ionic bond

ionic bond
the electrostatic bond between two ions formed through the transfer of one or more electrons. Also called electrovalence, electrovalent bond.

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Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound.

Such a bond forms when one or more electrons are transferred from one neutral atom (typically a metal, which becomes a cation) to another (typically a nonmetallic element or group, which becomes an anion). The two types of ion are held together by electrostatic forces in a solid that does not comprise neutral molecules as such; rather, each ion has neighbours of the opposite charge in an ordered overall crystalline structure. When, for example, crystals of common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) are dissolved in water, they dissociate (see dissociation) into two kinds of ions in equal numbers, sodium cations (Na+) and chloride anions (Cl-). See also bonding; covalent bond.

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also called  electrovalent bond  
 type of linkage formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound. Such a bond forms when the valence (outermost) electrons of one atom are transferred permanently to another atom. The atom that loses the electrons becomes a positively charged ion ( cation), while the one that gains them becomes a negatively charged ion ( anion). A brief treatment of ionic bonds follows. For full treatment, see chemical bonding: The formation of ionic bonds (chemical bonding).

      Ionic bonding results in compounds known as ionic, or electrovalent, compounds, which are best exemplified by the compounds formed between nonmetals and the alkali and alkaline-earth metals. In ionic crystalline solids of this kind, the electrostatic forces of attraction between opposite charges and repulsion between similar charges orient the ions in such a manner that every positive ion becomes surrounded by negative ions and vice versa. In short, the ions are so arranged that the positive and negative charges alternate and balance one another, the overall charge of the entire substance being zero. The magnitude of the electrostatic forces in ionic crystals is considerable. Accordingly, these substances tend to be hard and nonvolatile.

      An ionic bond is actually the extreme case of a polar covalent bond, the latter resulting from unequal sharing of electrons rather than complete electron transfer. Ionic bonds typically form when the difference in the electronegativities of the two atoms is great, while covalent bonds form when the electronegativities are similar. Compare covalent bond.

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Universalium. 2010.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • ionic bond — n. the chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions formed when one atom transfers electrons to another atom, as in the formation of sodium chloride; electrovalent bond: see COVALENT BOND …   English World dictionary

  • ionic bond — ionic bond. См. электровалентная связь. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Ionic bond — [ noble gas electron configuration, and this electron enters the chlorine atom exothermically. The oppositely charged ions are then attracted to each other, and their bonding releases energy. The net transfer of energy is that energy leaves the… …   Wikipedia

  • ionic bond — noun a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion • Syn: ↑electrovalent bond, ↑electrostatic bond • Hypernyms: ↑chemical bond, ↑bond * * * noun Etymology …   Useful english dictionary

  • ionic bond — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms ionic bond : singular ionic bond plural ionic bonds chemistry a chemical bond that is formed between two ions with opposite charges, when one or more electrons are passed from one atom to another See: covalent… …   English dictionary

  • ionic bond — joninis ryšys statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Elektrostatinis ryšys tarp priešjonių. atitikmenys: angl. ionic bond rus. ионная связь …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • ionic bond — a chemical bond in which electrons are transferred from one atom (e.g., sodium) to another (e.g., chlorine) so that one bears a positive and the other a negative charge, the attraction between these opposite charges forming the bond …   Medical dictionary

  • ionic bond — ion′ic bond′ n. chem. the electrostatic bond between two ions formed through the transfer of one or more electrons • Etymology: 1935–40 …   From formal English to slang

  • ionic bond — /aɪɒnɪk ˈbɒnd/ (say uyonik bond) noun Chemistry → electrovalent bond …  

  • ionic bond — noun Date: 1939 a chemical bond formed between oppositely charged species because of their mutual electrostatic attraction …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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