horseshoe crab

horseshoe crab
a large marine arthropod, Limulus polyphemus, of shallow coastal waters of eastern North America and eastern Asia, having both compound and simple eyes, book gills, a stiff tail, and a brown carapace curved like a horseshoe: a living fossil related to the woodlouse. Also called king crab.

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Any of four extant species of marine arthropods (order Xiphosura, subphylum Chelicerata), found on the eastern coasts of Asia (three species) and North America (one species).

Despite the name, horseshoe crabs are not crabs; they are more closely related to scorpions. Fossil relatives date back 505 million years. They are most abundant in estuarine waters. The North American species, Limulus polyphemus, can grow to more than 2 ft (60 cm) long. The body consists of three parts hinged together: a broad, horseshoe-shaped cephalothorax; a much smaller, segmented abdomen; and a long, sharp tail-spine, or telson. They spawn on sandy beaches in spring and summer. Adults feed on marine worms; larvae feed on small organisms.

Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus).

Runk/Schoenberger from Grant Heilman

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▪ chelicerate
 common name of four species of marine arthropod (class Merostomata, subphylum Chelicerata) found on the east coasts of Asia and North America. Despite their name, these animals are not crabs at all but are related to scorpions, spiders, and extinct trilobites.

      Horseshoe crabs are an extremely ancient group and are often referred to as living fossils. Their fossil relatives are recognized as far back as the Ordovician Period (488 million to 444 million years ago), and forms similar to modern-day horseshoe crabs date back to the Jurassic Period (200 million to 146 million years ago). Best known is the single American species Limulus polyphemus, specimens of which can reach a length of more than 60 cm (2 feet). The other three species, Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas, and Carcinoscorpinus rotundicauda, are found along Asia from Japan to India and closely resemble Limulus in both structure and habits. The animals are most abundant in estuarine waters. Horseshoe crabs have been used as food by humans and are a serious enemy of the soft-shelled crab.

      The body of the horseshoe crab is divided into three parts that are hinged together: a broad, horseshoe-shaped cephalothorax; a much smaller, segmented abdomen; and a long, sharp tail-spine, or telson. The smoothly arched upper surface of the cephalothorax has a pair of lateral compound eyes and a much smaller median pair of eyes that respond to ultraviolet light. Underneath, the cephalothorax bears six pairs of legs: the first pair, called chelicerae, are used exclusively to seize worms, thin-shelled mollusks, crabs, and other prey. The mouth is surrounded by the next five pairs of legs, which are used both for walking and for eating. Spiny biting projections at the base of each leg tear the food and roll it into the mouth. Behind the bases of the last legs is a pair of reduced appendages called chilaria.

      Further physical breakdown of food occurs in the gizzard. Digestive enzymes are secreted into a long stomach-intestine by a large organ called the hepatopancreas. The principal organ of excretion apparently is a pair of long coxal glands that open just behind the base of the fourth pair of legs. The chief ganglia (masses of nervous tissue) are fused into a ring around the esophagus. The gonads (reproductive organs) branch profusely through much of the body. Behind the legs is a transverse flap, or operculum, which covers the book gills. The gills are ventilated by their rhythmic beating. Although horseshoe crabs can swim on their backs, propelled by the beating gill flaps, they usually plow through the mud, arching the body and then pushing with the telson and last pair of legs.

      Spawning takes place on sandy beaches in spring and summer, usually after sunset, and frequently during high spring tides. Each female, accompanied by one or more males, scoops out a series of depressions in the sand and lays 200 to 300 eggs in each. The males then cover the eggs with sperm. Usually the nests are just below the high-water mark. After several weeks the larvae hatch from the eggs. They are about 5 mm (0.2 inch) long, have no telson, and live off a store of yolk. Individuals in the second larval stage have a short telson, feed on small organisms, and pass the winter in mud flats. Those in the third stage resemble miniature adults. Between each stage the larvae molt, i.e., the cuticle (outer covering) splits around the margin of the cephalothorax and is shed. Growth in length is about 25 percent immediately after each molt. It is thought that sexual maturity is reached after about 16 molts, at an age of 9 to 12 years. The mature adults feed on marine worms and often become covered with a variety of encrusting organisms.

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Universalium. 2010.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • horseshoe crab — ☆ horseshoe crab n. any of an order (Xiphosura, class Merostomata) of sea arthropods shaped like the base of a horse s foot and having a long, spinelike tail …   English World dictionary

  • Horseshoe crab — Taxobox name = Horseshoe crab status = LR/nt | status system = IUCN2.3 status ref = [IUCN2006|assessors=World Conservation Monitoring Centre|year=1996|id=11987|title=Limulus polyphemus|downloaded=11 May 2006 ] image width = 200px image caption =… …   Wikipedia

  • horseshoe crab — Limulus Lim u*lus (l[i^]m [ u]*l[u^]s), n.; pl. {Limuli} ( l[imac]). [L., dim. of limus sidelong, askance.] (Zo[ o]l.) The only existing genus of Merostomata. It includes only a few species from the East Indies, and one ({Limulus polyphemus})… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • horseshoe crab — horse′shoe crab′ n. ivt any of several large marine arthropods of the order Xiphosura, esp. Limulus polyphemus, of E North American shores, having a stiff tail and brown carapace curved like a horseshoe Also called king crab • Etymology: 1765–75 …   From formal English to slang

  • horseshoe crab — /ˈhɔsʃu kræb/ (say hawsshooh krab) noun any of various marine arthropods, especially of the genus Limulus, with a carapace shaped somewhat like a horseshoe; king crab …  

  • horseshoe crab — noun large marine arthropod of the Atlantic coast of North America having a domed carapace that is shaped like a horseshoe and a stiff pointed tail; a living fossil related to the wood louse • Syn: ↑king crab, ↑Limulus polyphemus, ↑Xiphosurus… …   Useful english dictionary

  • horseshoe crab — n. primitive marine arthropod shaped like a horseshoe …   English contemporary dictionary

  • horseshoe crab — noun a large marine arthropod with a domed horseshoe shaped shell and a long tail spine. [Limulus polyphemus (N. America) and other species.] …   English new terms dictionary

  • horseshoe crab — noun Date: 1797 any of several closely related marine arthropods (order Xiphosura and class Merostomata) with a broad crescentic cephalothorax, six pairs of legs, and a spikelike tail; especially one (Limulus polyphemus) of coastal waters from… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • horseshoe crab — noun A type of chelicerate arthropod, of the genus Limulus, resembling a crab …   Wiktionary

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