filled line; and, depending on the particular style of the originator, crossword clues make use of many sorts of formal features in the language, among them spelling puns, spoken puns, and accidental letter sequences in words and phrases. To be able to solve a crossword puzzle in a second language shows a high degree of skill and knowledge therein.

Language and culture
      It has been seen that language is much more than the external expression and communication of internal thoughts formulated independently of their verbalization. In demonstrating the inadequacy and inappropriateness of such a view of language, attention has already been drawn to the ways in which one's mother tongue is intimately and in all sorts of details related to the rest of one's life in a community and to smaller groups within that community. This is true of all peoples and all languages; it is a universal fact about language.

      Anthropologists speak of the relations between language and culture. It is, indeed, more in accordance with reality to consider language as a part of culture. “Culture” is here being used, as it is throughout this article, in the anthropological sense, to refer to all aspects of human life insofar as they are determined or conditioned by membership in a society. The fact that a man eats or drinks is not in itself cultural; it is a biological necessity that he does so for the preservation of life. That he eats particular foods and refrains from eating other substances, though they may be perfectly edible and nourishing, and that he eats and drinks at particular times of day and in certain places are matters of culture, something “acquired by man as a member of society,” according to the now-classic definition of culture by the English anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett). As thus defined and envisaged, culture covers a very wide area of human life and behaviour; and language is manifestly a part, probably the most important part, of it.

      Although the faculty of language acquisition and language use is innate and inherited, and there is legitimate debate over the extent of this innateness, every individual's language is “acquired by man as a member of society,” along with and at the same time as other aspects of that society's culture in which he is brought up. Society and language are mutually indispensable. Language can have developed only in a social setting, however this may have been structured, and human society in any form even remotely resembling what is known today or is recorded in history could be maintained only among people speaking and understanding a language in common use.

Transmission of language and culture
      Language is transmitted culturally; that is, it is learned. To a lesser extent it is taught, when parents deliberately encourage their children to talk and to respond to talk, correct their mistakes, and enlarge their vocabulary. But it must be emphasized that children very largely acquire their mother tongue (i.e., their first language) by “grammar construction” from exposure to a random collection of utterances that they encounter. What is classed as language teaching in school either relates to second-language acquisition or, insofar as it concerns the pupils' first language, is in the main directed at reading and writing, the study of literature, formal grammar, and alleged standards of correctness, which may not be those of all the pupils' regional or social dialects. All of what goes under the title of language teaching at school presupposes and relies on the prior knowledge of a first language in its basic vocabulary and essential structure, acquired before school age.

      If language is transmitted as part of culture, it is no less true that culture as a whole is transmitted very largely through language, insofar as it is explicitly taught. The fact that mankind has a history in the sense that animals do not is entirely the result of language. So far as researchers can tell, animals learn (animal learning) through spontaneous imitation or through imitation taught by other animals. This does not exclude the performance of quite complex and substantial pieces of cooperative physical work, such as a beaver's dam or an ants' nest, nor does it preclude the intricate social organization of some species, such as bees. But it does mean that changes in organization and work will be the gradual result of mutation cumulatively reinforced by survival value; those groups whose behaviour altered in any way that increased their security from predators or from famine would survive in greater numbers than others. This would be an extremely slow process, comparable to the evolution of the different species themselves.

      There is no reason to believe that animal behaviour has materially altered during the period available for the study of human history, say the last 5,000 years or so, except, of course, when man's intervention by domestication or other forms of interference has itself brought about such alterations. Nor do members of the same species differ markedly in behaviour over widely scattered areas, again apart from differences resulting from human interference. Bird songs are reported to differ somewhat from place to place within species, but there is little other evidence for areal divergence. By contrast with this unity of animal behaviour, human cultures are as divergent as are human languages over the world, and they can and do change all the time, sometimes with great rapidity, as among the industrialized nations of the 20th century.

      The processes of linguistic change and its consequences will be treated below. Here, cultural change in general and its relation to language will be considered. By far the greatest part of learned behaviour, which is what culture involves, is transmitted by vocal instruction, not by imitation. Some imitation is clearly involved, especially in infancy, in the learning process, but proportionately this is hardly significant.

      Through the use of language, any skills, techniques, products, modes of social control, and so on can be explained, and the end results of anyone's inventiveness can be made available to anyone else with the intellectual ability to grasp what is being said. Spoken language alone would thus vastly extend the amount of usable information in any human community and speed up the acquisition of new skills and the adaptation of techniques to changed circumstances or new environments. With the invention and diffusion of writing, this process widened immediately, and the relative permanence of writing made the diffusion of information still easier. Printing and the increase in literacy only further intensified this process. Modern techniques for almost instantaneous transmission of the written and spoken word all over the globe, together with the rapid translation services now available between the major languages of the world, have made it possible for usable knowledge of all sorts to be made accessible to people almost anywhere in the world in a very short time. This accounts for the great rapidity of scientific, technological, political, and social change in the contemporary world. All of this, whether ultimately for the good or ill of mankind, must be attributed to the dominant role of language in the transmission of culture.

Language and social differentiation and assimilation
      The part played by variations within a language in differentiating social and occupational groups in a society has already been referred to above. In language transmission this tends to be self-perpetuating unless deliberately interfered with. Children are in general brought up within the social group to which their parents and immediate family circle belong, and they learn the dialect and speaking styles of that group along with the rest of the subculture and behavioral traits and attitudes that are characteristic of it. This is a largely unconscious and involuntary process of acculturation, but the importance of the linguistic manifestations of social status and of social hierarchies is not lost on aspirants for personal advancement in stratified societies. The deliberate cultivation of an appropriate dialect, in its lexical, grammatical, and phonetic features, has been the self-imposed task of many persons wishing “to better themselves” and the butt of unkind ridicule on the part of persons already feeling themselves secure in their social status or unwilling to attempt any change in it. Much of the comedy in George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion turns on Eliza's need to unlearn her native Cockney if she is to rise in the social scale. Conversely, it is readily apparent today that middle class people, mostly adolescents, who for some reason want to “opt out” of the social group of their parents make every effort to abandon the distinctive aspects of the social dialect that would mark them, along with dress and general behaviour, as members of a group whose mores they are, at least temporarily, affecting to reject. Culturally and subculturally determined taboos (taboo) play a part in all this, and persons desirous of moving up or down in the social scale have to learn what words to use and what words to avoid if they are to be accepted and to “belong” in their new position. All through the ages, a good part of the material for “comedies of manners” has come from the social role of language variation within a society.

