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      in the early 20th century, activities that were designed to prepare foreign-born residents of the United States for full participation in citizenship. It aimed not only at the achievement of naturalization but also at an understanding of and commitment to principles of American life and work.

      Before the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the American public generally took it for granted that the constant flow of newcomers from abroad brought strength and prosperity to the country. The metaphor of the “melting pot” had been introduced to symbolize the mystical potency of the great democracy, whereby people from every corner of the earth were fused into a harmonious and admirable blend. After the war began, however, American reactions to European hostilities produced an intense awareness of the aliens and “foreigners” in their midst. Assimilation, it was believed, must be achieved by the deliberate, and sometimes forceful, means of earlier nativist movements.

      The Americanization movement that came into being was primarily a program of education propagated through schools, businesses, voluntary associations (such as the YMCA), libraries, and citizens bureaus. The teaching of foreigners became a favourite form of patriotic service for organizations such as the Daughters of the American Revolution, particularly after the entry of the United States into the war. The movement also took hold in nascent industries that desired an immigrant workforce capable of adjusting to mass-production work standards.

      In its earliest days school programs were directed toward the correction of the most obvious deficiencies. The core of the curriculum was the English language, American history, and the governmental structure of the United States, understanding of which was necessary for naturalization. Those who were interested in teaching other subjects began to capitalize on the popularity of the movement. Soon the offering included courses in millinery, cooking, social amenities, and the care of children, all presented, of course, as essential elements of American culture.

      Enthusiasm for Americanization persisted throughout World War I and was prolonged into the postwar period. Gradually, however, popular interest in such measures diminished. Wartime apprehensions subsided, and new legislation severely limited the influx of immigrants. Before long, Americanization became no more than a fairly obscure but continuing effort to prepare people for naturalization by teaching them English, civics, and history, or even just English.

      Meanwhile, there had developed a thorough reexamination of the concept of Americanization. The idea of the melting pot and the early belief that all foreigners should be transformed into typical Americans began to appear naive. Who is the typical American? Are American cultural habits (as defined in any particular curriculum) necessarily better than the way of life with which the foreign resident is familiar? The United States was built by people who came from many backgrounds; is not the effort to impose conformity itself un-American? These and other questions proved hard to answer in the 1920s. So deeply did the disillusionment penetrate that within less than a decade after the Armistice, “Americanization” was a term to be shunned, not used.

      In place of the old idea of supplanting all foreign traits by a standard pattern there grew up the idea of cultural “ pluralism.” It was argued by some that assimilation in its accepted sense was not a desirable goal but that American civilization would benefit by preserving many separate cultures side by side. Still others contended that this pluralism would gradually disappear over the years, that the American character was still in the process of formation, and that, as this character gradually emerged, it would be enriched by the blending of the admirable features of the various foreign nationalities.

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Universalium. 2010.

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