Kremlin

Kremlin
/krem"lin/, n.
1. the Kremlin,
a. the executive branch of the government of Russia or of the Soviet Union, esp. in regard to its foreign affairs.
b. the citadel of Moscow, including within its walls the chief offices of the Russian and, formerly, of the Soviet government.
[1655-65; earlier Kremelien < G (now obs.) < an unattestested outcome of ORuss *kremlini, deriv. of kremli (Russ kreml', gen kremlyá) citadel, akin to ORuss Kromu the citadel of Pskov, Ukrainian króma partition, Russ kromá, krómka edge, border]

* * *

Central fortress in medieval Russian cities, usually located at a strategic point along a river and separated from the surrounding parts of the city by a wall with ramparts, moat, towers, and battlements.

Several capitals of principalities were built around old kremlins, which generally contained cathedrals, palaces, governmental offices, and munitions stores. The Moscow Kremlin (established 1156) served as the centre of Russian government until 1712 and again after 1918. Its crenellated brick walls and 20 towers were built in the 15th century by Italian architects. The palaces, cathedrals, and government buildings within the walls encompass a variety of styles, including Byzantine, Russian Baroque, and Classical.

* * *

▪ Russian fortress
Russian  kreml , formerly  kremnik  
 central fortress in medieval Russian cities, usually located at a strategic point along a river and separated from the surrounding parts of the city by a wooden—later a stone or brick—wall with ramparts, a moat, towers, and battlements. Several capitals of principalities (e.g., Moscow, Pskov, Novgorod, Smolensk, Rostov, Suzdal, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and Nizhny Novgorod) were built around old kremlins, which generally contained cathedrals, palaces for princes and bishops, governmental offices, and munitions stores.

 The original Moscow Kremlin dates from 1156; the oldest remaining section dates from the 14th–15th century and is located in the southwest portion of the current complex, which is triangular in shape and covers an area of some 70 acres (28 hectares). It lost its importance as a fortress in the 1620s but was used as the centre of Russian government until 1712 and again after 1918. Originally constructed of wood, the Moscow Kremlin was rebuilt in white stone in the 14th century and then totally rebuilt in red brick in the late 15th century by Italian architects; it has since been repaired and altered on numerous occasions. Its architecture thus reflects its long history and encompasses a variety of styles, including Byzantine, Russian Baroque, and classical. The structure is triangular in shape; its east side faces Red Square, and it has four gateways and a postern (back gate), concealing a secret passage to the Moskva River. Following the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917, the Moscow Kremlin became the headquarters of Vladimir Lenin (Lenin, Vladimir Ilich)'s Soviet government and the symbol of the communist dictatorship. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, it became the executive headquarters of the Russian federation. The Moscow Kremlin and the adjacent Red Square were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1990. For more detail, see Moscow.
 

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kremlin — ( ru. Кремль, Kreml IPA ru|krʲɛmlʲ) is the Russian word for fortress , citadel or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities. This word is often used to refer to the best known one, the Moscow… …   Wikipedia

  • kremlin — ● kremlin ou kreml nom masculin (mot slave signifiant forteresse) Partie centrale et fortifiée des villes russes anciennes. kremlin n. m. Partie centrale, fortifiée, des anciennes villes russes. kremlin (le) anc. palais impérial et citadelle de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Kremlin — Kremlin, MT U.S. Census Designated Place in Montana Population (2000): 126 Housing Units (2000): 57 Land area (2000): 0.453638 sq. miles (1.174918 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.453638 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Kremlin — kremlin. (Del ruso kreml, ciudadela). m. Recinto amurallado de las antiguas ciudades rusas. Por antonomasia, el de Moscú. * * * Kremlin, ciudadela de una ciudad. En las ciudades antiguas de Rusia no habia murallas, sin embargo en la parte central …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Kremlin, MT — U.S. Census Designated Place in Montana Population (2000): 126 Housing Units (2000): 57 Land area (2000): 0.453638 sq. miles (1.174918 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.453638 sq. miles (1.174918 …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Kremlin, OK — U.S. town in Oklahoma Population (2000): 240 Housing Units (2000): 112 Land area (2000): 0.252661 sq. miles (0.654389 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.252661 sq. miles (0.654389 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Kremlin — 1660s, Cremelena, from O.Rus. kremlinu, later kremlin (1796), from kreml citadel, fortress, perhaps of Tartar origin. Originally the citadel of any Russian city, now especially the one in Moscow. Used metonymically for government of the U.S.S.R.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • kremlin — sustantivo masculino 1. Parte fortificada de una ciudad rusa: El kremlin más famoso es el de Moscú …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • kremlin — ► NOUN 1) a citadel within a Russian town. 2) (the Kremlin) the citadel in Moscow, housing the Russian government. ORIGIN Russian kreml …   English terms dictionary

  • kremlin — [krem′lin] n. [Fr < Russ kryeml ] in Russia, the citadel of a city the Kremlin 1. the citadel of Moscow, in which some government offices of the Soviet Union were located: it now contains some offices of the Russian government 2. the… …   English World dictionary

  • Kremlin — Krem lin, n. [Russ. kremle.] 1. The citadel of a town or city; especially, the citadel of Moscow, a large inclosure which contains imperial palaces, cathedrals, churches, an arsenal, etc. [Russia] 2. Hence: The government of Russia (or, 1920 1992 …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”