      The same considerations apply to changing one's language as to changing one's dialect. Language changing is harder for the individual and is generally a rarer occurrence, but it is likely to be widespread in any mass immigration movement. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the eagerness with which immigrants and the children of immigrants from continental Europe living in the United States learned and insisted on speaking English is an illustration of their realization that English was the linguistic badge of full membership in their new homeland at the time when the country was proud to consider itself as the melting pot in which people of diverse linguistic and cultural origins would become citizens of a unified community.

      The same sort of self-perpetuation, in the absence of deliberate rejection, operates in the special languages of games (sports) and of trades and professions (these are in the main concerned with special vocabularies). Game learners, apprentices, and professional students learn the locutions together with the rest of the game or the job. The specific words and phrases occur in the teaching process and are observed in use, and the novice is only too eager to display an easy competence with such phraseology as a mark of his full membership of the group; e.g., golfers are keen to talk of birdies, fairways, and slicing.

      Languages and variations within languages play both a unifying and a diversifying role in human society as a whole. Language is a part of culture, but culture is a complex totality containing many different features, and the boundaries between cultural features are not clear-cut, nor do they all coincide. Physical barriers such as oceans, high mountains, and wide rivers constitute impediments to human intercourse and to culture contacts, though modern technology in the fields of travel and communications make such geographical factors of less and less account. More potent for much of the 20th century were political restrictions on the movement of people and of ideas, such as divided western Europe from formerly Communist eastern Europe; the frontiers between these two political blocs represented much more of a cultural dividing line than any other European frontiers.

      The distribution of the various components of cultures differs, and the distribution of languages may differ from that of nonlinguistic cultural features. This results from the varying ease and rapidity with which changes may be acquired or enforced and from the historical circumstances responsible for these changes. In mid- to late-20th-century Europe, as the result of World War II, a major political and cultural division had cut across an area of relative linguistic unity in East and West Germany (German language). It is significant, however, that differences of vocabulary and usage were soon noticeable in the German speech from each side, overlying earlier differences attributed to regional dialects; although the two countries were unified in 1990, the east-west division may have marked a definite dialect boundary within the German language as well.

The control of language for cultural ends
Second-language learning
      Language, no less than other aspects of human behaviour, is subject to purposive interference. When people with different languages need to communicate, various expedients are open to them, the most obvious being second-language learning and teaching. This takes time, effort, and organization, and, when more than two languages are involved, the time and effort are that much greater. Most people are monolingual, and those with a working knowledge of three or four languages are much fewer than those with a competence in just one second language. Other expedients may also be applied. Ad hoc pidgins for the restricted purposes of trade and administration were mentioned above. Tacit or deliberate agreements have been reached whereby one language is chosen for international purposes when speakers of several different languages are involved. In the Roman Empire, broadly, the western half used Latin as a lingua franca, and the eastern half used Greek. In western Europe during the Middle Ages, Latin continued as the international language of educated people, and Latin was the second language taught in schools. Later, the cultural, diplomatic, and military reputation of France made French (French language) the language of European diplomacy. This use of French as the language of international relations persisted until the 20th century. At important conferences among representatives of different nations, it is usually agreed which languages shall be officially recognized for registering the decisions reached; and the provisions of treaties are interpreted in the light of texts in a limited number of languages, those of the major participants.

      Since World War II the dominance of the English-speaking peoples in science and technology and in international commerce has led to the recognition of English as the major international language in the world of practical affairs, with more and more countries making English the first foreign language to be taught and thus producing a vast expansion of English-language-teaching programs all over the world. Those whose native language is English do not sufficiently realize the amount of effort, by teacher and learner alike, that is put into the acquisition of a working knowledge of English by educated first speakers of other languages.

      As an alternative to the recognition of particular natural languages as international in status, attempts have been made to invent and propagate new and genuinely international languages, devised for the purpose. Of these, Esperanto, invented by the Polish-Russian doctor L.L. Zamenhof (Zamenhof, L.L.) in the 19th century, is the best known. Such languages are generally built up from parts of the vocabulary and grammatical apparatus of the better known existing languages of the world. The relationship between the written letter and its pronunciation is more systematic than with many existing orthographies (English spelling is notoriously unreliable as an indication of pronunciation), and care is taken to avoid the grammatical irregularities to which all natural languages are subject and also to avoid sounds found difficult by many speakers (e.g., the English th sounds, which most Europeans, apart from English speakers, dislike). These artificial languages have not made much progress, though an international society of Esperanto speakers does exist.

Nationalistic (nationalism) influences on language
      Deliberate interference with the natural course of linguistic changes and the distribution of languages is not confined to the facilitating of international intercourse and cooperation. Language as a cohesive force for nation-states and for linguistic groups within nation-states has for long been manipulated for political ends. Multilingual states can exist and prosper; Switzerland is a good example. But linguistic rivalry and strife can be disruptive. Language riots have occurred in Belgium between French and Flemish speakers and in parts of India between rival vernacular communities. A language can become or be made a focus of loyalty for a minority community that thinks itself suppressed, persecuted, or subjected to discrimination. The French language in Canada (Quebec) in the mid-20th century is an example. In the 19th and early 20th centuries Gaelic (Irish language), or Irish, came to symbolize Irish patriotism and Irish independence from Great Britain. Since independence, government policy continues to insist on the equal status of English and Irish in public notices and official documents, but, despite such encouragement and the official teaching of Irish in the state schools, a main motivation for its use and study has disappeared, and the language is giving ground to English under the international pressures referred to above.

      For the same reasons, a language may be a target for attack or suppression, if the authorities associate it with what they consider a disaffected or rebellious group or even just a culturally inferior one. There have been periods when American Indian (American Indian languages) children were forbidden to speak a language other than English at school and when pupils were not allowed to speak Welsh (Welsh language) in British state schools in Wales. Both these prohibitions have been abandoned. Since the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s Basque (Basque language) speakers have been discouraged from using their language in public, as a consequence of the strong support given by the Basques to the republican forces. Interestingly, on the other side of the Franco-Spanish frontier, French Basques are positively encouraged to keep their language in use, if only as an object of touristic interest and consequent economic benefit to the area.

      So far, some of the relatively large-scale effects of culture contacts on languages and on dialects within languages have been surveyed. A continuous concomitant of contact between two mutually incomprehensible tongues and one that does not lead either to suppression or extension of either is translation. As soon as two speakers of different languages need to converse, translation is necessary, either through a third party or directly.

      Before the invention and diffusion of writing, translation was instantaneous and oral; persons professionally specializing in such work were called interpreters. In predominantly or wholly literate communities, translation is thought of as the conversion of a written text in one language into a written text in another, though the modern emergence of the simultaneous translator or professional interpreter at international conferences keeps the oral side of translation very much alive.

