/jooh"neuh peuhr/, n.
1. any evergreen, coniferous shrub or tree of the genus Juniperus, esp. J. communis, having cones that resemble dark-blue or blackish berries used in flavoring gin and in medicine as a diuretic.
2. a tree mentioned in the Old Testament, said to be the retem.
[1350-1400; ME junipere < L juniperus]

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Any of about 60–70 species of aromatic evergreen trees or shrubs that make up the genus Juniperus of the cypress family, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Juvenile leaves are needlelike; mature leaves are awl-shaped, spreading, and arranged in pairs or in whorls of three. Common juniper (J. communis) is a sprawling shrub whose fragrant, spicy-smelling berries are used to flavour foods and alcoholic beverages, particularly gin. The fragrant wood of eastern red cedar (J. virginiana) is made into cabinets, fence posts, and pencils. J. horizontalis is a popular U.S. ornamental creeping juniper, and wood of the Mediterranean Phoenician juniper (J. phoenicea) is burned as incense.

Juniper berry (Juniperus communis)

Ingmar Holmasen

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 any of about 60 to 70 species of aromatic evergreen trees or shrubs constituting the genus Juniperus of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The juvenile leaves (leaf) of a juniper are needlelike. Mature leaves are awl-shaped, spreading, and arranged in pairs or in whorls of three. Some species have small, scalelike leaves, often bearing an oil gland, which are pressed closely to the rounded or four-angled branchlets. Male and female reproductive structures usually are borne on separate plants. The reddish brown or bluish cones are fleshy and berrylike and often have a grayish, waxy covering. They mature in 1 to 3 seasons and contain 1 to 12 seeds, usually 3.

      Common juniper (J. communis), a sprawling shrub, is widely distributed on rocky soils throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Many ornamental cultivars have been developed. The berrylike megastrobilus of this species is used to flavour foods and alcoholic beverages, particularly gin, which is named after Juniperus through the French genièvre. Juniper “berries” have a fragrant, spicy aroma and a slightly bittersweet flavour. Used with venison, they remove the gamey taste. They are also used to season sauces and stuffings, in pickling meats, and to flavour liqueurs and bitters.

      An important ornamental and timber tree of eastern North America is the eastern red cedar (J. virginiana), whose fragrant wood is made into cabinets, fence posts, and pencils. This species is an invader of glades, pastures, prairies, and other open grassy areas in parts of its range; thus, it is considered a troublesome weed by some botanists and land managers. The savin (J. sabina) of central Europe, Chinese juniper (J. chinensis) of eastern Asia, and creeping juniper (J. horizontalis) of eastern North America are other popular ornamental species with many horticultural varieties. The wood of incense, or Spanish, juniper (J. thurifera), of Spain and Portugal, and of Phoenician juniper (J. phoenicea) of the Mediterranean region sometimes is burned as incense.

      Oil of juniper, distilled from the wood and leaves of several species, is used in perfumes and in medicines such as diuretics. Galls produced by junipers as a reaction to fungal infection are known as cedar apples. This fungus, cedar apple rust, completes its life cycle on members of the apple subfamily of the flowering plant family Rosaceae, which contains numerous species of trees and shrubs commercially valuable as fruit and ornamental plants. The growth of junipers around apple orchards and plantings of related genera is thus discouraged to avoid disfigurement or loss of these important cultivated plants.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • JUNIPER — The juniper is the biblical berosh (Heb. בְּרוֹשׁ) or berot (Heb. בְּרוֹת; Song 1:17), wrongly used in modern Hebrew for the cypress (the AV translation of rotem as juniper is not acceptable). Beroshim are frequently mentioned in the Bible,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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