- glutamic acid
/glooh tam"ik/, Biochem.an amino acid, HOOCCH2CH2CH(NH2)COOH, obtained by hydrolysis from wheat gluten and sugar-beet residues, used commercially chiefly in the form of its sodium salt to intensify the flavor of meat or other food. Abbr.: Glu; Symbol: EAlso, glutaminic acid /glooh"teuh min"ik, glooh'-/.[1870-75; GLUT(EN) + AMIC ACID]
* * *One of the nonessential amino acids, closely related to glutamine.The two constitute a substantial fraction of the amino acids in many proteins (10–20% in many cases and up to 45% in some plant proteins). An important metabolic intermediate as well as a neurotransmitter molecule in the central nervous system, glutamic acid finds uses in medicine and biochemical research. Its sodium salt is the food flavour enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG).
* * *an amino acid occurring in substantial amounts as a product of the hydrolysis of proteins. Certain plant proteins (e.g., gliadin) yield as much as 45 percent of their weight as glutamic acid; other proteins yield 10 to 20 percent. Much of this content may result from the presence of a related substance, glutamine, in proteins; glutamine is converted to glutamic acid when a protein is hydrolyzed. First isolated in 1865, glutamic acid is an important metabolic intermediate. It is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids; i.e., animals can synthesize it from oxoglutaric acid (formed in the metabolism of carbohydrates) and do not require dietary sources. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a salt of glutamic acid, is sometimes used as a condiment for flavouring foods.
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