Greenlander, n.Greenlandish, adj.
/green"leuhnd, -land'/, n.
a self-governing island belonging to Denmark, located NE of North America: the largest island in the world. 55,558; ab. 844,000 sq. mi. (2,186,000 sq. km); over 700,000 sq. mi. (1,800,000 sq. km) icecapped. Cap.: Godthåb.

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Introduction Greenland
Background: The world's largest non-continental island, about 84% ice-capped, Greenland was granted self- government in 1978 by the Danish parliament. The law went into effect the following year. Denmark continues to exercise control of Greenland's foreign affairs. Geography Greenland -
Location: Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada
Geographic coordinates: 72 00 N, 40 00 W
Map references: Arctic Region
Area: total: 2,166,086 sq km land: 2,166,086 sq km (410,449 sq km ice-free, 1,755,637 sq km ice- covered) (est.)
Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 44,087 km
Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line territorial sea: 3 NM
Climate: arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Gunnbjorn 3,700 m
Natural resources: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, gold, platinum, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas
Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island Environment - current issues: protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting
Geography - note: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap People Greenland
Population: 56,376 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.3% (male 7,561; female 7,284) 15-64 years: 68.1% (male 20,880; female 17,489) 65 years and over: 5.6% (male 1,442; female 1,720) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.03% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 16.27 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 7.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: -8.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.19 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/ female total population: 1.13 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 17.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.69 years female: 72.32 years (2002 est.) male: 65.13 years
Total fertility rate: 2.43 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA% HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 100 (1999)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Greenlander(s) adjective: Greenlandic
Ethnic groups: Greenlander 88% (Inuit and Greenland-born whites), Danish and others 12% (January 2000)
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran
Languages: Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English
Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA% note: similar to Denmark proper Government Greenland
Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Greenland local short form: Kalaallit Nunaat local long form: none
Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979
Government type: parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy
Capital: Nuuk (Godthab) Administrative divisions: 3 districts (landsdele); Avannaa (Nordgronland), Tunu (Ostgronland), Kitaa (Vestgronland) note: there are 18 municipalities in Greenland
Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979) note: foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland
National holiday: June 21 (longest day)
Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system: Danish
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Gunnar MARTENS (since NA 1995) note: government coalition - Siumut and Atasuut Party election results: Jonathan MOTZFELDT reelected prime minister; percent of parliamentary vote - 57.3% head of government: Prime Minister Jonathan MOTZFELDT (since 19 September 1997) cabinet: Home Rule Government is elected by the Parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties elections: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by Parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election last held 16 February 1999 (next to be held NA February 2003)
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Landstinget (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) note: two representatives were elected to the Danish Parliament or Folketing on 20 November 2001 (next to be held no later than November 2005); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Siumut 1, Inuit Ataqatigiit 1 election results: percent of vote by party - Siumut 35.2%, Inuit Ataqatigiit 22.1%, Atassut Party 25.2%, Candidate's League 12.3%, independent 5.2%; seats by party - Siumut 11, Atassut 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit 7, Candidate List 4, independent 1 elections: last held on 16 February 1999 (next to be held by NA February 2003)
Judicial branch: High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen) Political parties and leaders: Akulliit Party [Bjarne KREUTZMANN]; Atassut Party (Solidarity, a conservative party favoring continuing close relations with Denmark) [Daniel SKIFTE]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood, a leftist party favoring complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule) [Josef MOTZFELDT]; Issituup (Polar Party) [Nicolai HEINRICH]; Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List, an independent right-of-center party with no official platform [leader NA]; Siumut (Forward Party, a social democratic party advocating more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark) [Hans ENOKSEN] Political pressure groups and NA
leaders: International organization NC, NIB
participation: Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark) Diplomatic representation from the none (self-governing overseas
US: administrative division of Denmark)
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red, the bottom half is white Economy Greenland -
Economy - overview: The economy remains critically dependent on exports of fish and substantial support from the Danish Government, which supplies about half of government revenues. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in the economy. Despite several interesting hydrocarbon and minerals exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential, and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,000 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA% Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1999 est.)
Labor force: 24,500 (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 10% (2000 est.)
Budget: revenues: $646 million expenditures: $629 million, including capital expenditures of $85 million (1999)
Industries: fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut), handicrafts, hides and skins, small shipyards, mining Industrial production growth rate: NA% Electricity - production: 250 million kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% note: Greenland is shifting its electricity production from fossil fuel to hydroelectric power production (2000) hydro: 0% other: 0% nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 232.5 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: forage crops, garden and greenhouse vegetables; sheep, reindeer; fish
Exports: $264 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 94% (prawns 63%)
Exports - partners: EU (mainly Denmark) 85%, Japan 8%, US 2% (1999)
Imports: $349 million (c.i.f., 2000)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products
Imports - partners: EU (mostly Denmark), Norway, US, Canada
Debt - external: $25 million (1999) Economic aid - recipient: $380 million subsidy from Denmark (1999)
Currency: Danish krone (DKK)
Currency code: DKK
Exchange rates: Danish kroner per US dollar - 8.418 (January 2002), 8.323 (2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997)
Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Greenland Telephones - main lines in use: 25,617 (yearend 1999) Telephones - mobile cellular: 12,676 (yearend 1999)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized in 1995 domestic: microwave radio relay and satellite international: satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean) Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 30,000 (1998 est.) Television broadcast stations: 1 publicly-owned station, some local low-power stations, and three AFRTS (US Air Force) stations (1997)
Televisions: 30,000 (1998 est.)
Internet country code: .gl Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: 17,800 (2001) Transportation Greenland
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total: 150 km paved: 60 km unpaved: 90 km
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Aasiaat (Egedesminde), Ilulissat (Jakobshavn), Kangerlussuaq, Nanortalik, Narsarsuaq, Nuuk (Godthab), Qaqortoq (Julianehab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Tasiilaq (March 2001)
Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,289 GRT/1,500 DWT ships by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 1 (2002 est.)
Airports: 15 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 9 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 5 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 2 (2001) Military Greenland
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark Transnational Issues Greenland Disputes - international: none

