/hawrs"meuhn ship'/, n.1. the art, ability, skill, or manner of a horseman.2. equitation.[1555-65; HORSEMAN + -SHIP]
* * *Art of training, riding, and handling horses.Good horsemanship requires that a rider control the animal's direction, gait, and speed with maximum effectiveness and minimum effort. Natural aids are a rider's balance, hands, voice, and legs; artificial aids include bits, reins, saddles, and spurs. Horsemanship was important to cavalrymen and cowboys, and is the fundamental element of dressage.
* * *Introductionthe art of riding, handling, and training horses. Good horsemanship requires that a rider control the animal's direction, gait, and speed with maximum effectiveness and minimum efforts.Horsemanship evolved, of necessity, as the art of riding with maximum discernment and a minimum of interference with the horse. Until the 20th century riding was a monopoly of the cavalry, of cowboys and others whose work required riding on horseback, and of the wealthy, who rode for sport. Although hunting and polo tend to remain sports of the wealthy and the role of the horse in battle has ended, special value is now placed on horse shows of a high standard, in which the most popular event is undoubtedly show jumping. Horsemanship has remained a valued social asset and symbol of prestige, but the opening of many new riding clubs and stables has made riding and horsemanship accessible to a much larger segment of the population.Charles Edward Casolani Ed.HistoryOrigins and early historyFrom the 2nd millennium BC, and probably even earlier, the horse was employed as a riding animal by fierce nomadic peoples of central Asia. One of these peoples, the Scythians (Scythian), were accomplished horsemen and used saddles (saddle). It is also likely that they realized the importance of a firm seat and were the first to devise a form of stirrup. A saddled horse with straps hanging at the side and looped at the lower end is portrayed on a vase of the 4th century BC found at Chertomlyk in Ukraine. This contrivance may have been used for mounting only, however, because of the danger of being unable to free the foot quickly in dismounting. The Greek historian Strabo said that the indocility of the Scythians' wild horses made gelding necessary, a practice until then unknown in the ancient world. The Sarmatians (Sarmatian), superb horsemen who superseded the Scythians, rode bareback (bareback bronc-riding), controlling their horses with knee pressure and distribution of the rider's weight.Among the earliest peoples to fight and hunt (hunting) on horseback were the Hittites, the Assyrians, and the Babylonians; at the same time (about 1500 BC) the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings, introduced horses into Egypt and rode them in all their wars. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, the Scythians brought horses to Greece, where the art of riding developed rapidly, at first only for pleasure. A frieze from the Parthenon in Athens shows Greeks (ancient Greek civilization) riding bareback. Philip II of Macedon had a body of cavalry in his army, and the army of his son Alexander had separate, organized horse units. In the 4th century BC another Greek historian, Xenophon, wrote his treatise Peri hippikēs (On Horsemanship), giving excellent advice on horsemanship. Many of his principles are still perfectly valid. He advocated the use of the mildest possible bits and disapproved of the use of force in training and in riding. The Roman mounted troops were normally barbarian archers who rode without stirrups and apparently without reins, leaving the hands free to use the bow and arrow.As a general rule almost every item of riding equipment used today originated among the horsemen of the Eurasian steppes and was adopted by the people of the lands they overran to the east, the south, and later the west.Horseshoes (horseshoe) of various types were used by migratory Eurasian tribes about the 2nd century BC, but the nailed iron horseshoe as used today first appeared in Europe about the 5th century AD, introduced by invaders from the East. One, complete with nails, was found in the tomb of the Frankish king Childeric I at Tournai, Belg.Attila is said to have brought the stirrup to Europe. Round or triangular iron stirrups were used by the Avars in the 6th century AD, and metal stirrups were used by the Byzantine cavalry. They were in use in China and Japan by about AD 600.The principle of controlling a horse by exerting pressure on its mouth through a bit (a metal contrivance inserted in the mouth of the horse) and reins (straps attached to the bit held by the rider) was practiced from the earliest times, and bits made of bone and antlers have been found dating from before 1000 BC. The flexible mouthpiece with two links and its variations have been in use down the centuries, leading directly to the jointed snaffle bit of the present day.Early, stumpy prickspurs have been found in Bohemia on 4th-century-BC Celtic