/flawr"i deuh, flor"-/, n.a state in the SE United States between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. 9,739,992. 58,560 sq. mi. (151,670 sq. km). Cap.: Tallahassee. Abbr.: FL (for use with zip code), Fla.
* * *State (pop., 2000: 15,982,378), southeastern U.S. Comprising a peninsula and adjoining mainland areas, it is bordered by Alabama and Georgia, with the Gulf of Mexico lying to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.It covers 58,680 sq mi (151,981 sq km); its capital is Tallahassee. Indian groups entered Florida from the north as early as 10,000 years ago. It was explored by Juan Ponce de León с 1513, and in 1565 Spaniards founded St. Augustine. Florida became a British possession in 1763 after the French and Indian War. The area reverted to Spanish control after the American Revolution (1783) but was used by the British as a base of operations during the War of 1812. Andrew Jackson's capture of Pensacola during that war led to the cession of Florida to the U.S. in 1819. A war with the Seminole Indians followed (see Seminole Wars). Florida became a state in 1845. It seceded from the Union in 1861, then was readmitted in 1868. In the late 20th century, it became one of the fastest growing states in the U.S. It produces about 75% of the nation's citrus fruits and is second only to California in vegetable production. Tourism is a leading industry, with Disney World a major attraction. Electronics manufacture is important, and the aerospace industry, led by the Kennedy Space Center (see Cape Canaveral), employs many thousands of people. The state, and especially the city of Miami, with its large Cuban population, plays a major economic role in the Caribbean region. Among its many recreational areas is Everglades National Park.
* * *▪ Cubacity, east-central Cuba. Lying just north of the Muñoz River, Florida is a rail junction and manufacturing centre for the surrounding agricultural and pastoral lands. The principal agricultural products of the area are sugarcane and oranges. Cattle also are raised. Large sugar refineries are located on the outskirts of Florida, which is on the central highway and a major railroad. Pop. (2002) 53,847.▪ Uruguaycity, south-central Uruguay, on the Santa Lucía Chico River. Founded in 1809, the city processes the wheat, corn (maize), oats, sugar beets, linseed, and other products of the agricultural hinterland. Lumber mills and factories manufacturing textiles, mosaics, and hosiery also are located in the city.The surrounding region is characterized by rolling hills. In addition to its agricultural activities, the area is noted for cattle and sheep ranching. Viticulture, dairying, and quarrying of granite, limestone, marble, and iron are also economically important.The city of Florida has a poultry-farming school. Florida is situated on the main highway and railroad linking Montevideo and Rivera, and it has an airport. Pop. (2004) 32,128.IntroductionFlorida, flag of constituent state of the United States of America. Admitted as the 27th state in 1845, it is the most populous of the Southern states. The capital is Tallahassee, located in the northwestern panhandle.Geographic location has been the key factor in Florida's long and colourful development, and it helps explain the striking contemporary character of the state. The greater part of Florida lies on a peninsula that protrudes southeastward from the North American continent, separating the waters of the Atlantic Ocean from those of the Gulf of Mexico (Mexico, Gulf of) and pointing toward Cuba and the Caribbean Sea beyond. Florida shares a land border with only two other states, both along its northern boundary: Georgia (east) and Alabama (west). The nearest foreign territory is the island of Bimini (Bimini Islands) in the Bahamas (Bahamas, The), some 50 miles (80 km) to the east of the state's southern tip. Florida is the southernmost of the 48 conterminous United States, its northernmost point lying about 100 miles (160 km) farther south than California's southern border. The Florida Keys, a crescent of islands that forms the state's southernmost portion, extend to within about 75 miles (120 km) of the Tropic of Cancer (Cancer and Capricorn, Tropics of). Florida's marine shoreline totals more than 8,400 miles (13,500 km), including some 5,100 miles (8,200 km) along the gulf; among U.S. states, only Alaska has a longer coastline.The state lies close to both the geographic and population centres of the Western Hemisphere, in a position that not only commands one entrance to the Gulf of Mexico but also overlooks a strategic crossroads between North and South America and historic routes to the European and Mediterranean worlds. The Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León (Ponce de León, Juan) landed there in 1513, named the territory La Florida (meaning “The Flower” in Spanish), and claimed it for Spain. Florida played a prominent role in the historic struggles of European powers to control the Americas and the Caribbean. St. Augustine (Saint Augustine), founded in 1565 on Florida's northeastern coast, is the oldest European settlement within what were to become the boundaries of the continental United States.The climate and scenery of the “Sunshine State” have long attracted enormous numbers of visitors. Tourism has surpassed agriculture and manufacturing as the main component of Florida's economy, and the prospect of employment in the state's rapidly growing service sector has simultaneously drawn many immigrants, mostly from Latin America. Consequently, Florida has regularly ranked among the states with the fastest-growing immigrant population. Area 58,599 square miles (151,771 square km). Pop. (2000) 15,982,378; (2006 est.) 18,089,888.LandReliefFlorida is a geologically young, low-lying plain, mostly less than 100 feet (30 metres) above sea level. The highest point is near the Alabama border in Walton county, a mere 345 feet (105 metres) above sea level. Sedimentary deposits of sand and limestone cover most of the state, with areas of peat and muck marking locations where freshwater bodies once stood. The contemporary topography has been largely molded by running water, waves, ocean currents, winds, changes in sea level, and the wearing away of limestone rocks by solution. These forces have produced enough variation in the state's surface to permit classification into seven basic physiographic regions: the coastal lowlands, the Lake Okeechobee (Okeechobee, Lake)– Everglades basin, the Kissimmee lowlands, the Marianna lowlands, the central highlands, the Tallahassee hills, and the western highlands, though these divisions are scarcely apparent to the naked eye.The coastal lowlands occupy roughly three-fourths of the surface and vary in width from about 10 to 100 miles (16 to 160 km). Generally, the region is exceedingly flat and is often less than 25 feet (8 metres) above sea level. Much of the area is swampy, and in the eastern part of the state numerous former beach ridges parallel one another. Offshore barrier bars (beaches) rim much of the region and account for most of Florida's finest beaches.The Lake Okeechobee–Everglades basin and the Kissimmee lowlands are actually subdivisions of the coastal lowlands, but their uniqueness justifies separate designations. The former is 150 miles (240 km) long and 50 miles (80 km) wide and is technically a shallow, slow-moving river (the Everglades is often called a “river of grass”). The northern portion has been modified with canals, dikes, and pumping stations and is Florida's principal zone of sugarcane production. The southern portion retains much of its pre-European flavour and is protected within the confines of Everglades National Park. The Kissimmee lowlands are about the size of the Lake Okeechobee–Everglades basin and include the broad valley of the Kissimmee River, the major source for water flowing southward to Lake Okeechobee. Much of this region is a flat grassland dominated by pastures and cattle ranches.The Marianna lowlands constitute a small region in the northwestern panhandle, bounded on the east by the Apalachicola River (Apalachicola) and on the west by the Choctawhatchee River. The region is heavily eroded and has numerous sinkholes and caves.The Marianna lowlands separate the Tallahassee hills, to the east, from the western highlands, which extend to the Alabama border on the west. Both of these regions are about the same size (40 by 100 miles [65 by 160 km]), and both are ancient upland plains that have been dissected by streams. Together, they form a beautiful undulating terrain that is the most important zone for the production of field crops in Florida.The central highlands lie between the Suwannee River, on the eastern side of the Tallahassee hills, and the St. Johns River (Saint Johns River), which separates the highlands from the eastern coastal lowlands. The region extends southward from the Georgia border to the area of Arcadia and Sebring, a distance of some 400 miles (640 km); its width varies from 50 to 75 miles (80 to 120 km). The land is rolling and dotted with thousands of lakes, and the central and southern portions of the region contain most of Florida's citrus acreage.Drainage and soilsThe flat Florida landscape is covered by a latticework of some 1,700 streams (mostly in the north and northwest) and tens of thousands of lakes (mostly in the central region). The state also contains a significant portion of the country's first-magnitude artesian