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Island country, northeastern North America.

The world's largest island (excluding Australia), it covers 840,000 sq mi (2,175,600 sq km), is located in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is a dependency of Denmark. Population (2002 est.): 56,600. Capital: Nuuk. Two-thirds of the island lies within the Arctic Circle; it is dominated by the massive Greenland Ice Sheet. While fishing is central to the economy, there are commercial mineral deposits, including a large gold deposit discovered in 1989, as well as offshore oil exploration. More than four-fifths of the population are native Greenlanders, principally of Inuit (see Eskimo) descent, residing in coastal areas. The Inuit probably crossed to northwestern Greenland from North America, along the islands of the Canadian Arctic, from 4000 BC to AD 1000. The Norwegian Erik the Red visited Greenland in 982; his son, Leif Eriksson, introduced Christianity in the 11th century. Greenland came under joint Danish-Norwegian rule in the late 14th century. The original Norse settlements became extinct in the 15th century, but Greenland was recolonized by Denmark in 1721. In 1776 Denmark closed the Greenland coast to foreign trade; it was not reopened until 1950. Greenland became part of the Kingdom of Denmark in 1953, and home rule was established in 1979. At the turn of the 21st century, scientists attributed the rapid melting of its ice cap to global warming.

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  the world's largest island, lying in the North Atlantic Ocean, noted for its vast tundra and immense glaciers. Although Greenland remains a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, the island's home-rule government is responsible for most domestic affairs. The Greenlandic people are primarily Inuit ( Eskimo). The capital of Greenland is Nuuk (Godthåb).

  More than three times the size of the U.S. state of Texas, Greenland extends about 1,660 miles (2,670 km) from north to south and more than 650 miles (1,050 km) from east to west at its widest point. Two-thirds of the island lies within the Arctic Circle, and the island's northern extremity extends to within less than 500 miles (800 km) of the North Pole. Greenland is separated from Canada's Ellesmere Island to the north by only 16 miles (26 km). The nearest European country is Iceland, lying about 200 miles (320 km) across the Denmark Strait to the southeast. Greenland's deeply indented coastline is 24,430 miles (39,330 km) long, a distance roughly equivalent to the Earth's circumference at the Equator.

      A submarine ridge no deeper than 600 feet (180 metres) connects the island physically with North America. Structurally, Greenland is an extension of the Canadian Shield, the rough plateau of the Canadian north that is made up of hard Precambrian (Precambrian time) rocks.

