/uy"ris/, n., pl. irises, irides /ir"i deez', uy"ri-/, v.
1. Anat. the contractile, circular diaphragm forming the colored portion of the eye and containing a circular opening, the pupil, in its center. See diag. under eye.
2. Bot. any plant of the genus Iris, having showy flowers and sword-shaped leaves. Cf. iris family.
3. a flower of this plant.
4. (cap.) Class. Myth. a messenger of the gods, regarded as the goddess of the rainbow.
5. a rainbow.
6. any appearance resembling a rainbow.
7. Motion Pictures, Television. an iris-in or iris-out.
8. Optics, Photog. See iris diaphragm.
9. Motion Pictures. to begin or end a take or scene with an iris-in or iris-out, achieved by manipulation of an iris diaphragm on the camera or by editing the film.
[1350-1400; ME < L Iris, iris < Gk Îris, îris rainbow, goddess of the rainbow, halo, iris flower or root, iridescent crystal; in some senses < NL < Gk: diaphragm of eye]

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      in Greek mythology, the personification of the rainbow and (in Homer's Iliad, for example) a messenger of the gods. According to the Greek poet Hesiod, she was the daughter of Thaumas and the ocean nymph Electra. In Hesiod's works, at least, she had the additional duty of carrying water from the River Styx in a ewer whenever the gods had to take a solemn oath. The water would render unconscious for one year any god or goddess who lied. In art, Iris was normally portrayed with wings, and her attributes were the herald's staff and a vase. She was shown serving wine to the gods or escorting them to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis.

▪ plant genus
 genus of about 300 species of plants in the family Iridaceae including some of the world's most popular and varied garden flowers, centred in the North Temperate Zones. Some of its most handsome species, however, are native to the Mediterranean and central Asian areas. The iris is the fleur-de-lis of the French royalist standard. It is a popular subject of Japanese flower arrangement, and it is also the source of orrisroot, from which “essence of violet” perfume is made. Irises are either bulbous or rhizomatous (with thick, creeping underground stems) and have six petallike floral segments, the more erect inner ones called standards and the usually drooping outer ones called falls.

      Best known are the bearded, or German, group—the common garden irises. These are hybrids of pale-blue I. pallida, yellow I. variegata, purple-blue I. germanica, and perhaps other southern European species. They are hardy, rhizomatous types with sturdy, swordlike leaves and tall stems (to 90 cm [3 feet]) of three to many flowers. With the introduction in 1900 of taller, heavier, larger-flowered I. mesopotamica, even larger hybrids were created, many of them fragrant, in a full range of colours and combinations, often with brightly contrasting “beards” on the falls. Dwarf bearded irises, most of which flower in early spring, are for the most part varieties of the almost stemless I. pumila and the taller I. chamaeiris, both from dry, rocky places in southern Europe.

      Best known of the beardless, rhizomatous group is perhaps the water-loving Japanese iris (I. kaempferi), frequently featured in Japanese watercolours. Its almost flat flowers consist of long, somewhat drooping falls, surrounding narrower, shorter standards. The Siberian iris (I. sibirica), from grasslands in central and eastern Europe, has slender, straight stalks with clustered heads of violet-blue or white blooms. Similar but shorter and more sturdy, I. spuria has round falls, short standards, and rather lax foliage. The yellow, or water, flag (I. pseudacorus) is a swamp plant native to Eurasia and North Africa; the blue flag (I. versicolor) occupies similar habitats in North America.

      Two outstanding bulbous irises are both from mountains of Spain. They have narrow standards, somewhat broader falls, and spiky, linear foliage. Spanish iris (I. xiphium), violet with yellow or yellow-spotted falls, grows in damp, sandy places. English iris (I. xiphioides), so named because of its popularity in British horticulture, bears bright-blue flowers. Dutch irises are sturdier, earlier-flowering hybrids created in The Netherlands.

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Universalium. 2010.

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