sites.Military horsemanshipThe importance of cavalry increased in the early Middle Ages, and in the 1,000 years that followed, mounted warriors became predominant in battle. Armour steadily became bulkier and heavier, forcing the breeding of more and more massive horses, until the combination rendered maneuverability nearly impossible.Efforts to overcome this were made at a Naples riding academy in the early 16th century, when Federico Grisone and Giovanni Battista Pignatelli tried to combine classical Greek principles with the requirements of medieval mounted combat. After Xenophon, except for a 14th-century treatise by Ibn Hudhayl, an Arab of Granada, Spain, apparently no literature on riding was produced until Grisone published his Gli ordini di cavalcare (“The Orders of Riding”) in 1550.The development of firearms led to the shedding of armour, making it possible for some further modifications in methods and training under followers of the school of Pignatelli and Grisone, such as William Cavendish, duke of Newcastle. In 1733 François Robichon de la Guérinière published École de cavalerie (“School of Cavalry”), in which he explained how a horse can be trained without being forced into submission, the fundamental precept of modern dressage. Dressage is the methodical training of a horse for any of a wide range of purposes, excluding only racing and cross-country riding.Meanwhile, the Spanish Imperial Riding School (Spanish Riding School of Vienna) in Vienna and the French cavalry centre at Saumur aimed at perfecting the combined performance of horse and rider. Their technique and academic seat, a formal riding position or style in which the rider sits erectly, deep in the middle of the saddle, exerted considerable influence in Europe and America during the 18th and 19th centuries and are still used in modern dressage. The head riding master at Saumur, Comte Antoine d'Aure, however, promoted a bold, relaxed, and more natural, if less “correct,” style of riding across country, in disagreement with his 19th-century contemporary François Baucher, a horseman of great ability with formal haute école (“high school”) ideas. Classical exercises in the manège, or school for riding, had to make way for simplified and more rational riding in war and the hunt. During this period hunting riders jumped obstacles with their feet forward, their torso back on the horse's haunches, and the horse's head held up. The horse often leaped in terror.At the turn of the 20th century, Capt. Federico Caprilli, an Italian cavalry instructor, made a thorough study of the psychology and mechanics of locomotion of the horse. He completely revolutionized the established system by innovating the forward seat, a position and style of riding in which the rider's weight is centred forward in the saddle, over the horse's withers. Caprilli wrote very little, but his pupil, Piero Santini, popularized his master's fundamental principles. Except in dressage and showing, the forward seat is the one now most frequently used, especially for jumping.The art of horsemanshipThe basic principle of horsemanship is to obtain results in a humane way by a combination of balance, seat, hands, and legs.FundamentalsThe horse's natural centre of gravity shifts with its every movement and change of gait. Considering that a mounted horse also carries a comparatively unstable burden approximately one-fifth of its own weight, it is up to the rider to conform with the movements of the horse as much as possible.Before one mounts, the saddle is checked to be sure that it fits both the horse and its rider. Experienced riders position themselves in the saddle in such a way as to be able to stay on the horse and control it. The seat adopted depends on the particular task at hand. A secure seat is essential, giving riders complete independence and freedom to apply effectively the aids at their disposal. Good riders do not overrule the horse, but, firmly and without inflicting pain, they persuade it to submit to their wishes.The horse's movementsThe natural gaits of the horse are the walk, the trot, the canter or slow gallop, and the gallop, although in dressage the canter and gallop are not usually differentiated. A riding horse is trained in each gait and in the change from one to another.During the walk and the gallop the horse's head moves down and forward, then up and back (only at the trot is it still); riders follow these movements with their hands.The walk is a slow, four-beat, rhythmic pace of distinct successive hoof beats in an order such as near (left) hind, near fore, off (right) hind, off fore. Alternately two or three feet may be touching the ground simultaneously. It may be a free, or ordinary, walk in which relaxed extended action allows the horse freedom of its head and neck, but contact with the mouth is maintained; or it may be a collected walk, a short-striding gait full of impulsion, or vigour; or it may be an extended walk of long, unhurried strides.The trot is a two-beat