springs, most located in the central region. There are numerous drainage basins, of which the Lake Okeechobee (Okeechobee, Lake)–Everglades basin (17,000 square miles [44,000 square km]) is the largest. Lake Okeechobee (700 square miles [1,800 square km]) is the third largest freshwater lake entirely within the United States (after Lake Michigan (Michigan, Lake) and Alaska's Iliamna Lake). This vast water network is fed by the state's porous limestone substructure, which stores large quantities of water.In general, Florida's soils consist of sand, sandy loam, clay, peat, and muck, but more than 300 soil types have been mapped. Six broad soil regions may be described: (1) The flatwood lowland soils form the largest soil region in Florida, which corresponds to the coastal lowlands. The terrain there is level and underlaid by a hardpan that impedes drainage and encourages flooding. (2) Organic soils are found in many parts of Florida, particularly in the Lake Okeechobee–Everglades basin. In this soggy environment, submergence often prevents the oxidation, decay, and shrinkage of peat and muck, but when the soils are drained they deteriorate rapidly. (3) Southern limestone soils occur in the Kissimmee valley, the Big Cypress Swamp, and the Miami-Homestead area. (4) Northern upland soils, from dry sands to well-drained loams, occur in the region stretching across the north of the state. (5) Northern slope soils, usually considered a distinct region, lie immediately to the south. (6) Central upland soils are located in the higher ridge area of central Florida, westward to the Apalachicola River. There are a number of other zones of soils, including the dunes that fringe the magnificent beaches, as well as swamps that extend into the state's interior.ClimateClimatically, Florida is divided into two regions. The tropical zone lies generally south of a west-east line drawn from Bradenton along the south shore of Lake Okeechobee to Vero Beach, while north of this line the state is subtropical. Summers are uniform throughout Florida. Freezing weather of short duration (but often crippling to agriculture) can occur as far south as Miami, but the Keys (Florida Keys) have never had frost.Rainfall is heaviest in summer, with drier weather prevailing in the winter months. The average annual rainfall ranges from 40 inches (1,000 mm) in Key West to 62 inches (1,575 mm) in West Palm Beach. Snow falls occasionally in the northern areas and has been reported as far south as Miami. The west coast of the state is particularly prone to lightning strikes in the summer months. Hurricanes (tropical cyclones (tropical cyclone)) strike the state about once a year on the average, although Florida is no more vulnerable to these storms than are the other Gulf Coast states or, indeed, the entire Atlantic coast as far north as Boston. The hurricane season is from June to November, though September is the month during which they are most likely to occur. Among the more notable storms are the Great Hurricane (1928), which killed thousands of Floridians and has remained the most deadly to hit the state; and Hurricane Andrew (1992), which devastated southern Florida and caused extensive property damage.Average annual temperatures show little variation, ranging from 68 °F (20 °C) in Tallahassee in the north to 77 °F (25 °C) at Key West in the south. Corresponding monthly averages range from the mid-40s °F (6 to 8 °C) in the north to the mid-50s °F (12 to 14 °C) in the south in January, and are in the lower 80s °F (27 to 29 °C) in August.Plant and animal lifeThousands of plant species have been documented in Florida. Of these, several hundred are trees, many growing in the forested areas that cover about half of the state. Pines, oaks, cypresses, palms, and mangroves are the dominant varieties. Many tropical trees thrive in the state's southern regions, while beech, red maple, sweet gum, tulip (yellow poplar), magnolia, and hickory are common in the north. Nearly half of the tree species found in the United States grow in Florida.Vegetation in the state generally varies according to soil type. Slash and longleaf pine, oak, sabal palm, and grass are typical of the flatwood lowland region, while organic soils support saw grass, cypress, sabal palm, myrtle, willow, elderberry, and gum. In the limestone region, pines and oaks grow in some areas, but grasses, saw palmettos, and sabal palms predominate in the Kissimmee valley. Species of cypress, bay, and gumbo-limbo—a tall tree with a brown, brightly lacquered trunk—are characteristic of the extreme southern areas of the limestone zone. Northern upland soils support hardwoods, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. A mixture of slash and longleaf pine, oak, and