* * *▪ ChinaIntroductioncity in northwestern Hebei sheng (province), northern China. Kalgan, the name by which the city is most commonly known, is from a Mongolian word meaning “gate in a barrier,” or “frontier.” The city was colloquially known in Chinese as the Dongkou (“Eastern Entry”) into Hebei from Inner Mongolia. It is about 100 miles (160 km) northwest of Beijing. Pop. (2002 est.) city, 688,297; (2007 est.) urban agglom., 1,046,000.HistoryKalgan was the point at which the main caravan route from Beijing to Inner Mongolia and beyond passed through the Great Wall (Great Wall of China) of China at the foot of the escarpments reaching up to the lower Mongolian Plateau. The Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) placed the region under Guangning county, the seat of which was slightly east of Kalgan, but the area remained only on the margins of effective Chinese control. During the Three Kingdoms (Three Kingdoms period) (220–280) and the Xi (Western) Jin dynasty (265–316/317), it was the seat of a Wuhuan commandery. Later it became an important centre of the Xianbei, Mongol invaders of the 4th century. In 1429 the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) constructed a fort—the present-day Xia Bao (“Lower Fort”)—as part of the defenses against the Mongols. In 1613 the present Laiyuan Bao (“Upper Fort”) was built north of it as a trading centre. The town of Kalgan then grew up on the west bank of the Qingshui River, a tributary of the Yongding River, between the forts. The main trading centre was Kouwai, outside the north gate of the Laiyuan Bao.Administratively, in Qing (Qing dynasty) times (1644–1911/12), Kalgan was subordinated to Xuanhua, about 17 miles (27 km) south. It was the seat of a civil prefect and also of the military governor of the Mongols of Chahar, a former province of what is now Inner Mongolia.Kalgan's importance, however, was always primarily commercial—as the terminus of the principal caravan route to Mongolia and Russia, bearing most of the vast Siberian tea trade. In 1860, under the Sino-Russian Treaty, it was opened to Russian trade, and in 1902 it was opened to international trade. In 1911 the railway from Beijing reached Kalgan, and it was then steadily extended to the northwest. This was, however, the zenith of Kalgan's international trade, when the city contained some 7,000 commercial firms and when the caravan traffic employed hundreds of thousands of camels, great numbers of ox wagons, and many thousands of men. After 1920, trade slumped because the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1917) of 1917 and because political changes in Outer Mongolia had drastically reduced the importance of the caravan traffic. Civil disorder and banditry were rampant in the area north and west of Kalgan, while the extension of the railway to Hohhot in Inner Mongolia meant that Kalgan itself was no longer a railhead.In 1937 the Japanese occupied the area and established an autonomous government, Cha-nan (South Chahar), at Kalgan. In 1937 the Federated Mengjiang Commission was set up at Kalgan to supervise the economic affairs, banking, communications, and industry of Japanese-occupied Inner Mongolia. Colonization by Chinese settlers was checked as part of the pro-Mongol policies pursued by the Japanese. After World War II the area was occupied by Chinese communists, and, although the Nationalist (Nationalist Party) armies drove them out briefly, Kalgan was retaken in 1948. From 1948 to 1949, Kalgan was the capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, although located outside its borders. In 1952, when Chahar province was abolished, Kalgan again became a part of Hebei province.Although the traditional commercial dominance of Kalgan was diminished, it remained a political and strategic centre. After the foundation of the republic in 1911, it was given the name Wanquan county. In 1928 Kalgan was made the administrative capital of a new Chahar province, which accelerated the colonization of the area by Chinese settlers. By the early 1930s, Chinese settlers had pushed 75 miles (120 km) beyond Kalgan, causing great damage to the environment by destroying the natural pasture and bringing about extensive soil erosion.The contemporary citySome light industry—primarily the preparation of furs, leatherwork, tanning, and shoemaking—had already existed in the 1920s and '30s. Light industry and food processing were also encouraged under the Japanese occupation. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Kalgan developed rapidly, its population trebling between 1948 and 1958. Kalgan's proximity to the ranching area and the rich coal and iron mines in its vicinity meant the rapid growth of coal mining, metallurgical, machine-making (mostly mining machines), and power industries. In addition, it is still an important centre of fur processing and tanning; other manufactures include woolen fabric, cigarettes, and processed food. An expressway built in the 1990s connects the city with Beijing.There are numerous historical sites in and around Kalgan. North of the city, near the town of Zhangbei, are the ruins of Zhongdu, the former middle capital of the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368). Southwest of the city, near the Sanggan River in the Nihewan Basin, are a group of sites that have been identified as being of Paleolithic to Neolithic age.
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