gait, light and balanced, the fore and hind diagonal pairs of legs following each other almost simultaneously—near fore, off hind, off fore, and near hind. Riders can either sit in the saddle and be bumped as the horse springs from one diagonal to the other, or they can rise to the trot, post, by rising out of the saddle slightly and allowing more of their weight to bear on the stirrups when one or the other of the diagonal pairs of legs leaves the ground. Posting reduces the impact of the trot on both horse and rider.As the horse moves faster, its gait changes into the canter, or ordinary gallop, in which the rider does not rise or bump. It is a three-beat gait, graceful and elegant, characterized by one or the other of the forelegs and both hindlegs leading—near hind, off hind, and near fore practically together, then off fore, followed briefly by complete suspension. Cantering can be on the near lead or the off, depending on which is the last foot to leave the ground. The rider's body is more forward than at the trot, the weight taken by the stirrups.An accelerated canter becomes the gallop, in which the rider's weight is brought sharply forward as the horse reaches speeds up to 30 miles (48 kilometres) an hour. The horse's movements are the same as in the canter. To some authorities, the gallop is a four-beat gait, especially in an extended run.Other gaitsThere are a number of disconnected and intermediate gaits, some done only by horses bred to perform them. One is the rack, a four-beat gait, with each beat evenly spaced in perfect cadence and rapid succession. The legs on either side move together, the hindleg striking the ground slightly before the foreleg. The single foot is similar to the rack but slower. In the pace, the legs on either side move and strike the ground together in a two-beat gait. The fox trot and the amble are four-beat gaits, the latter smoother and gliding.Training and equipmentDepending on the abilities and inclinations of horse and trainer, training may include such elements as collection (controlled, precise, elevated movement) and extension (smooth, swift, reaching movement—the opposite of collection) at all paces; turns on the forehand (that part of the horse that is in front of the rider) and hindquarters; changing lead leg at the canter; change of speed; reining back, or moving backward; lateral movements; and finally the refinements of dressage, jumping, and cross-country riding.Communication with the horse is rendered possible by the use of the bit and the aids. The rider signals intentions to the horse by a combination of recognized movements of hands and legs, using several articles of equipment. By repetition the horse remembers this language, understands what is required, and obeys.BitsThere are several types of bits, including the snaffle, the double bridle, and the Pelham.The simplest is the snaffle, also called the bridoon. It consists of a single straight or jointed mouthpiece with a ring at each end for the reins. The snaffle is used for racing and frequently for cross-country riding. It is appropriate for preliminary schooling.The double bridle is used for advanced schooling. It consists of a jointed snaffle and a straight bit placed together in the mouth, first the snaffle, then the bit, both functioning independently and attached to separate reins. The mouthpiece of the bit can have a port or indentation in its centre to give more control. The slightest pull on the bit rein exerts pressure on the mouth.The Pelham is a snaffle with a straight mouthpiece; cheekpieces with rings at the lower ends for curb action; and a curb chain, with which pressure may be applied to the lower outside of the mouth. The Pelham gives control with only slight discomfort and is popular for polo.Bridles (bridle)The bridle is a set of straps that makes the bit secure in the animal's mouth and thus ensures human control by means of the reins (see figure—> ). The upper portion of the bridle consists of the headpiece passing behind the ears and joining the headband over the forehead; the cheek straps run down the sides of the head to the bit, to which they are fastened; in the blind type of driving bridle the blinkers, rectangular or round leather flaps that prevent the animal from seeing anything except what lies in front, are attached to the cheek straps; the noseband passes around the front of the nose just above the nostrils; and the throatlatch extends from the top of the cheek straps underneath the head.The principal features of a horse's mentality are acute powers of observation, innate timidity, and a good memory. To a certain extent the horse can also understand. Schooling is based on these faculties, and the rider's aids are applied accordingly. The natural aids are the voice, the hands through the reins and the bit, the legs and heels, and the movement of the rider's weight. The whip, the spur, and devices such as martingales, special nosebands, and reins are artificial aids, so termed in theory, as