saw palmetto grows in the soils of the northern slopes and central uplands, while lush, dank mangrove swamps—along with tropical hardwoods, sand pine, and oak—are found in Ocala National Forest, in the north-central part of the state.Florida's rich and distinctive tropical and subtropical habitats are inhabited by a vast and varied wildlife population; the rarer forms, such as the crocodile, manatee (sea cow), and puma (known locally as the Florida panther [Puma concolor coryi]), are protected. About 100 species of mammals are found in the state, including deer, pumas, bobcats, boars, black bears, armadillos, otters, mink, and gray foxes; smaller animals are also numerous. Manatees (manatee) are found along the coast and in warm inland waters, and several species of porpoises and dolphins lend their distinctive character to the clear coastal waters.More than 400 species and subspecies of birds have been documented, although that number increases as new birds migrate and are identified each year. Land birds include turkeys, quail, doves, eagles, hawks, owls, and most smaller birds common to the southeastern states; aquatic species such as gulls, brown pelicans, sandpipers, ospreys, and cormorants are also numerous. Birds peculiar to freshwater and marsh regions include gallinules, ducks, geese, coots, egrets, herons, and ibises. There are vast natural rookeries in the Everglades and elsewhere, and numerous wildlife refuges are maintained for the protection of migratory birds and other animals.The alligator is the king of Florida's reptiles, and its role as a builder of water holes is vital to the ecology of the southern part of the state. The related crocodile, an endangered species, still inhabits part of Everglades National Park. More than 40 species of snakes are found in the state, including the country's four poisonous types: the coral snake, rattlesnake, water moccasin (cottonmouth), and copperhead (the latter inhabits limited areas of northern Florida). Turtles, tortoises, lizards, and frogs are also abundant.Florida's roughly 6,250 square miles (16,185 square km) of water (of which some 4,375 square miles [11,330 square km] are inland) contain several hundred species of fish and shellfish. Common saltwater varieties include bluefish, pompano, flounder, mackerel, mullet, trout, redfish, snappers, groupers, snook, sailfish, tarpon, shad, weakfish, bonefish, marlins, and sharks. Crawfish, oysters, stone and blue crabs, clams, and shrimp are among the common shellfish. The largemouth black bass is the state's foremost freshwater species; other freshwater fish include bream (bluegill), sunfish, speckled perch, and catfish.PeoplePopulation compositionNative Americans, the original inhabitants of Florida, now constitute only a small portion of the population. In the early 21st century about 2,500 Seminole, largely descendents of those who successfully resisted U.S. government-enforced relocation in the 19th century, were living on several reservations in the southern part of the state.A significant population of European ancestry (white) began to develop when the United States established effective civil control in 1822. Immigrants from northern Spain came to Tampa about the time of World War I, attracted especially by the expanding cigar industry and by the prospect of living in a Spanish-speaking community. Italians also came in large numbers after World War I.Tarpon Springs was settled about 1880, and by 1905 Greek immigrants, drawing on the traditions of their homeland, had established a sponge industry there. Other ethnic contributions lending character to the overall population of the state range from a large Jewish community at Miami–Miami Beach to a Slovak settlement at Masaryktown. White people of non-Hispanic origin have come to constitute the largest segment of the state's population.It is not known when the first people of African descent arrived in Florida, but it is known that some accompanied the first Spanish expeditions. A few runaway slaves came to live with the Seminoles, but it was only with U.S. rule that the black population began to increase. By 1830 there were as many African slaves as there were white residents (about 11,000). The increase of the black population coincided with the development of the Southern plantation system, mainly in northern Florida. The American Civil War ended slavery, but the agricultural patterns remained, and not until the end of the 19th century did an influx of new settlers cause the white population to increase faster than the black. The black proportion of the state's population has continued to decline in the early 21st century, to less than one-fifth of the total; however, larger percentages are still found in the old plantation