 Greenland's major physical feature is its massive ice sheet, which is second only to Antarctica's in size. The Greenland Ice Sheet has an average thickness of 5,000 feet (1,500 metres), reaches a maximum thickness of about 10,000 feet (3,000 metres), and covers more than 700,000 square miles (1,800,000 square km)—over four-fifths of Greenland's total land area. Layers of snow falling on its barren, windswept surface become compressed into ice layers, which constantly move outward to the peripheral glaciers (glacier); the Jakobshavn Glacier, often moving 100 feet (30 metres) a day, is among the world's fastest glaciers. The remaining ice-free land area occupies the country's coastal areas and consists largely of highlands; mountain chains parallel the island's east and west coasts, rising to 12,139 feet (3,700 metres) at Gunnbjørn Mountain in the southeast. These highlands notwithstanding, most parts of the rock floor underlying the Greenland Ice Sheet are in fact at, or slightly beneath, current sea levels.

 Long, deep fjords reach far into both the east and west coasts of Greenland in complex systems, offering magnificent, if desolate, scenery. Along many parts of the coast, the ice sheet fronts directly on the sea, with large chunks breaking off the glaciers and sliding into the water as icebergs (iceberg).

 The climate of Greenland is Arctic, modified only by the slight influence of the Gulf Stream in the southwest. Rapid weather changes, from sunshine to impenetrable blizzards, are common and result from the eastward progression of low-pressure air masses over a permanent layer of cold air above the island's icy interior. Average winter (January) temperatures range from the low 20s F (about −7 °C) in the south to approximately −30 °F (about −34 °C) in the north. Summer temperatures along the southwestern coast average in the mid-40s F (about 7 °C) during July, while the average in the far north is closer to 40 °F (about 4 °C). Greenland experiences about two months of midnight Sun during the summer. Average annual precipitation decreases from more than 75 inches (1,900 mm) in the south to about 2 inches (50 mm) in the north. Large areas of the island can be classified as Arctic deserts because of their limited precipitation. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, scientists posited that global warming was profoundly affecting not only Greenland's climate but also its physical geography. A number of scientists noted, for example, that Greenland's vast ice sheet was shrinking at a highly increased rate.

      The country's plant life is characterized mainly as tundra vegetation and consists of such plants as sedge and cotton grass. Plantlike lichens (lichen) also are common. The limited ice-free areas are almost totally devoid of trees, although some dwarfed birch, willow, and alder scrub do manage to survive in sheltered valleys in the south. Several species of land mammals—including polar bears, musk oxen, reindeer, arctic foxes, snow hares, ermines, and lemmings—can be found on the island. Seals and whales are found in the surrounding waters and were formerly the chief source of nourishment for the Greenlanders. Cod, salmon, flounder, and halibut are important saltwater fish, and the island's rivers contain salmon and Arctic char.

      About four-fifths of Greenlanders are principally of Inuit, or Eskimo, extraction. They are very strongly admixed with early European immigrant strains. More than one-tenth of the people are Danish, most of them born in Denmark.

 The official languages of the island are Greenlandic (also known as Kalaallisut, an Inuit language belonging to the Eskimo-Aleut language (Eskimo-Aleut languages) family) and Danish (a Scandinavian (Scandinavian languages), or North Germanic, language); English is also spoken. Evangelical Lutheranism, the official religion, is followed by nearly two-thirds of the population; about one-third of Greenlanders follow other forms of Christianity. Traditional beliefs, including shamanism, are still practiced by a small minority.

 The population of Greenland is widely dispersed. The large majority of people live in one of the island's 18 municipalities, while the remainder live in villages. Because of emigration levels, Greenland's population growth rate was about zero at the start of the 21st century. Life expectancy is comparable to the world average, with males typically living into their mid-60s and females generally living into their early 70s.

  Greenland's economy has long been based on fishing (commercial fishing). Seal hunting, once the mainstay of the economy, declined drastically in the early 20th century and was supplanted by the fishing, canning, and freezing of cod, shrimp, and other marine life. The island's dependence on the fish industry, which is susceptible to problems of overfishing and fluctuating prices, became a growing concern in the late 20th century. Greenland therefore attempted to diversify its economy, and much emphasis was placed on the tourist industry. Since the 1990s, revenue from tourism has grown significantly. The government, which receives substantial financial aid from Denmark, continues to play a leading role in the economy. Nearly half the labour force works in the public sector.

