human immunodeficiency virus. See under AIDS virus.

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Retrovirus associated with AIDS.

HIV attacks and gradually destroys the immune system, leaving the host unprotected against infection. It cannot be spread through casual contact but instead is contracted mainly through exposure to blood and blood products (e.g., by sharing hypodermic needles or by accidental needle sticks), semen and female genital secretions, or breast milk. A pregnant woman can pass the virus to her fetus across the placenta. The virus first multiplies in lymph nodes near the site of infection. Once it spreads through the body, usually about 10 years later, symptoms appear, marking the onset of AIDS. Multidrug "cocktails" can delay onset, but missing doses can lead to drug resistance. Like other viruses, HIV needs a host cell to multiply. It attacks helper T cells and can infect other cells. A rapid mutation rate helps it foil both the immune system and treatment attempts. No vaccine or cure exists. Abstinence from sex, use of condoms or other means to prevent sexual transmission of the disease, and avoidance of needle sharing have reduced infection rates in some areas.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • HIV — [haː|iː fau] das; (s); nur Sg, Med; das Virus, von dem man Aids bekommt || K : HIV Infektion, HIV Infizierte(r), HIV Test …   Langenscheidt Großwörterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache

  • HIV — [ aʃive ] n. m. • v. 1985; sigle angl., de Human Immunodeficiency Virus ♦ Anglic. Biol. Virus tenu pour l agent responsable du sida. ⇒ LAV, V. I. H. Les virus HIV1 et HIV2. H. I. V. ou HIV [ aʃive] n. m. ÉTYM. V. 1985; sigle de l angl. Human… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • HIV — [ˌeıtʃ aı ˈvi:] n [U] a type of ↑virus (=a very small living thing that causes disease) that enters the body through blood or sexual activity, and can develop into ↑AIDS HIV positive/negative (=having or not having HIV in your body) …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • hiv — hiv·er; HIV; hiv·vite; …   English syllables

  • HIV — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Virus de l immunodéficience humaine (Human immunodeficiency virus) Lycée Henri IV Ce document provient de « HIV ». Catégorie : Homonymie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • HIV — Since the abbreviation stands for ‘human immunodeficiency virus’, the word virus is strictly redundant in the phrase HIV virus, although this is now established usage …   Modern English usage

  • HIV — Human immunodeficiency virus Short Dictionary of (mostly American) Legal Terms and Abbreviations …   Law dictionary

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  • HIV — sigla ES ingl. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, virus dell immunodeficienza umana, il retrovirus agente causale dell AIDS …   Dizionario italiano

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