Horatian ode

Horatian ode
an ode consisting of several stanzas all of the same form. Also called Lesbian ode, Sapphic ode. Cf. Pindaric ode.

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▪ poetic form
      short lyric poem written in stanzas of two or four lines in the manner of the 1st-century-BC Latin poet Horace. In contrast to the lofty, heroic odes of the Greek poet Pindar (compare epinicion), most of Horace's odes are intimate and reflective; they are often addressed to a friend and deal with friendship, love, and the practice of poetry.

      Horace introduced early Greek lyrics into Latin by adapting Greek metres, regularizing them, and writing his Romanized versions with a discipline that caused some loss of spontaneity and a sense of detachment but produced elegance and dignity. But he cautioned Latin writers not to attempt to emulate Pindar, a task that he likened to Icarus' presumptuous flight. Horace's carmina, written in stanzas of two or four lines, are now universally called odes, but they have nothing in common with the passionate brilliance of Pindaric odes. Horace's tone is generally serious and serene, often touched with irony and melancholy but sometimes with gentle humour. His urbane Epicureanism and personal charm, his aphoristic philosophy and studied perfection won him recognition as Rome's leading poet after the death of his friend Virgil.

      In later periods when technical felicity was more highly regarded than imagination and spontaneity, Horace's odes were prized and imitated. Among the poets of the Pléiade in 16th-century France, Pierre de Ronsard attempted to model his first odes on Pindar. Defeated, he contented himself with being, in his opinion, better than Horace. Nicolas Boileau and Jean de La Fontaine in the 17th century preserved the Horatian tradition.

      Michael Drayton, in Poems Lyric and Pastoral (1606), acknowledged his indebtedness to Horace, and Andrew Marvell produced one of the finest English Horatian odes in 1650 on Cromwell's return from Ireland. In the early 18th century, Matthew Prior, Jonathan Swift, and Samuel Johnson revived the Horatian spirit, as did Giacomo Leopardi and Giosuè Carducci in Italy in the 19th century. Since the odes of the Romantic period, which were successful imitations of the manner but not the form of Pindar, few English poets have attempted to return to the classical forms. See also ode.

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  • Horatian ode — noun an ode with several stanzas • Syn: ↑Sapphic ode • Hypernyms: ↑ode * * * Pros. an ode consisting of several stanzas all of the same form. Also called Lesbian ode, Sapphic ode. Cf. Pindaric ode. * * * Horatian ode, a lyric poem having an… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Horatian ode — /həreɪʃən ˈoʊd/ (say huhrayshuhn ohd) noun → ode (def. 5) …  

  • Ode — This article is about the form of lyrical verse. For other uses, see Ode (disambiguation). Ode (from the Ancient Greek ὠδή) is a type of lyrical verse. A classic ode is structured in three major parts: the strophe, the antistrophe, and the epode …   Wikipedia

  • ode — /ohd/, n. 1. a lyric poem typically of elaborate or irregular metrical form and expressive of exalted or enthusiastic emotion. 2. (originally) a poem intended to be sung. Cf. Horatian ode, Pindaric ode. [1580 90; < MF < LL oda < Gk oidé, contr.… …   Universalium

  • ode — Synonyms and related words: English sonnet, Horatian ode, Italian sonnet, Petrarchan sonnet, Pindaric ode, Sapphic ode, Shakespearean sonnet, alba, anacreontic, balada, ballad, ballade, bucolic, canso, chanson, clerihew, dirge, dithyramb, eclogue …   Moby Thesaurus

  • Horatian — /heuh ray sheuhn, haw , hoh /, adj. 1. of or pertaining to Horace. 2. Pros. a. of, pertaining to, or resembling the poetic style or diction of Horace. b. of, pertaining to, or noting a Horatian ode. [1740 50; < L Horatianus, equiv. to Horati(us)… …   Universalium

  • Horatian — Ho•ra•tian [[t]həˈreɪ ʃən, hɔ , hoʊ [/t]] adj. 1) of or pertaining to Horace 2) pro a) of, pertaining to, or resembling the poetic style or diction of Horace b) of or noting a Horatian ode • Etymology: 1740–50; < L Horātiānus=Horāti(us)… …   From formal English to slang

  • ode — /oʊd / (say ohd) noun 1. a lyric poem typically of elaborate or irregular metrical form and expressive of exalted or enthusiastic emotion. 2. (originally) a poem intended to be sung. 3. regular (or Pindaric) ode, a complex poetic type, consisting …  

  • Horatian — [hə reɪʃ(ə)n, ʃɪən] adjective 1》 relating to the Roman poet Horace (65–8 BC) or his work. 2》 (of an ode) of several stanzas each of the same metrical pattern …   English new terms dictionary

  • Sapphic ode — noun an ode with several stanzas • Syn: ↑Horatian ode • Hypernyms: ↑ode * * * Pros. See Horatian ode. [1870 75] …   Useful english dictionary

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