      The tasks of the translator are the same whether the material is oral or written, but, of course, translation between written texts allows more time for stylistic adjustment and technical expertise. The main problems have been recognized since antiquity and were expressed by St. Jerome (Jerome, Saint), translator of the famed Latin Bible, the Vulgate, from the Hebrew and Greek originals. Semantically, these problems relate to the adjustment of the literal and the literary and the conflicts that so often occur between an exact translation of each word, as far as this is possible, and the production of a whole sentence or even a whole text that conveys as much of the meaning of the original as can be managed. These problems and conflicts arise because of factors already noticed in the use and functioning of language: languages do not operate in isolation but within and as part of cultures, and cultures differ from each other in various ways. Even between the languages of communities whose cultures are fairly closely allied, there is by no means a one-to-one relation of exact lexical equivalence between the items of their vocabularies.

      In their lexical meanings, words acquire various overtones and associations that are not shared by the nearest corresponding words in other languages; this may vitiate a literal translation. The English author and theologian Ronald Knox (Knox, Ronald) has pointed to the historical connections of the Greek skandalon “stumbling block, trap, or snare,” inadequately rendered by “offense,” its usual New Testament translation. In modern times translators of the Bible into the languages of peoples culturally remote from Europe are well aware of the difficulties of finding a lexical equivalent for “lamb,” when the intended readers, even if they have seen sheep and lambs, have no tradition of blood sacrifice for expiation nor long-hallowed associations of lambs with lovableness, innocence, and apparent helplessness. The English word uncle has, for various reasons, a cozy and slightly comic set of associations. The Latin poet Virgil uses the words avunculus Hector in a solemn heroic passage of the Aeneid (Book III, line 343); to translate this by “uncle Hector” gives an entirely unsuitable flavour to the text.

      The translation of poetry, especially into poetry, presents very special difficulties, and the better the original poem, the harder the translator's task. This is because poetry is, in the first instance, carefully contrived to express exactly what the poet wants to say. Second, to achieve this end, the poet calls forth all the resources of the language in which he is writing, matching the choice of words, the order of words, and grammatical constructions, as well as phonological features peculiar to the language in metre, perhaps supplemented by rhyme, assonance, and alliteration. The available resources differ from language to language; English and German rely on stress-marked metres, but Latin and Greek used quantitative metres, contrasting long and short syllables, while French places approximately equal stress and length on each syllable. The translator must try to match the stylistic exploitation of the particular resources in the original language with comparable resources from his own. Because lexical, grammatical, and metrical considerations are all interrelated and interwoven in poetry, a satisfactory literary translation is usually very far from a literal word for word rendering. The more the poet relies on language form, the more embedded his verses are in that particular language, and the harder they are to translate adequately. This is especially true with lyrical (lyric) poetry in several languages, with its wordplay, complex rhymes, and frequent assonances.

      At the other end of the translator's spectrum, technical prose dealing with internationally agreed scientific subjects is probably the easiest type of material to translate, because cultural unification (in this respect), lexical correspondences, and stylistic similarity already exist in this type of usage in the languages most commonly involved, to a higher degree than in other fields of discourse.

      Significantly, it is this last aspect of translation to which mechanical and computerized techniques (computational linguistics) are being applied with some prospects of limited success. Machine translation, whereby, ultimately, a text in one language could be fed into a machine to produce an accurate translation in another language without further human intervention, has been largely concentrated on the language of science and technology, with its restricted vocabulary and overall likeness of style, for both linguistic and economic reasons. Attempts at machine translation of literature have been made, but success in this field, more especially in the translation of poetry, seems very remote at present.

      Translation on the whole is an art, not a science. Guidance can be given and general principles can be taught, but after that it must be left to the individual's own feeling for the two languages concerned. Almost inevitably, in a translation of a work of literature something of the author's original intent must be lost; in those cases in which the translation is said to be a better work than the original, an opinion sometimes expressed about the English writer Edward Fitzgerald's (FitzGerald, Edward) “translation” of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, one is dealing with a new, though derived, work, not just a translation. The Italian epigram remains justified: Traduttore traditore “The translator is a traitor.”

Messages and codes (cryptology)
      Translation serves to extend the communicative value of a text. Sometimes people want to restrict it. Confidential messages, spoken and written, require for their efficacy that they be known to and understood by only the single person or the few persons to whom they are addressed. Such are diplomatic exchanges, operational messages in wartime, and some transmissions of commercial information. Protection of written messages from interception has been practiced for many centuries. Recent developments in telegraphy and telephony (telephone) have made protection against unauthorized reception more urgent, whether of texts transmitted as speech or as series of letters of the alphabet. Scrambling of telephony is a common expedient; the wave frequencies through which the sounds are to be transmitted are altered at the source so as to be unrecognizable and then reconverted by the intended recipient's receiver. Codes and ciphers (cryptography) are of much longer standing in the concealment of written messages, though their techniques are being constantly developed. Such gains are, of course, countered by developments in the techniques of decipherment and decoding (as distinct from getting hold of the key to the system in use). An important by-product of such techniques has been the reading and interpretation of inscriptions written in otherwise unknown languages or unknown writing systems for which no translation exists. The recent, very significant decipherment of the Linear B script and its recognition as Mycenaean Greek, an early Greek dialect written in a form of orthography quite distinct from the later classical Greek alphabet, was first achieved by the application of cryptographic “code cracking” methods (see also cryptology).

Language learning
      Every physiologically and mentally normal person has learned the main structure and basic vocabulary of his mother tongue by the end of childhood. It has been pointed out that the process of first-language acquisition as a spoken medium of communication is largely achieved from random exposure. There is legitimate controversy, however, over the nature and extent of the positive contribution that the human brain brings to the activity of grammar construction, the activity by which the child develops an indefinitely creative competence from the finite data that make up his actual experience of the language. creativity is what must be stressed as the product of first-language acquisition. By far the greater number of all the sentences anyone hears and utters during his lifetime are new; that is, they have not occurred before in his personal experience. But individuals find no difficulty at all in understanding at once almost everything they hear nor for the most part in producing sentences to suit the requirements of every situation. This very ease of creativity in man's linguistic competence makes it hard to realize its extent. The only regularly reproduced sentences in most speakers' experience are the stereotyped forms of greeting and leave-taking and certain formalized responses to recurrent situations, such as shopping, cooperative activities in repetitive jobs, the stylized parts of church services, and the like.

