gall wasp

gall wasp
any wasp of the family Cynipidae, the larvae of which form characteristic galls on plants.

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 any of a group of wasps in the family Cynipidae (order Hymenoptera) that are notable for their ability to stimulate the growth of galls (gall) (tissue swellings) on plants. Some gall wasp species are gall inquilines, meaning they do not cause the formation of galls but inhabit those made by other insects. The overgrowth of tissue, or gall, presumably is caused by a substance secreted by the immature insect living within it.

      Adults of most of the approximately 600 species of gall wasps that occur in North America are about 6 to 8 mm (about 0.25 to 0.30 inch) long and black. The shiny abdomen is oval, and the thorax has a sculptured appearance.

      A given species of gall wasp will cause a characteristic type of gall to form on a certain part of a particular species of plant. Many of these wasps attack oak trees or rose plants.

      Male gall wasps are rare, and reproduction usually occurs by parthenogenesis (i.e., larvae develop from unfertilized eggs). The egg passes through the long ovipositor of the female and into the plant tissue. After the egg hatches into a larva, it begins to secrete materials that cause the plant tissues around it to begin to grow faster than normal. The gall increases in size as the larva grows. The larva feeds on the plant tissue within the gall and pupates and transforms into an adult within the gall.

      The so-called oak apple, a round, spongy, fruitlike object about 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 inches) in diameter, is caused by the larvae of the gall wasp Biorhiza pallida. About 30 such larvae may develop in a single “apple,” or gall. The marble gall, a green or brown growth about 2.5 cm (1 inch) in diameter, is caused by Andricus kollari. The bedeguar gall (also called moss gall, or robin's pincushion), which may contain about 50 or more larvae, is commonly seen on rose bushes and is caused by the gall wasp Diplolepis rosae.

      Most gall wasps are not economically important. However, the galls of some species have been used as a source of tannic acid (tannin) or in the manufacture of inks (ink) or dyes (dye).

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Gall wasp — Gall Gall (g[add]l), n. [F. galle, noix de galle, fr. L. galla.] (Zo[ o]l.) An excrescence of any form produced on any part of a plant by insects or their larvae. They are most commonly caused by small Hymenoptera and Diptera which puncture the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • gall wasp — gall′ wasp n. ent any wasp of the family Cynipidae, the larvae of which form characteristic galls on plants • Etymology: 1875–80 …   From formal English to slang

  • gall wasp — n. any of a family (Cynipidae) of tiny hymenopteran insects whose larvae produce galls in plants, esp. oaks and roses …   English World dictionary

  • gall wasp — noun small solitary wasp that produces galls on oaks and other plants • Syn: ↑gallfly, ↑cynipid wasp, ↑cynipid gall wasp • Hypernyms: ↑wasp • Member Holonyms: ↑Cynipidae, ↑family Cynipid …   Useful english dictionary

  • gall wasp — noun Date: 1879 any of a family (Cynipidae) of hymenopterous gallflies …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • gall wasp — noun Any insect of the family, whose larvae damage trees, particularly oak trees, creating galls on the branches …   Wiktionary

  • gall wasp — noun a small winged insect whose larvae form galls in the food plant. [Superfamily Cynipoidea, order Hymenoptera: several genera.] …   English new terms dictionary

  • gall wasp — /ˈgɔl wɒsp/ (say gawl wosp) noun any of various wasps, as those of the family Cymipidae, whose larvae cause galls on plants …  

  • cynipid gall wasp — noun small solitary wasp that produces galls on oaks and other plants • Syn: ↑gall wasp, ↑gallfly, ↑cynipid wasp • Hypernyms: ↑wasp • Member Holonyms: ↑Cynipidae, ↑family Cynipidae …   Useful english dictionary

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