the horse does not discriminate between natural and artificial.Horses are easily startled. A good horseman will approach them quietly, speaking to them and patting them to give them confidence. Silence on the part of the rider can even cause disquiet to some horses, but they should not be shouted at. The rider's voice and its tone make a useful aid in teaching a horse in its early schooling to walk, trot, canter, and halt.To keep the horse alert at all times, the rider's hands keep a light, continual contact with its mouth, even at the halt. The hands are employed together with the legs to maintain contact, to urge the horse forward, to turn, to rein back, and generally to control the forehand. The horse is said to be collected and light in hand when the action of the bit can cause it to flex, or relax, its jaw with its head bent at the poll, or top.When pressed simultaneously against the flanks, immediately after the hands ease the reins, the legs induce the forward movement of the horse. They are of the greatest importance in creating and maintaining impulsion, in controlling the hindquarters, and for lateral movement.Riders achieve unity of balance by means of the weight aid, that is, by moving the body in harmony with the movements of the horse, forward, backward, or to the side. Thus, in cantering to the left, the rider leans to the left; or when about to descend a steep slope, the rider stays erect while the horse is feeling for the edge with its forefeet, but as soon as the descent starts the rider leans forward, leaving the hindquarters free to act as a brake and to prevent scraping the back of the horse's rear legs on rough ground. Meanwhile the hands keep the horse headed straight to maintain its balance.The whip is used chiefly to reinforce the leg aid for control, to command attention, and to demand obedience, but it can be used as a punishment in cases of deliberate rebellion. A horse may show resistance by gnashing its teeth and swishing its tail. Striking should always be on the quarters, behind the saddle girth, and must be immediate since a horse can associate only nearly simultaneous events. This applies equally to rewards. A friendly tone of voice or a pat on the neck are types of reward.Although normally the leg or the heel, or both, should be sufficient, spurs, which should always be blunt, assist the legs in directing the precision movements of advanced schooling. Their use must be correctly timed.Martingales are of three types: running, standing, or Irish. The running and standing martingales are attached to the saddle straps at one end and the bit reins or bridle at the other. The Irish martingale, a short strap below the horse's chin through which the reins pass, is used for racing and stops the horse from jerking the reins over its head. As the horse cannot see below a line from the eye to the nostril, it should not be allowed to toss its head back, particularly near an obstacle, as it is liable to leap blindly. A martingale should not be necessary with a well-schooled horse.The noseband, a strap of the bridle that encircles the horse's nose, may be either a cavesson, with a headpiece and rings for attaching a long training rein, or a noseband with a headstrap, only necessary if a standing martingale is used. A variety of other nosebands are intended for horses that pull, or bear, on the reins unnecessarily.SeatsThe saddle, the length of the stirrup, and the rider's seat, or style of riding, should suit the purpose for which the horse is ridden. The first use of the stirrup is to enable the rider to get on the horse, normally from the near (left) side. With the raised foot in the stirrup the rider should avoid digging the horse in the flank on springing up and should gradually slide into position without landing on the horse's kidneys with a bump. With an excitable horse, the rider may wait, resting on knees and stirrups, until the horse moves forward.Forward seatThe forward seat, favoured for show jumping, hunting, and cross-country riding, is generally considered to conform with the natural action of the horse. The rider sits near the middle of the saddle, his torso a trifle forward, even at the halt. The saddle is shaped with the flaps forward, sometimes with knee rolls for added support in jumping. The length of the stirrup leather is such that, with continual lower thigh and knee grip, the arch of the foot can press on the tread of the iron with the heel well down. A wide and heavy stirrup iron allows easy release of the foot in case of accidents. The line along the forearm from the elbow to the hands and along the reins to the bit is held straight. As the horse moves forward, so do the rider's hands, to suit the horse's comfort.Dressage seatIn the show and dressage seat the rider sinks deep into the saddle, in a supple, relaxed but erect position above it. The saddle flaps are practically straight so as to show as much expanse of the horse's front as possible. The stirrup leather is of sufficient