      Yet, despite this really immense achievement that the progressive mastery of one's first language constitutes, it arouses no comment and attracts no credit. It is simply part of what is expected of one in growing up. Different people may be singled out for praise in certain uses of their language, as good public speakers, authors, poets, tellers of tales, and solvers of puzzles, but not just as speakers. The credit that some individuals acquire in certain communities for “speaking correctly” is a different matter, usually the result of speaking as one's mother tongue a prestigious standard dialect among people most of whom speak another, less favoured one.

      The learning of a second and of any subsequently acquired language is quite a different matter. Except for one form of bilingualism (see below), it is a deliberate activity undertaken when one has already nearly or fully acquired the basic structure and vocabulary of one's first language. Of course, many people never do master significantly more than their own first language. It is only in encountering a second language that one realizes how complex language is and how much effort must be devoted to subsequent acquisition. It has been said that the principal obstacle to learning a language is knowing one already, and it may also be that the faculty of grammar construction exhibited in childhood is one that is gradually lost as childhood recedes.

      Whereas every normal person masters his mother tongue with unconscious ease, people vary in their ability to learn additional languages, just as they vary in other intellectual activities. Situational motivation, however, appears to be by far the strongest influence on the speed and apparent ease of this learning. The greatest difficulty is experienced by those who learn because they are told to or are expected to, without supporting reasons that they can justify. Given a motive other than external compulsion or expectation, the task is achieved much more easily (this, of course, is an observation in no way confined to language learning). In Welsh schools it is found that English children make slower progress in Welsh when their only apparent reason for learning Welsh is that there are Welsh classes. Welsh children, on the other hand, make rapid progress in English, the language of most further education, the newspapers, most television and radio, most of the better paid jobs, and of any job outside Welsh-speaking areas. Similar differences in motivation have accounted for the excellent standardof English, French, and German acquired by educated persons in the Scandinavian countries and in Holland, small countries whose languages, being spoken by relatively few foreigners, are of little use in international communication. This attainment may be compared with the much poorer showing in second-language acquisition among comparably educated persons in England and America, who have for long been able to rely on foreigners accommodating to their ignorance by speaking and understanding English.

      It is often held that children brought up bilingually in places in which two languages are regularly in use are slower in schoolwork than comparable monolingual children, as a greater amount of mental effort has to be expended in the mastery of two languages. This is by no means proved; and, because much of a child's language acquisition takes place in infancy and in the preschool years, it does not represent an effort in the way that consciously learning a language in school does, and indeed it probably occupies a separate part of the child's mental equipment. The question of speed of general learning by bilinguals and monolinguals must be left open. It is quite a separate matter from the job of learning, by teaching at home or in school, to read and write in two languages; this undoubtedly is more of a labour than the acquisition of monolingual literacy.

      Two types of bilingualism have been distinguished, according to whether the two languages were acquired from the simultaneous experience of the use of both in the same circumstances and settings or from exposure to each language used in different settings (an example of the latter is the experience of English children living in India during the period of British ascendancy there, learning English from their parents and an Indian language from their nurses and family servants). However acquired, bilingualism leads to mutual interference between the two languages; extensive bilingualism within a community is sometimes held partly responsible for linguistic change (see below). Interference may take place in pronunciation, in grammar, and in the meanings of words. Bilinguals often speak their two languages each with “an accent”; i.e., they carry into each certain pronunciation features from the other. The German word order in “He comes tomorrow home” has been reported as an example of grammatical interference; and in Candian French the verb introduire has acquired from English the additional meaning “introduce, make acquainted” (which in metropolitan French is présenter).

      The acquisition of literacy is something very different from the acquisition of one's spoken mother tongue, even when the same language is involved, as it usually is. Both skills, speaking and writing, are learned skills, but there the resemblance ends. The child learns his first language at the start involuntarily and mostly unconsciously from random exposure, even if no attempts at teaching are made. Literacy is deliberately taught and consciously and deliberately learned. There is current debate on the best methods and techniques for teaching literacy in various social and linguistic settings. Literacy is learned through speech, by a person already possessed of the basic structure and vocabulary of his language.

      Such facts should be very obvious, but the now-accepted, though fairly recent, standard of near-universal literacy in technologically advanced countries, along with the fact that in second-language learning one usually acquires speech and writing skills at the same time, tends to bring these two parts of language learning under one head. Literacy is manifestly a desirable attainment for all communities, though not necessarily in all languages. It must be borne in mind that there are many distinct languages spoken in the world today by fewer than 1,000 or 500 or even 50 persons. The capital investment in literacy, including teaching resources, teacher time and training, printing, publications, and so forth, is vast, and it can be economically and socially justified only when applied to languages spoken and likely to continue to be spoken by substantial numbers over a wide area.

      Literacy is in no way necessary for the maintenance of linguistic structure or vocabulary, though it does enable people to add words from the common written stock in dictionaries to their personal vocabulary very easily. It is worth emphasizing that until relatively recently in human history all languages were spoken by illiterate speakers and that there is no essential difference as regards pronunciation, structure, and complexity of vocabulary between spoken languages that have writing systems used by all or nearly all their speakers and the languages of illiterate communities.

      Literacy has many effects on the uses to which language may be put; storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information are greatly facilitated, and some uses of language, such as philosophical system building and the keeping of detailed historical records, would scarcely be possible in a totally illiterate community. In these respects the lexical content of a language is affected, for example, by the creation of sets of technical terms for philosophical writing and debate. Because the permanence of writing overcomes the limitations of auditory memory span imposed on speech, sentences of greater length can easily occur in writing, especially in types of written language that are not normally read aloud and that do not directly represent what would be spoken. An examination of some kinds of oral literature, however, reveals the ability of the human brain to receive and interpret spoken sentences of considerable grammatical complexity.

      In relation to pronunciation, writing does not prevent the historical changes that occur in all languages. Part of the apparent irrationality of English spelling, such as is found also in some other orthographies, lies just in the fact that letter sequences have remained constant while the sounds represented by them have changed. For example, the gh of “light” once stood for a consonant sound, as it still does in the word as pronounced in some Scots dialects; and the k of “knave” and “knight” likewise stood for an initial k sound (compare the related German words Knabe and Knecht). A few relatively uncommon words, including some proper names, are reformed phonetically, specifically to bring their pronunciation more in line with their spelling. Spelling prounciations, as these are called, are a product of general literacy. In London, the pronunciation of “St. Mary Axe” as if it were spelled “Simmery Axe” is now decidedly old-fashioned. “St. John” and “St. Clair” survive as proper names with their old pronunciations, in the latter case helped by the presence of the alternative spelling “Sinclair.”

      For additional discussion, see the article writing: Literacy: The uses of writing (writing).