      Agriculture is possible on about 1 percent of Greenland's total area, in the southern ice-free regions. Hay and garden vegetables are the main crops grown. Commercial sheep farming began in the early 20th century. Reindeer also are raised for meat, and polar bears are sometimes caught for their meat and pelts. However, sea mammals—seals, walruses, and whales—are still the most important source of meat.

      Deposits of cryolite, lead, zinc, silver, and coal were mined at various times in the 20th century, and the island's first gold mine opened in 2004. Exploration has uncovered deposits of uranium, copper, molybdenum, diamonds, and other minerals, but climatic and ecological considerations have limited the exploitation of these resources. It also has been estimated that substantial deposits of oil and natural gas exist off Greenland's coasts. In the late 20th century the island opened its first hydroelectric power plant.

      Besides supplying domestic needs, fish (mainly halibut) and crustaceans (mainly shrimp) constitute Greenland's principal exports. Seal pelts are tanned and used domestically as well as exported, but, due to import bans on seal fur, the international price level is at a minimum. Greenland's chief trading partner is Denmark, although it does conduct trade with other countries as well.

  Roadways in Greenland are limited to short stretches within town limits. Although dogsleds and snowmobiles are used on ice-covered coastal areas and inland, shipping and air service are the principal means of transport. Greenland has a sophisticated digital telecommunications network, as well as a military communications network associated with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the North American radar defense system. The rates of cellular telephone and Internet use rose during the late 20th and early 21st centuries, though usage rates remained lower than those in nearby Canada and in the Nordic countries.

Government and society
      In 1979 the Danish government granted home rule to Greenland. Under this agreement, Greenland remains part of the Danish realm, and each Greenlander is a Danish citizen, enjoying equal rights with all other Danes. Denmark retains control of the island's constitutional affairs, foreign relations, and defense, while Greenland maintains jurisdiction over economic development, municipal regulations, taxes, education, the social-welfare system, cultural affairs, and the state church. Mineral resources are managed jointly by Denmark and Greenland.

      The centre of power in Greenland is the Landsting, a parliament elected to four-year terms by all adults age 18 and older. A number of parties have been represented in the Landsting. Among them are Siumut, a social-democratic party that favours self-determination while maintaining close relations with Denmark; the Demokratiit party, created by a breakaway faction of Siumut; Atassut, a more conservative party that has supported Greenland's present relations with Denmark; and the radical Inuit Ataqatigiit, which calls for full independence from Denmark. The Landsting elects the prime minister as well as the other members of the Landsstyre, a council that assumes the island's executive responsibilities. The prime minister is typically the leader of the majority party in the parliament. Greenland's voters also elect two representatives to the Danish parliament (Folketing). An official known as the high commissioner represents the Danish government in Greenland.

      Using financial grants from Denmark, Greenland's government provides its citizens with a wide range of welfare services. Free health care is available to the island's people as well. These social services have greatly improved Greenlanders' health and living conditions.

      Nine years of education are free and compulsory for Greenlandic children. The island's school system historically had an insufficient number of teachers who were native Greenlandic speakers, and consequently it hired many Danish-speaking and Danish-educated teachers. By the end of the 20th century, however, the number of native Greenlandic-speaking teachers was increasing. Greenlandic is the principal language of instruction in the schools, but Danish also continues to be taught. Greenland offers a large selection of vocational and teacher-training programs, and there is a small university, Ilisimatusarfik (founded as the Inuit Institute in 1983). Nevertheless, many students attend university outside Greenland, especially in Denmark.

Cultural life
  Despite the Western influence exerted by the Danish presence in Greenland and, more recently, by increased access to international mass media, the practice of traditional Inuit ( Eskimo) cultural activities is still of importance. Folk arts such as soapstone carving and drum dancing remain popular, as do kayak building and sailing. The island features a number of museums, including the Greenland National Museum and Archives in Nuuk. Katuaq Cultural Centre, also in Nuuk, hosts concerts, art exhibits, and other cultural events. Numerous sports are played in Greenland: football (soccer) is very popular, as are skiing, badminton, handball, table tennis, tae kwon do, and volleyball. Kalaallit Nunaata Radio (KNR), the island's broadcasting company, offers radio and television programs in Greenlandic and Danish.