length for the rider's knee to bend at an angle of about 140 degrees and for the calf to make light contact with the horse's flank, the heel well down, and the toes or the ball of the foot resting on the tread of the stirrup iron. The rider keeps continual, light contact with the horse's mouth; and the intention is to convey an impression of graceful, collected action. In the past this type of saddle, with its straight-cut flaps, was used for hunting and polo, but the forward seat has become more popular for these activities.Stock saddleThe stock saddle seat is appropriate for ranchers but is also used at rodeos and by many pleasure and trail riders. The saddle, which can weigh as much as 40 pounds (18 kilograms), is designed for rounding up cattle and is distinguished by a high pommel horn for tying a lariat. The rider employs long stirrups and a severe bit that he seldom uses because he rides with a loose rein, guiding his horse chiefly by means of shifting the weight of his body in the saddle. The gaucho roughriders of the Argentine Pampa have adopted a similar seat, using a saddle with a high pommel and cantle. Australian stockmen have used a saddle that has a short flap and is equipped with knee and thigh rolls, or props, which give an extremely secure seat.Side saddleThough now not so fashionable, the elegant and classical side-saddle seat was formerly favoured and considered correct by many horsewomen. On the near side the saddle has an upright pommel on which the rider's right leg rests. There is a lower, or leaping, pommel, against which the left leg can push upward when grip is required, and a single stirrup. Although the rider sits with both legs on one side of the saddle, forward action to suit the movement of the horse is feasible in cross-country riding.Bareback means riding without saddle or blanket, the rider sitting in the hollow of the horse's back and staying there chiefly by balance. It is an uncomfortable seat but less so at the walk and the slow canter. When suffering from saddle galls horses are sometimes ridden bareback for exercise.Originally intended for military use, dressage training was begun early in the 16th century. The international rules for dressage are based on the traditions and practice of the best riding schools in the world. The following is an extract from these rules of the Fédération Équestre Internationale:Object and general principles.The object of dressage is the harmonious development of the physique and the ability of the horse. As a result, it makes the horse calm, supple, and keen, thus achieving perfect understanding with its rider. These qualities are revealed by the freedom and regularity of the paces; the harmony, lightness, and ease of the movements; the lightening of the forehand, and the engagement of the hindquarters; the horse remaining absolutely straight in any movement along a straight line, and bending accordingly when moving on curved lines.The horse thus gives the impression of doing of his own account what is required of him. Confident and attentive, he submits generously to the control of his rider. (Used with permission of the publisher.)Campagne is the term used for elementary but thorough training, including work on the longeing rein. This long rein, also used for training young or difficult horses, is attached to a headpiece with a noseband called a cavesson. The horse is bitted and saddled and is schooled in circles at the end of the rein. It is an accessory to training from the saddle, which is always best. Basic to campagne is collection: teaching the horse to arch its neck, to shift its weight backward onto its hindquarters, and to move in a showy, animated manner. Other elements of campagne include riding in a straight line, turns, and lateral movements.Haute école is the most elaborate and specialized form of dressage, reaching its ultimate development at the Vienna school in its traditional white Lippizaner (Lipizzaner) horses. Some characteristic haute école airs, or movements, are the pirouettes, which are turns on the haunches at the walk and the canter; the piaffe, in which the horse trots without moving forward, backward, or sideways, the impulse being upward; the passage, high-stepping trot in which the impulse is more upward than forward; the levade, in which the horse stands balanced on its hindlegs, its forelegs drawn in; the courvet, which is a jump forward in the levade position; and the croupade, ballotade, and capriole, a variety of spectacular airs in which the horse jumps and lands again in the same spot.All of these movements are based, perhaps remotely in some instances, on those that the horse performs naturally.JumpingThe most sensitive parts of the horse when ridden are the mouth and the loins, particularly in jumping. The rider's hands control the forehand while the legs act on the hindquarters. As speed is increased the seat is raised slightly from the saddle, with the back straight and the trunk and hands forward, the lower