Written language (writing)
      Historically, culturally, and in the individual's life, writing is subsequent to speech and presupposes it. Aristotle expressed the relation thus: “Speech is the representation of the experiences of the mind, and writing is the representation of speech” (On Interpretation). But it is not as simple as this would suggest. Alphabetic writing, in which, broadly, consonant and vowel sounds are indicated by letters in sequence, is the most widespread system in use today, and it is the means by which literacy will be disseminated, but it is not the only system, nor is it the earliest.

Evolution of writing systems
      Writing appears to have been evolved from an extension of picture signs (pictography): signs that directly and iconically represented some thing or action and then the word that bore that meaning. Other words or word elements not readily represented pictorially could be assigned picture signs already standing for a word of the same or nearly the same pronunciation, perhaps with some additional mark to keep the two signs apart. This sort of device is used in children's word puzzles, as when the picture of a berry is used to represent, say, the second half of the name Canterbury. This opens the way for what is called a character script, such as that of Chinese (Chinese languages), in which each word is graphically represented by a separate individual symbol or character or by a sequence of two or more such characters. Writing systems of this sort have appeared independently in different parts of the world.

      Chinese character writing has for many centuries been stylized, but it still bears marks of the pictorial origin of some characters. Chinese characters and the characters of similar writing systems are sometimes called ideograms, as if they directly represented thoughts or ideas. This is not so. Chinese characters stand for Chinese words or, particularly as in modern Chinese, bits of words; they are the symbolization of a particular language, not a potentially universal representation of thought. The ampersand (&) sign, standing for “and” in English printing, is a good isolated example of a character used in an alphabetic writing system.

      Character writing is laborious to learn and imposes a burden on the memory. Alternatives to it, in addition to alphabetic writing, include scripts that employ separate symbols for the syllable sequences of consonants and vowels in a language, with graphic devices to indicate consonants not followed by a vowel. The Devanagari (Devanāgarī) script, in which classical Sanskrit and modern Hindi are written, is of this type, and the Mycenaean writing system, a form of Greek writing in use in the 2nd millennium BC and quite independent of the later Greek alphabet, was syllabic in structure. Japanese (Japanese language) employs a mixed system, broadly representing the roots of words by Chinese characters (the Japanese learned writing from the Chinese in and after the 5th century AD) and the inflectional endings by syllable signs. These syllable signs are an illustration of the way in which a syllabic script can develop from a character script: certain Chinese characters were selected for their sound values alone and, reduced in size and complexity, have been standardized as signs of a particular consonant and vowel sequence or of a single vowel sound.

      The Greek alphabet came from the Phoenician (Phoenician alphabet) script, a syllabic-type writing system that indicated the consonant sounds. By a stroke of genius, a Greek community decided to employ certain consonantal signs to which no consonant sound corresponded in Greek as independent vowel signs, thus producing an alphabet, a set of letters standing for consonants and vowels. The Greek alphabet spread over the ancient Greek world, undergoing minor changes. From a Western version sprang the Latin (Latin alphabet) (Roman) alphabet. Also derived from the Greek alphabet, the Cyrillic alphabet was devised in the 9th century AD by a Greek missionary, St. Cyril, for writing the Slavic languages.

      Alphabetic writing is not and cannot be an exact representation of the sequence of sounds or even of the sequence of distinctive sounds in the spoken forms of words and sentences. “Consonant” and “vowel” mean different things when applied to letters and to sounds, though there is, of course, much overlap. The y at the beginning of “yet” stands for a consonant sound; at the end of “jetty” it stands for a vowel sound. In “thick” and “thin” the sequence th represents a single sound, not a t sound followed by an h sound. In “kite” the e represents no sound directly but distinguishes the vowel between k and t from the vowel in “kit.” These disharmonies arise from a number of causes. Economy in the use of letters is one factor. In addition, spoken forms are always changing over the centuries, whereas writing, particularly since the invention of printing, is very conservative. At one time the e at the end of words such as “kite” did stand for a vowel sound. This sound was lost between the 14th and 16th centuries, a time when other changes in the pronunciation of such words also occurred. The notorious ough spellings in English, standing for different sounds and sound sequences in “rough,” “cough,” “dough,” “plough,” “ought,” and other such words, have arisen from historical changes that have driven spelling and pronunciation further apart.

      This, of course, does not mean that spelling reforms are out of the question. Spelling reform has been talked of in relation to English for many centuries without much effect; but in some countries—for example, Norway and Holland—official action has prescribed certain reforms to be made, and these have then been taught in school and have gradually found their way into printed works. The sheer volume of printed matter preserved for use and consultation in the modern world adds much weight against the convenience otherwise accruing from reforms designed to correct the historically produced disharmonies between spelling and pronunciation.

      Moreover, it is not always most useful for spellings to represent exactly the sound sequences in a word and nothing else; this is the task for which phoneticians have devised transcriptions. As far as the sounds themselves are concerned, the plural signs of “cats,” “dogs,” and “horses” are different: the final sound of “cats” is like the initial sound of “sink,” that of “dogs” like the initial sound of “zinc,” and the plural of “horse” is indicated by a sound sequence rather like that in “is.” But they are all indicated in writing by one and the same letter and always have been, because only one grammatical distinction, that of singular as against plural, is involved, and at this point in the language the actual differences in the sounds, important elsewhere, are irrelevant.

      Letters, insofar as they stand for sounds, stand for consonants and vowels. But other sound features are involved in languages. In English words the location of the stress is important, and the words “import” as a noun and “import” as a verb are distinguished by this alone. All languages make use of sequences of rises and falls in pitch, called intonation, as part of spoken communication. These phenomena are unrepresented in orthography except for certain punctuation marks such as ? and ! and sometimes by italicization and underlining.

      This is not a weakness in orthography. Writing is normally intended to be read and when necessary read aloud by people who already know the language and are therefore able to supply from their own competence the required detail. For specific purposes such as foreign-language teaching, as well as for the specific study of pronunciation and speech sounds in phonetics and phonology, various forms of transcription have been devised to indicate unambiguously by written signs the precise form of the spoken utterance, without regard to other considerations.

Written versus spoken languages
      For these reasons one should distinguish the grammar of a written language (e.g., written English) from the grammar of the corresponding spoken language (spoken English). The two grammars will be very similar, and they will overlap in most places; but the description of spoken English will have to take into account the grammatical uses of features such as intonation, largely unrepresented in writing, and the description of written English must deal adequately with the greater average length of sentences and some different syntactic constructions and word forms characterizing certain written styles but almost unknown in ordinary speech (e.g., “whom” as the objective form of “who”).

