/han"oh/, n.
Carthaginian statesman, fl. 3rd century B.C.

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▪ Carthaginian explorer
flourished 5th century BC

      Carthaginian who conducted a voyage of exploration and colonization to the west coast of Africa sometime during the 5th century. Setting sail with 60 vessels holding 30,000 men and women, Hanno founded Thymiaterion (now Kenitra, Mor.) and built a temple at Soloeis (Cape Cantin, now Cape Meddouza). He then founded five additional cities in and around present Morocco, including Carian Fortress (Greek: Karikon Teichos) and Acra (Agadir). The Carian Fortress is perhaps to be identified with Essaouira on the Moroccan coast, where archaeological remains of Punic settlers have been found. Farther south he founded Cerne, possibly on the Río de Oro, as a trading post. He evidently reached the coast of present Gambia or of Sierra Leone and may have ventured as far as Cameroon. An account of his voyage was written in the temple of Baal at Carthage and survives in a 10th-century-AD Greek manuscript known as Periplus of Hannon, which claims to be an ancient Greek translation from the Punic inscription. Modern scholars doubt whether Hanno actually continued beyond Morocco.

▪ Carthaginian ruler
also called Hanno The Great
flourished 3rd century BC

      leader of the aristocratic pro-Roman faction at Carthage during the Second Punic War (Punic War, Second) (218–201) between Rome and Carthage. In 241 Hanno was given command against the Carthaginian mercenaries who had raised a rebellion among the native North African peoples subject to Carthage. Nevertheless, his incompetence as a general soon forced him to share the command with Hamilcar Barca, and together they crushed the uprising (238). Hanno's political popularity at Carthage rested on his domination of the North African tribesmen, from whom he exacted high taxes. As spokesman for the landed nobility, he opposed the policy of foreign conquest pursued by Hamilcar Barca and his son Hannibal in the interests of the commercial classes. Hence, during the Second Punic War, Hanno undermined support in Carthage for Hannibal's military efforts in Spain and Italy. After Hannibal's defeat, Hanno helped negotiate a peace with the Romans.

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