/jahm"bee/, n.
1. a province on SE Sumatra, in W Indonesia.
2. Formerly, Telanaipura. a river port in and the capital of this province. 158,559.
Also, Djambi.

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also spelled  Djambi,  

      kotamadya (city) and propinsi (province), southeastern Sumatra, Indonesia. The province is bounded by Bengkulu and Sumatera Selatan (“South Sumatra”) provinces on the south, by Sumatera Barat (“West Sumatra”) province on the west and northwest, by Riau province on the north, and by the Strait of Berhala on the east.

      In the 7th century the area was part of the Buddhist Śrivijaya empire of southern Sumatra and subsequently formed part of the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java. The rise of Islām (Islāmic world) in the Indonesia archipelago during the 16th century was accompanied by the formation of a separate Muslim state of Jambi. The ruler of Jambi participated in an alliance against Sultan Iskandar Muda (ruled 1607–36) of Aceh, later refused to accept suzerainty of the Mataram state of Java, and cooperated with the Dutch (who had entered the region in the early 17th century) against Mataram. Moḥammad Fakhruddin, who ruled Jambi 1833–41, invaded Palembang in 1833 but was defeated by the Dutch and recognized Dutch suzerainty. Dutch colonial rule was firmly established by the first quarter of the 20th century. The Japanese occupied the province during World War II, and it was incorporated in the Republic of Indonesia in 1950.

      Almost one-third of the province is covered by the Barisan Mountains in the west, whose spurs thrust eastward, forming deep ravines and valleys. The mountains are surmounted by volcanic cones, including Mount Masurai (9,623 feet [2,933 metres]) and Mount Sumbing (8,228 feet [2,508 metres]). Mangroves are found in the estuaries and along the tidal rivers in the east. The principal waterway is the Batanghari River, which is navigable for deep-draft vessels from the city of Jambi to the sea (50 miles [80 km]). The western mountainous region is covered with temperate evergreen forests of pine, rhododendron, alder, maple, and ash. Agriculture dominates the economy, and products include rubber, tobacco, palm oil, copra, rice, corn (maize), and resin. Industries produce carved wood, mats and baskets, processed tobacco, beverages, rubber goods, woven cloth, and milled rice. The majority of the population is Minangkabau and Batak peoples with an admixture of Chinese, Arabs, and Indians.

      The city of Jambi, the provincial capital, lies on both sides of the Batanghari. It is a rubber-processing centre. Roads lead southward to Palembang and to the western coast; there is air service but no railroad.

      Jambi was at one time (c. AD 1100) the centre of the Śrivijaya empire. Later, as an independent sultanate, it became more and more entangled with Dutch financial and administrative affairs until, following an unsuccessful revolt in 1916–17, it was brought under direct Dutch rule. Area propinsi, 20,632 square miles (53,436 square km). Pop. (1980) city, 230,373; (1995 est.) city, 385,201; province, 2,383,000.

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Universalium. 2010.

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