      In studying ancient (dead) languages one is, of course, limited to studying the grammar of their written forms and styles, as their written records alone survive. Such is the case with Latin, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit (Latin lives as a spoken language in very restricted situations, such as the official language of some closed religious communities, but this is not the same sort of Latin as that studied in classical Latin literature; Sanskrit survives also as a spoken language in similarly restricted situations in a few places in India). Scholars may be able to reconstruct something of the pronunciation of a dead language from historical inferences and from descriptions of its pronunciation by authors writing when the language was still spoken. They know a good deal about the pronunciation of Greek and Latin and a great deal about the pronunciation of Sanskrit, because ancient Indian scholars left a collection of extremely detailed and systematic literature on its pronunciation. But this does not alter the fact that when one teaches and learns dead languages today, largely for their literary value and because of the place of the communities formerly speaking them in our own cultural history, one is teaching and learning the grammar of their written forms. Indeed, despite what is known about the actual pronunciation of Greek and Latin, Europeans on the whole pronounce what they read in terms of the pronunciation patterns of their own languages.

      Under present conditions, with universal literacy either an accepted fact or an accepted target, it is assumed that, wherever it is convenient or useful, writing may be employed for any purpose for which speech might have been used and by all sections of the community. This has not always been so. Literacy was until the 19th century the privilege of the few. In other periods and cultures, writing was the preserve of certain defined groups, such as the priesthood and the official class, and it was restricted to certain purposes, such as the annals of important events, genealogical tables, and records of inventories of things and persons. It is highly probable that writing first developed for particular types of use by particular groups of specialists within communities and subsequently, because of its obvious utility, spread outside these limits.

      For further accounts of writing systems in greater detail, see writing.

Linguistic change
      Every language has a history; and, as in the rest of human culture, changes are constantly taking place in the course of the learned transmission of a language from one generation to another. This is just part of the differences between human culture and animal behaviour. Languages change in all their aspects, in their pronunciation, word forms, syntax, and word meanings (semantic change). These changes are mostly very gradual in their operation, becoming noticeable only cumulatively over the course of several generations. But, in some areas of vocabulary, particular words closely related to rapid cultural change are subject to equally rapid and therefore noticeable changes within a generation or even within a decade. In the 20th century the vocabulary of science and technology is an outstanding example. The same is also true of those parts of vocabulary that are involved in fashionable slangs and jargons, whose raison d'être in promoting group, particularly age-group, solidarity depends on their being always fresh and distinctive. Old slangs date, as any reading of a novel or visit to a film more than 10 years old is apt to show. The rapid obsolescence of young people's slangs is equally to be seen in the unsuccessful efforts of some well-intentioned older persons who vainly attempt to cultivate the speech styles of present-day youth groups in a misdirected attempt to bridge “the generation gap” (this last phrase is an example of mid-20th-century pseudoscientific slang).

Diversification of languages
Changes through time
      In the structural aspects of language, their pronunciation and grammar, and in vocabulary less closely involved in rapid cultural movement, the processes of linguistic change are best observed by comparing written records of a language over extended periods. This is most readily seen by English speakers through setting side by side present-day English texts with 18th-century English, the English of the Authorized Version of the Bible, Shakespearean English, Chaucer's English, and the varieties of Old English (Anglo-Saxon) that survive in written form. Noticeably, as one goes back in time, the effort required in understanding increases, and, while people do not hesitate to speak of “Shakespearean English,” they are more doubtful about Chaucer, and for the most part Old English texts are as unintelligible to a modern English speaker as, for example, texts in German. It is clear that the differences involved include word meanings, grammar, and, so far as this can be reconstructed, pronunciation.

      Similar evidence, together with what is known of the cultural history of the peoples concerned, makes clear the continuous historical connections linking French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian with the spoken (“vulgar”) Latin of the western Roman Empire. This group constitutes the Romance subfamily of languages and is an example of how, as the result of linguistic change over a wide area, a group of distinct, though historically related, languages comes into being.

      In the transmission of a language from parent to child, slight deviations in all aspects of language use occur all the time, and as the child's speech contacts widen he confronts a growing range of slight differences in personal speech forms, some of them correlating with social or regional differences within a community, these speech differences themselves being the results of the transmission process. As a consequence, the child's speech comes to differ slightly from that of his parents' generation. In urbanized communities an additional factor is involved: children have been shown to be effectively influenced by the speech habits of their peer groups once they have made contacts with them in and out of school.

      Such changes, though slight at the time, are progressively cumulative. Since ready intercommunication is a primary purpose of language, as long as a community remains unitary, with strong central direction and a central cultural focus, such changes will not go beyond the limits of intercomprehensibility. But in more scattered communities and in larger language areas, especially when cultural and administrative ties are weakened and broken, these cumulative deviations in the course of generations give rise to wider regional differences. Such differences take the form of dialectal differentiation as long as there is some degree of mutual comprehension but eventually result in the emergence of distinct languages. This is what happened in the history of the colloquial Latin of the western Roman Empire, and it can be assumed that a similar course of events gave rise to the separate Germanic languages (English, German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and some others), though in this family the original unitary language is not known historically but inferred as “Common Germanic” or “Proto-Germanic” and tentatively assigned to early in the 1st millennium BC as the period before separation began.

      This is how language families have developed. Most but not all of the languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European (Indo-European languages) family, so-called because in addition it includes the classical Indian language Sanskrit and most of the modern languages of northern India and Pakistan. It includes as subfamilies the two families just mentioned, Romance and Germanic, and several others. It is assumed that the subfamilies, and from them the individual languages of the Indo-European family, are ultimately derived from a unitary language spoken somewhere in eastern Europe or western Asia (its exact location is still under debate), perhaps 5,000 years ago. This unitary language has itself been referred to as “Indo-European,” “Proto-Indo-European,” the “common parent language,” or the “original language” (Ursprache) of the family. But it must be emphasized that, whatever it may have been like, it was just one language among many and of no special status in itself. It was certainly in no way the original language of mankind or anything like it. It had its own earlier history, of which virtually nothing can be inferred, and it was, of course, very recent in relation to the time span of human language itself. What is really special about such “parent” or “proto-” languages is that they represent the farthest point to which our available techniques and resources enable us to reconstruct the prehistory of our attested and living languages. Similarly constituted families of languages derived from inferred common sources have been established for other parts of the world; for example, Altaic, covering Turkish and several languages of Central Asia, and Bantu, containing many of the languages of central and southern Africa.