thighs and the knees taking the weight of the body and gripping the saddle, leaving the legs from the knees down free for impulsion. Contact with the mouth is maintained evenly and continually, the rider conforming with every movement as the horse's head goes forward after takeoff and as it is retracted on landing, the hands always moving in line with the horse's shoulder. In order to give complete freedom to the hindquarters and to the hocks, the rider does not sit back in the saddle until at least two strides after landing.The horse is a natural jumper, but, if ridden, schooling becomes necessary. Training is started in an enclosed level area by walking the horse, preferably in a snaffle, over a number of bars or poles laid flat on the ground. When the horse has become accustomed to this, its speed is increased. As the horse progresses, the obstacles are systematically raised, varied, and spaced irregularly. The object is to teach the horse: (1) to keep its head down; (2) to approach an obstacle at a quiet, collected, yet energetic pace; (3) to decide how and where to take off; and (4) after landing to proceed quietly to the next obstacle. The horse should be confident over every jump before it is raised and should be familiarized with a variety of obstacles.Only thoroughly trained riders and horses compete. Very strenuous effort is required of the horse, as well as of the rider who does not by any action give the horse the impression that something out of the ordinary is impending. If possible the horse is warmed up by at least a half-hour's walking and trotting before entering the ring. The horse is guided toward the exact centre of every obstacle, the rider looking straight ahead and not looking around after takeoff for any reason, as that might unbalance the horse. The broader the obstacle, the greater the speed of approach. Although a few experienced riders can adjust the horse's stride for a correct takeoff, this should not be necessary with a well-schooled horse. The rider is always made to conform with every action of the horse, the only assistance necessary being that of direction and increasing or decreasing speed according to the obstacle.Riding and showsRacing on horseback probably originated soon after man first mastered the horse. By the 7th century BC organized mounted games were held at Olympia. The Romans held race meetings, and in medieval Europe tournaments, jousting, and horse fairs were frequent and popular events. Played in Persia for centuries, polo was brought to England from India about 1870. In North America, Western ranch riding produced the rodeo.Horse associations and pony clubs are today the mainstay of equine sport. They have improved the standards of riding instruction and the competitive activities of dressage, hunter trials, and show jumping. The latter became an important event from 1869, when what was probably the first “competition for leaping horses” was included in the program of an Agricultural Hall Society horse show in London. National organizations such as the British Horse Society, the American Horse Shows Association (AHSA), the Federazione Italiana Sports Equestri, the National Equestrian Federation of Ireland, the Fédération Française des Sports Équestres, and similar groups from about 50 other nations are affiliated with the Fédération Équestre Internationale (FEI), founded in 1921 with headquarters at Brussels, the official international governing body and the authority on the requirements of equitation.Horse shows (horse show)Horse shows are a popular institution that evolved from the horse sections of agricultural fairs. Originally they were informal displays intended to attract buyers and encourage the improvement of every type of horse. Now they are organized and conducted by committees of experts and by associations that enforce uniform rules, appoint judges, settle disputes, maintain records, and disseminate information. Riding contests included in the program have become increasingly important.Under the auspices of the Royal Dublin Society, an international horse show was first held at Dublin in 1864. It is an annual exhibition of every type of saddle horse, as well as broodmares and ponies. International jumping contests similar to Olympic competition, events for children, and auction sales are held during this five-day show.The National Horse Show at New York, first held in 1883, is another great yearly event. Held at Madison Square Garden, it lasts several days and includes about 10 different events. Among the most important are the international jumping under FEI rules and the open jumping under AHSA rules. Other shows are held in many sections of the United States.Horse and pony shows are held regularly in the United Kingdom, the most important being the Richmond Royal Horse Show, the Horse of the Year Show, and the Royal International Horse Show. The latter, an annual event first held in 1907, has flourished under royal patronage and includes international