belt (north-central Florida) and in the Everglades truck-farming region.Cubans came to Key West after 1868 when, as a result of revolutionary turmoil in Cuba, Vicente Martínez Ybor moved his cigar factories there from Havana. Labour troubles and a disastrous fire encouraged Ybor to move again in 1886, this time to Tampa, and again many Cubans followed the factories. A similar influx occurred in the early 1960s after the Cuban Revolution, when more than 350,000 Cubans fled their homeland. Some one-third of these settled in Florida (mostly in the Miami area) during the decade. Still another wave of Cubans arrived in Florida in 1980, and about 80,000 were integrated (albeit uneasily) into the Cuban community around Miami. Latinos as a whole make up nearly two-fifths of the state's population, and some areas, particularly in the southern part of the state, are primarily Spanish-speaking.Settlement patterns and demographic trendsNorthern and southern Florida are often distinguished as separate regions. Northern Florida is generally a cooler, historically older, rural, and hilly area, oriented toward field agriculture and forestry. Southern Florida is a warmer, flat, urban area, the more recently settled region of the state, with an economy based on tourism, citrus fruits, vegetables, and livestock. Two well-known parts of the state are the Gold Coast, the Miami–West Palm Beach metropolitan sprawl in the southeast, and the Suncoast (or Sun Coast), which stretches along the gulf from the Tampa Bay area southward to the vicinity of Fort Myers.The great majority of the population lives in urban areas, and only a tiny percentage lives on farms. The densest concentration is along the extensive Miami– Fort Lauderdale– Boca Raton–West Palm Beach urban complex in the southeast. This area appears to many observers to be duplicating the less desirable aspects of the great urban belts burgeoning in other parts of the country. On the west coast the Tampa–St. Petersburg (Saint Petersburg) metropolitan area contains another concentration of population. Farther north the Daytona Beach–Cape Canaveral (Canaveral, Cape)– Orlando triangle is central Florida's dominant urban area, Jacksonville is the major hub of the upper east coast and southeastern Georgia, and Pensacola dominates the western panhandle and part of southern Alabama. Lesser metropolitan areas—including Tallahassee, Gainesville, and Fort Myers—are hubs of local influence.Florida's favourable climate and geographic position have led to two major types of migration: retirement-age people who come to Florida from the North and political and economic refugees who enter the state from Latin America. Both of these movements have severely taxed the state's ability to support the needy. A significant proportion of the state's population is over 65 years of age. However, there is also a burgeoning young population that has resulted largely from the mass immigration of people from Latin America.EconomyBy the late 1800s, citrus farming for shipment to the national market, phosphate mining, the lumber industry, and cigar manufacturing were of growing importance in Florida's economy. About the same time, tourism started to develop during the winter months. The tourism sector grew consistently over the subsequent decades, and by the early 21st century it accounted for the largest single portion of the state's economy. A land boom in the early 20th century focused entrepreneurs on real estate and construction, though sustained prosperity from those activities came only after World War II. Since then, Florida's economic growth has been among the fastest of all U.S. states, driven largely by services (including retail trade), transportation, and construction—all of which reflect the expanding role of tourism and the rise in population. Manufacturing, on the contrary, constitutes a relatively small part of the economy. Once centred on the processing of citrus products, it has come to include the fabrication of computers and electronic devices and the production of transportation equipment—both now key industries in Florida.Agriculture, forestry, and fishingTo a stranger entering the state from the north, the Florida landscape may appear devoid of human imprint. It is being used, but the use is of a type unfamiliar to many visitors. About half of Florida's area consists of commercial, national, and state forests, state and federal parks, lakes, beaches, and military reservations. About two-fifths of the state is farmland, and much of this is in either pasture or timber. Only a small fraction of Florida's total land is used for harvested crops.Farmsteads are common in northern Florida, where field crops are important, but even there timber covers vast areas. