/kras"neuh yahrsk'/; Russ. /krddeuh snu yahrddsk"/, n.
1. a territory of the Russian Federation in N and central Asia. 3,198,000; 827,507 sq. mi. (2,143,243 sq. km).
2. a town in and the capital of this territory, on the Yenisei River. 796,000.

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City (pop., 2001 est.: 875,700), north-central Russia.

Located on the upper Yenisey River, it was founded by Cossacks in 1628. In the late 17th century, it was often attacked by the Tatars and Kirghiz. The Trans-Siberian Railroad brought a period of rapid growth in the 1890s. A commercial and industrial centre, it is the site of one of the world's largest hydroelectric stations, built in the 1960s.

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also spelled  Krasnojarsk, or Krasnoiarsk 

      city and administrative centre of Krasnoyarsk kray (territory), east-central Russia. The city stands on both banks of the Yenisey River where the river is crossed by the Trans-Siberian Railroad. One of the earliest Russian settlements in Siberia, it was founded as the fort of Krasny Yar in 1628 on the left bank of the Yenisey. The extension of the Great Siberian Post Road to this point in 1735 spurred Krasnoyarsk's development as the chief town of central Siberia. The discovery of gold in the area in the 19th century further accelerated its growth. After the arrival of the Trans-Siberian Railroad in the 1890s, Krasnoyarsk developed rapidly and spread onto the right bank, where it now extends for more than 18 miles (29 km) along the river. Krasnoyarsk's industrial growth was further stimulated by the evacuation to the town of many factories from the west in World War II. In the 1960s one of the largest hydroelectric stations in the world was constructed there on the Yenisey. During the 1980s a missile-tracking radar station was built near Krasnoyarsk. The Soviet government admitted in 1989 that the station was built in violation of the Treaty on Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty) and in 1990 agreed to dismantle it.

      Krasnoyarsk is a major industrial complex and one of the largest producers of aluminum in Russia. Its chemical industries make rayon and tire cord, synthetic rubber, and tires. Engineering plants manufacture cranes, harvesters, bulldozers, lumbering equipment, television sets, and refrigerators; there are shipbuilding and repair yards. Large-scale timber processing produces sawtimber, furniture, pulp, and paper. Krasnoyarsk has a forestry institute, polytechnic and medical institutes, and a number of research establishments, particularly associated with timber exploitation. Pop. (2002) 909,341.

also spelled  Krasnojarsk,  or  Krasnoiarsk 

      kray (territory), east-central Russia. It occupies an area of Central Siberia and extends from the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in the Arctic Ocean to the Sayan Mountains in the south. In 2007 the autonomous okruga (districts) of Evenk and Taymyr (Dolgano-Nenets) were merged with Krasnoyarsk. The kray, which has its headquarters at Krasnoyarsk city, occupies almost all the Yenisey River basin; tributaries of the Yenisey River include the Angara, Podkamen Tunguska, Kureyka, and Turukhan rivers. The kray is also drained by the Chulym and Ket rivers of the Ob River basin. Much of Krasnoyarsk kray covers the Central Siberian Plateau, which reaches its highest point in the Putoran Plateau of the northwest. In the far south the Vostochny (East) and Zapadny (West) Sayan Mountains enclose the Minusinsk Basin. In the north the North Siberian Lowland separates the Byrranga Mountains of the Taymyr Peninsula from the plateau.

      The kray's vast area embraces a wide range of soils and vegetation, from the barren tundra of Taymyr to the steppe and rich soils of the Minusinsk Basin. The greater part of the kray consists of swampy forest, or taiga, of larch, pine, and birch, which becomes sparser and more stunted in the north. The climate is continental, with very cold winters, especially in the north. Permafrost is common in much of the kray.

      The population, which consists of Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, and indigenous peoples, is concentrated in the south, along the Trans-Siberian Railroad and in the Minusinsk Basin; the remaining area is nearly uninhabited. The economic importance of the kray is threefold: its vast timber resources, which are exploited chiefly along the Trans-Siberian Railroad; its mineral wealth; and its hydroelectric potential. Its extensive drainage system makes possible the Krasnoyarsk and Sayan hydroelectric stations, among the largest in the world. Much lignite (brown coal) is mined at Kansk and Achinsk; nickel, cobalt, platinum, and copper at Norilsk; and gold in the southwestern plateau. Heavy industries of the region include machine building, metalworking, and smelting. Textiles, footwear, and leather are also produced. Meat and dairy cattle are raised, as are reindeer, sheep, horses, goats, and pigs. Hunting and fishing are important in the far north. Agriculture, chiefly wheat growing, is confined to the south. The kray is also a popular tourist area of Siberia. Area 903,400 square miles (2,339,700 square km). Pop. (2006 est.) 2,906,181.

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Universalium. 2010.

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