jumping, special items such as the visit of the Spanish Riding School with its Lippizaners in 1953, and a Supreme Riding Horse competition.In Canada, the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair at Toronto, opened in 1922 and known in Canada as the “Royal,” is a major event, and in Australia the Royal Agricultural Society organizes horse shows annually in every state. Other events include the shows at Verona and at the Piazza di Siena in Rome; frequent horse shows in Belgium, France, Germany, and The Netherlands; the winter show in July in Buenos Aires; and the Exhibition of Economic Achievement in Moscow.Olympic equestrian competitionThe FEI organizes and controls the equestrian events at the Olympic Games. Included in each Olympics since the Games at Stockholm in 1912 (equestrian events were also held in 1900), these events are the occasion for keen rivalry and evoke high standards of horsemanship. They comprise a dressage grand prix, a three-day event, and a jumping grand prix, all open to team and individual competition.The Grand Prix de Dressage involves performance of the walk, trot, canter, and collected paces and several conventional dressage figures and movements, as well as the correct rider's position. Scoring on each item is from a maximum of 10 for excellent down to 1 for very bad.The three-day event consists of tests in dressage, endurance or cross-country riding, and show jumping. Dressage is on the first day. On the second day there is an endurance test over a course 25 to 35 kilometres (16 to 22 miles) in length, covering swamp roads, tracks, steeplechase obstacles, and cross-country sections. Jumping tests, less strenuous than the Prix des Nations jumping event, are held on the third day.The Prix des Nations jumping event is a competition involving 13 or 14 obstacles, heights varying between 1.30 and 1.60 metres (51 and 63 inches), and a water jump 4 metres (13 feet) across, over a course with 60 metres (200 feet) between obstacles. Penalties are scored for disobedience, knocking down or touching an obstacle, and for a fall. The rider with the lowest penalty score wins.In addition to these competitions there is a riding section of the modern pentathlon, also conducted under FEI rules. Competitors must clear, riding a strange horse chosen by lot, 20 obstacles over a course 1,000 metres (3,000 feet) in length. Other international competitions began in the 1950s under the supervision of the FEI.Charles Edward CasolaniAdditional ReadingGeneral worksMary Gordon-Watson, The Handbook of Riding (1982); Albert E. Decarpentry, Academic Equitation, trans. from the French (1971); Vladimir S. Littauer, Common Sense Horsemanship, 2nd ed. (1963, reprinted 1974); Henry Wynmalen, Equitation, 2nd ed. (1952, reissued 1971); Earl R. Farschler, Riding and Training, new ed. (1959, reissued 1972), which contains a description of the gaits; Jean S.-F. Paillard, Understanding Equitation, trans. from the French (1974); C.E.G. Hope, The Horseman's Manual (1972); Jane Kidd, Horsemanship in Europe (1977); and Myron J. Smith, Equestrian Studies (1981), a classified bibliography of more than 4,600 English-language items appearing between 1950 and 1980. See also Jackie Spaulding, The Family Horse: How to Choose, Care for, Train and Work Your Horse (1982).HistoryStan Steiner, Dark and Dashing Horsemen (1981); Charles Chenevix Trench, A History of Horsemanship (1970); and Glenn R. Vernam, Man on Horseback (1964, reissued 1972), which includes information on the origin and detail of equipment.Horse showsR.S. Summerhays and C.E.G. Hope, Horse Shows: The Judges, Stewards, Organizers (1969); American Horse Shows Association Rule Book (biennial); Harlan C. Abbey, Horses and Horse Shows (1980); Judy Richter, Horse and Rider: From Basics to Show Competition (1982); Edward Hart, Care and Showing of the Heavy Horse (1981); and Lynda Bloom, Fitting and Showing the Halter Horse (1980).RulesThe rules for international competitions are given in publications of the Fédération Équestre Internationale; in Bob Phillips (ed.), Official Report of the Olympic Games (1969); and in various publications of the British Horse Society.DressageRichard L. Wätjen, Dressage Riding: A Guide for the Training of Horse and Rider, 3rd rev. ed. (1979; originally published in German, 1922; 7th German ed., 1975); Hans Handler, The Spanish Riding School, trans. from the German (1972); Elwyn Hartley Edwards, Saddlery: Modern Equipment for Horse and Stable (1963, reissued 1973); and The USCTA Book of Eventing: The Official Handbook of the United States Combined Training Association, ed. by Sally O'Connor (1982). (Jumping): J.A. Talbot-Ponsonby, Harmony in Horsemanship (1964, reissued 1972); F.C. Avis, Horses and Show Jumping Dictionary, 2nd ed., ed. by Margaret B. Slessor (1979); and Federico Caprilli, The Caprilli Papers: Principles of Outdoor Equitation, trans. and ed. by P. Santini (1967).Charles Edward Casolani Ed.
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