      If enough material in the form of written records from past ages were available, it would be possible to group all the world's languages into historically related families. In addition, an answer could perhaps be posited to the question of whether all languages are descended from a single original language or whether languages emerged independently among several groups of early peoples (the rival theories of monogenesis and polygenesis, a controversy more confidently disputed in the 19th century than today). In actual fact, written records, when they are available, go back only a fraction of the time in which human speech has been developed and used, and over much of the globe written records are nonexistent. In addition, there are no other linguistic fossils comparable to the fossils of geological prehistory. This means that the history and prehistory of languages will not be able to go back more than a few thousand years BC and will be much more restricted in language areas in which few or no written records are available, as in much of Africa and in South America. Many languages will remain not related with certainty to any family. Nevertheless, the methods of historical linguistics, involving the precise and systematic comparison of word forms and word meanings (see further linguistics: Historical [diachronic] linguistics (linguistics)), have produced remarkable results in establishing language families on the same basis as Indo-European was established, in far less favourable fields. But any attempt by these means to get back to “the origin of language” or to reconstruct man's original language, if indeed there was one, is quite beyond the reach of science and will remain so.

Changes through geographical movement
      The fundamental cause of linguistic change and hence of linguistic diversification is the minute deviations occurring in the transmission of speech from one generation to another. But other factors contribute to the historical development of languages and determine the spread of a language family over the world's surface. Population movements naturally play a large part, and movements of peoples in prehistoric times carried the Indo-European languages from a relatively restricted area into most of Europe and into northern India, Persia, and Armenia. But language and race are by no means the same thing, and the spread of the Indo-European languages resulted, in the main, from the imposition of one of them on the earlier population of the territories occupied. In the historical period, within Indo-European, the same process can be seen at work in the western Roman Empire. Latin superseded the earlier, largely Celtic languages of the Iberian Peninsula and of Gaul (France) not through population replacement (the number of Roman soldiers and settlers in the empire was never large) but through the abandonment of these languages by the inhabitants over the generations as they found in Latin the language of commerce, civilization, law, literature, and social prestige.

      Conquest does not always lead to the supersession of a language. Greek survived centuries of Turkish rule and indeed remained a focus of national feeling, as has happened elsewhere in history. Much depends on the various circumstances and on the mutual attitudes of those involved; what must be kept quite clear is the difference between movements of peoples and the spread of languages. When linguistically homogeneous people enter and occupy a virtually empty area, as with most of Australia, the two movements coincide.

      Languages do not just spread and compete with each other for territorial use. They are in constant contact, and every language bears evidence of this throughout its history. Modern Greek is full of words of Turkish origin, despite efforts made at various times since independence to purify the language by official action. The Norman Conquest and a period in which French was the language of the ruling class in England effected great changes on English and contributed a very substantial number of French words to English vocabulary; hence the quantity of near synonymous pairs available today: “begin, commence”; “end, finish”; “kingly, royal”; “fight, combat”; and so on.

Tendencies against change
      These historical processes take place without any direct volition on the part of speakers as regards the language itself. Latin was learned as part of personal advancement, not for its own sake. Loans were incorporated almost without their being noticed, along with the concomitant cultural changes and innovations. Deliberate action directly related to a language does occur. The creation of pidgins involves some degree of linguistic consciousness on the part of their first users. More deliberate, however, have been various attempts at preserving the purity of a language, at least for some uses, or at arresting the processes of change. The care bestowed on the preservation of the Sanskrit used in religious ritual in ancient India and recent attempts to free Modern Greek from much of its Turkish vocabulary have already been noticed. For a period, under Nazi rule, efforts were made to replace some foreign words in the German language by words of native origin, and there have been movements to replace later accretions in English by words derived from Old English forms. In the long run, such attempts never succeed in preventing or reversing change; at best they preserve collaterally supposedly purer forms and styles for certain purposes and in certain contexts.

      With the picture painted above of the tendency for languages to fragment first into dialects and then into separate languages, it might be thought that dialects are relatively late in appearance in the history of a language family. This impression is reinforced by the fact that most nonstandard dialects are unrepresented as such in writing, and so comparatively little is known about dialectal differences within most languages as one goes back in time. In this respect the very detailed knowledge of the Ancient Greek (Greek language) dialect situation is quite untypical.

      In fact, dialect divisions must have been a feature of linguistic communities as early as there is any knowledge of them. Dialect splitting is fostered by isolation and loss of contact between groups within a speech community, and the sparse populations of earlier days, often nomadic and spread over large areas relative to their numbers, will have encouraged this process. It is simply the case that all but literate dialects have been lost in the past, and an artificial homogeneity is attributed to most ancient languages and to the so-called reconstructed parent languages of families.

      Present-day conditions tend toward the amalgamation of dialects and the disappearance of those spoken by relatively few people. Urbanization, mass travel, universal education, broadcasting, ease of communication, and social mobility all foster rather large regional and social dialects, with special occupational types of language within them, in place of the small, strictly localized dialects of earlier times. This is one reason for the urgency with which dialect studies are being pursued in many Western industrialized countries, such as England and parts of the United States. If work is not done soon, many dialects may perish unrecorded.

      For the same reasons, dialect divisions that earlier would have widened into distinct languages are now unlikely to do so. One may compare the emergence of the separate Romance languages from once unitary Latin with the splitting of South American Spanish (Spanish language) and Portuguese (Portuguese language) into different dialects of these two languages. These dialectal divisions are not now expected to widen beyond the range of intercomprehensibility. These same conditions, together with the spread of literacy, are leading to the extinction of languages spoken by relatively small communities. Such is the fate of most of the North American Indian languages, and Irish, Welsh, and Scots Gaelic may ultimately survive only as learned second languages, preserved as cultural focuses for their communities. But in situations like this, both past and present, the intervening period of extensive bilingualism and the concomitant use of two languages has its effect on the changes taking place in the dominant language, which is influenced by the phonetic and grammatical composition of the speakers' former language.

Language typology
      Language families, as conceived in the historical study of languages, should not be confused with the quite separate classifications of languages by reference to their sharing certain predominant features of grammatical structure. Such classifications give rise to what are called typological classes.

      In fulfilling the requirements of open-ended creativity imposed on language by human beings, grammatical structure has things in common in all known languages, particularly at the deeper levels of grammar. All known languages have words or wordlike elements combined in accordance with rules into sentences; all known languages distinguish in some way nounlike and verblike sentence components; and all known languages have the means of embedding or subordinating one sentence within another as an included clause (e.g., “the sun set” and “we returned home”: “When the sun set we returned home”; “Joan was playing tennis” and “Joan twisted her ankle”: “Joan, who was playing tennis, twisted her ankle,” or “while she was playing tennis, Joan twisted her ankle”). Descriptive analyses of all the languages of the world have not yet been prepared, and, of course, there is information about only a minute number of those that are no longer spoken—namely, those few that were written. But there is enough known to make the assertion of such universal features as have been given with fair confidence. These are often referred to as language universals; their nature and extent is the subject of current discussion and research.

