/glos"teuhr, glaw"steuhr/, n.1. Duke of. See Humphrey.2. a seaport in W Gloucestershire in SW England, on the Severn River. 90,700.3. a seaport in NE Massachusetts. 27,768.4. Gloucestershire.
* * *ancient GlevumCity and administrative district (pop., 2001: 109,888), administrative and historic county of Gloucestershire, southwestern England.The county seat of Gloucestershire, it lies on the River Severn and is linked by ship canal to docks in the Severn estuary. It was founded as the Roman colony of Glevum in AD 96–98. An abbey was founded there in 681; the town later became the capital of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. Important economically even before the Norman Conquest (1066), it was incorporated in 1483 and continued to flourish as a trading centre. It has varied industries, including the manufacture of railway rolling stock and aircraft, and light and heavy engineering works.
* * *city (district), administrative and historic county of Gloucestershire, England, lying on the River Severn between the Cotswolds (to the east) and the northern part of the Forest of Dean. A 16-mile (26-kilometre) ship canal links Gloucester to Sharpness docks in the Severn estuary of the Bristol Channel.Gloucester was the Roman colonia of Glevum, founded by the emperor Nerva, 96–98 CE. The foundation of the abbey of St. Peter by King Osric of Northumbria in 681 favoured the town's growth, and it became the capital of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. Before the Norman Conquest (1066) the community was already a borough with a royal residence and a mint. Henry II (reigned 1154–89) granted the first of many charters, and city status was confirmed in 1605. Gloucester had an iron trade before the Conquest, and the seaborne trade in grain and wine existed before the reign (1189–99) of Richard I. A tanning industry later developed, bell founding was introduced in the 14th century, and the cloth trade flourished from the 12th to the 16th century. Although the cathedral originated in the abbey of 681, the present building was dedicated in 1100. The abbey was disbanded during the dissolution of the monasteries (1536–39) under Henry VIII but became the seat of a bishopric in 1541.Gloucester's varied industries include the manufacture of railway rolling stock, aircraft and components, agricultural implements, and insulating material. There are both light and heavy engineering works and long-established timber mills. The Severn fisheries are also notable. Gloucester is the county town (seat) of Gloucestershire. Area 16 square miles (41 square km). Pop. (2004 est.) 110,800.city, Essex county, northeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies on the southern shore of Cape Ann (Ann, Cape), facing Massachusetts Bay, about 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Boston. Gloucester Harbor was first visited and mapped by Samuel de Champlain in 1605–06, and the site (at Stage Fort Park) was settled by colonists from Dorchester, England, in 1623. Named for Gloucester, England, and incorporated as a town in 1642, it has flourished as a maritime and fishing centre since that time. Its fishermen sailed from the Capes of Virginia to Greenland and Iceland; the Fisherman's Memorial, a bronze statue facing the harbour, honours those lost at sea (said to total more than 10,000). Since the late 19th century, the traditional Yankee fishermen have been reinforced by Portuguese and Italian immigrants. Gloucester's maritime heritage inspired many books, including Rudyard Kipling (Kipling, Rudyard)'s Captains Courageous (1897) and James B. Connolly (Connolly, James)'s Gloucestermen (1930). Norman's Woe, an area just off Cape Ann, was the setting of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem “The Wreck of the Hesperus.”Fisheries and fish-based industries remain the economic mainstays. With its scenic rocky coast and colonial atmosphere, the city has also developed summer resort business. Tourist attractions include the Hammond Castle Museum (1929), the Cape Ann Historical Museum, and City Reservoirs recreational areas. Inc. city, 1873. Pop. (1990) 28,716; (2000) 30,273.county, southwestern New Jersey, U.S., bordered by Pennsylvania to the northwest (the Delaware River constituting the boundary), the Great Egg Harbor River to the east and southeast, and Oldmans Creek to the southwest. It consists of a lowland region drained by the Maurice and Great Egg Harbor rivers. Oak and pine trees are predominant in wooded areas. Wildlife management areas are located near Glassboro and along the southeastern border. Red Bank Battlefield marks the site of Fort Mercer, which Hessian soldiers unsuccessfully attacked in 1777 during the U.S. War of Independence (American Revolution).In the 17th century, Swedes, Dutch, and English Quakers were among the early European settlers of the region, displacing native Delaware Indians. Gloucester county was created in 1686 and named for Gloucester, Eng. It includes several residential suburbs of Philadelphia and Camden. Woodbury is the seat and the commercial centre of the county. Rowan College of New Jersey was founded in Glassboro in 1923. Other communities include Deptford and Paulsboro.The economy is based on retail trade and agriculture, particularly livestock (hogs and cattle), fruits (peaches and apples), and vegetables (peppers and asparagus). Area 325 square miles (841 square km). Pop. (2000) 254,673; (2007 est.) 285,753.
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