/gah"beuhr/, n.
an Iranian Zoroastrian.
Also, Gheber.
[ < Pers < Ar kafir; see KAFFIR]

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Derogatory name applied to Iranian Zoroastrians.

The word may derive from the Arabic kāfir ("infidel"). After the Muslim conquest of Persia in the 7th century BC, the Zoroastrians became an outcast minority, saddled with many social and economic disabilities. Since the 19th century they have received support from the Parsis of India. Persecuted after the Islamic fundamentalist revolution of 1978–79, they currently number a few thousand. See also Zoroastrianism and Parsiism.

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▪ Zoroastrian group, Iran
      any member of the small Zoroastrian minority in Iran. The name Gabar was formerly applied derogatorily to the Iranian Zoroastrians; the term is linguistically related to the Arabic kāfir, meaning “infidel.” The Zoroastrians who remained in Persia (modern Iran) after the Arab–Muslim conquest (7th century AD) had a long history as outcasts. Although they purchased some toleration by paying the jizya (poll tax), not abolished until 1882, they were treated as an inferior race, had to wear distinctive garb, and were not allowed to ride horses or bear arms. They were concentrated in Kermān and Yazd, where Zoroastrians still maintain fire temples. Many also live in Teherān. Long isolated, the Iranian Zoroastrians made contact with the Parsis, the wealthy Zoroastrians of India, in the 15th century, and exchanged messages concerning religious lore. Since the 19th century the Parsis have taken a lively interest in improving the depressed condition of their Iranian coreligionists. They organized a society that raised funds to provide general aid and, especially, facilities for education. With the support of British ambassadors, their representatives remonstrated with the Persian government over discrimination against Zoroastrians. Beginning with the reign of Reza Shah (1921–41), the Iranian Zoroastrians enjoyed wider religious tolerance for decades until the Islāmic revolution of 1978–79. They currently number a few thousand.

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Universalium. 2010.

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