      Within these very general guidelines, however, languages exhibit various types of structure. This can most readily be seen by comparing the relations between the forms of words and their syntactic functions in different languages. Such a comparison is the basis of three broad types of language that have been distinguished since the beginning of the 19th century. They are, in fact, more like characteristics than types, in that most languages contain traces of all three, in different proportions.

      Classical Chinese made little or no use of word-form variation, such as is found, for example, in Latin, for grammatical purposes. Sentence structure was expressed by word order, word grouping, and the use of specific grammatical words, or particles. Such languages have been called isolating (isolating language) or analytic. Modern Chinese languages are much less analytic than is often believed; probably, Vietnamese is the most fully representative of this type today. Some languages string together, or agglutinate, successive bits, each with a specific grammatical function, into the body of single words. Turkish is a typical agglutinative language: compare Turkish evleri “houses” (accusative case), in which ev is the root meaning “house,” -ler marks plurality, and -i is the sign for accusative, with Latin domūs, in which -ūs combines the representation of accusative and plural without the possibility of assigning either category separately to one part of the word ending. Latin is in this respect an inflectional (inflection), or fusional, language. In a more extreme example, Latin ī “go!” cumulatively represents in one fused form the verb meaning “go,” active voice, imperative mood, second person, and singular number, each a grammatically distinct category.

      English, like many other languages, is representative of all three types. In its use of word order alone to distinguish grammatical differences (“the dog chased the cat”; “the cat chased the dog”) it resembles Classical Chinese rather than Latin. In a word form such as “manliness,” in which each bit can be assigned a grammatical function (“man” the basic noun, -li- the adjective formative, and -ness the abstract noun formative), it makes use of agglutination, whereas plurals such as “men” and “geese” and past tenses such as “came” and “ran” fuse distinct grammatical categories into a word form in which only arbitrarily can one allot some sound segments, or letters, to one and some to the other.

      Assigning languages to different types in this way involves a delicate procedure of balancing one part of the grammar against another and deciding which type of structure predominates and how well the other types are represented. Languages predominantly of each of the types are found in communities at with all levels of civilization and with all types of culture.

      In the course of transmission, grammatical structures change, just as do pronunciation and meanings, and in time the cumulative effect may be the transference of a language from one overall type to another, although it remains descended from the earlier language and therefore is just as much part of the same historical family. Latin is very different typologically from French in its grammatical structure, but French is nevertheless the form that Latin took in France in the course of time. In the matter of the grammatical relevance of word order, the absence of case inflections in nouns, and the use of verbal auxiliaries instead of single word tense forms, French (French language) is more like English (English language), a distant cousin within the Indo-European family, than it is like Latin (Latin language), its immediate progenitor (compare French j'ai donné, English “I have given,” Latin dedī). The two sorts of language classification, historical and typological, serve different purposes and are differently based. Language families group languages together on the basis of descent; i.e., unbroken transmission from an earlier common parent language. The evidence is, in the main, systematic correspondences among the shapes of words of similar meanings (e.g., Greek patēr, Latin pater, French père, German Vater, English “father”). Languages are put into typological classes, with the reservation already mentioned, on the basis of certain overall similarities of structure irrespective of historical relations. Though these two classifications may coincide with some languages, as is the case to a great extent in the Bantu family, they do so only contingently; being based on different data and oriented differently, they do not logically or necessarily imply each other.

      In a way, these two systems of classification involve the two most important aspects in which languages must be seen for them to be properly understood: as products of a continuous historical process and also as self-sufficient systems of communication in any one period. Both as a component of cultural history and as a central part of culture itself, language is able to reveal, more than any other human activity and achievement, what is involved in mankind's distinctive humanity.

Robert Henry Robins

Additional Reading
A bibliography for language is likely to overlap at least partially with the bibliography for linguistics. This bibliography draws attention to some books that may usefully be consulted without prior specialist knowledge, and that develop in further detail the major topics introduced in the article.Edward Sapir, Language (1921), one of the most attractive books on language ever written; Leonard Bloomfield, Language (1933), longer and more technical than Sapir's book, but a classic work that remains unmatched in its breadth of coverage, though Bloomfield's treatment of semantics is now felt to be somewhat dated through his strict adherence to behaviourist principles; Jean F. Wallwork, Language and Linguistics (1969), a short, simple, and modern introduction to the study of language, and Language and People (1978), a brief discussion of the social dimensions of language; Herbert H. and Eve V. Clark, Psychology and Language (1977), an introduction to theories of language acquisition; Dwight L. Bolinger, Aspects of Language (1968), very useful wide-ranging survey of current approaches to the subject; David Abercrombie, Elements of General Phonetics (1967), and Peter N. Ladefoged, A Course in Phonetics (1975), excellent introductions to the linguistic study of human speech; John Lyons, Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics (1968), deals with linguistics rather than with language, but is an important textbook that introduces the reader to some of the most significant developments in the theory of grammar and semantics, as does the same author's later work Language and Linguistics: An Introduction; N. Minnis (ed.), Linguistics at Large (1971), a collection of papers on different aspects of language, several of which treat at greater length some of the topics mentioned in the article; Robert H. Robins, A Short History of Linguistics, 2nd ed. (1979), a brief historical account of the study of language from antiquity to the present day. Dell Hymes (ed.), Language in Culture and Society: A Reader in Linguistics and Anthropology (1964), contains a number of useful articles on the relations between language and man's life in society. Roy Harris, The Language Myth (1981), explores the relations between language and thought; George A. Miller, Language and Speech (1981), tries to explain language from the point of view of biology; Eric Wanner and Lila R. Gleitman (eds.), Language Acquisition: The State of the Art (1982), researches how children acquire language; Hans Aarsleff, From Locke to Saussure: Essays on the Study of Language and Intellectual History (1982), challenges established language theories; David Lightfoot, The Language Lottery: Toward a Biology of Grammars (1982), examines the place of language in the system of human cognition and perception; Jeremy Campbell, Grammatical Man: Information, Entropy, Language, and Life (1982), addresses language and information theory; Derek Bickerton, Roots of Language (1981), examines origins of languages; and Graham D. Martin, The Architecture of Experience: A Discussion of the Role of Language and Literature in the Construction of the World (1981), is a special study.

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Universalium. 2010.

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