      The Inuit ( Eskimo) are believed to have crossed to northwest Greenland from North America, using the islands of the Canadian Arctic as stepping stones, in a series of migrations that stretched from at least 2500 BCE to the early 2nd millennium CE. Each wave of migration represented different Inuit cultures. Several distinct cultures are known, including those classified as Independence I (c. 2500–1800 BCE), Saqqaq (c. 2300–900 BCE), Independence II (c. 1200–700 BCE), Dorset I (c. 600 BCE–100 CE), and Dorset II (c. 700–1200). The most recent arrival was the Thule culture (c. 1100), from which the Inugsuk culture developed during the 12th and 13th centuries.

 In 982 the Norwegian Erik the Red, who had been banished from Iceland for manslaughter, settled on the island today known as Greenland. Returning to Iceland about 985, he described the merits of the newly discovered land, which he called Greenland, and in 986 he organized an expedition to the island that resulted in the development of two main settlements: the East Settlement, near present-day Qaqortoq (Julianehåb), and the West Settlement, near present-day Nuuk (Godthåb). These settlements may have reached a population of 3,000–6,000 on about 280 farms. Christianity arrived in the 11th century by way of Erik's son Leif Eriksson (Leif Eriksson the Lucky), who had just returned from the recently Christianized Norway. A bishop's seat was established in Greenland in 1126.

 Beginning sometime in the 13th century, the Norse (Scandinavian) settlers began to interact with the expanding Inuit Thule culture that had appeared in northern Greenland about 1100. But in the 14th century the Norse settlements declined, perhaps as a result of a cooling in Greenland's climate. In the 15th century they ceased to be inhabited.

      During the 16th and 17th centuries, Dutch and English whalers frequently traveled in the seas around Greenland, and occasionally they interacted with the local population. However, no further attempt at colonization was made until 1721, when Hans Egede, with the permission of the united kingdom of Denmark- Norway, founded a trading company and a Lutheran mission near present-day Nuuk, thus marking the real beginning of Greenland's colonial era. In 1776 the Danish government assumed a full monopoly of trade with Greenland, and the Greenland coast was closed to foreign access; it was not reopened until 1950. During this period Denmark tried gradually to acclimatize the Greenlanders to the outside world without exposing them to the danger of economic exploitation.

      Greenland fell under the protection of the United States during the German occupation of Denmark in World War II and was returned to Denmark in 1945. Following the war, Denmark responded to Greenlanders' complaints over its administration of the island. The monopoly of the Royal Greenland Trading Company was abolished in 1951, and, after Greenland became an integral part of the Kingdom of Denmark in 1953, reforms were undertaken to improve the local economy, transportation systems, and the educational system. Denmark granted home rule to the island on May 1, 1979.

      At the start of the 21st century, there was growing support in Greenland for greater control of its foreign affairs. This arose partly in response to a 2004 agreement allowing the United States to upgrade its missile defense system at Thule Air Base. Inuit who had been forcibly removed from the area surrounding the base in the 1950s sued for the right to return, airing their grievances at the European Court of Human Rights. Some Greenlanders were wary of continued U.S. involvement because the United States had stored nuclear bombs on the island during the Cold War without Greenland's knowledge, despite a Danish ban on such weapons; additionally, in 1968 a U.S. military aircraft carrying four hydrogen bombs had crashed near Thule.

      There were calls for an independent Greenland, and parties campaigning for greater autonomy scored electoral victories in the first decade of the 21st century. In November 2008 more than 75 percent of Greenlanders who voted approved a nonbinding referendum calling for greater autonomy. The proposal, which was formulated by legislators in both Greenland and Denmark, had the tacit approval of the Danish government even before the referendum was held. It would increase the responsibilities of Greenland's government in foreign affairs, immigration, and justice, among other areas, while also granting it the rights to the potentially lucrative hydrocarbon and mineral resources that have become increasingly accessible as result of the island's melting ice cap. It was widely believed that this potential revenue would free Greenland from its economic dependence on Denmark, which many saw as the final stumbling block to complete independence.

Rasmus Ole Rasmussen Ed.

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Universalium. 2010.

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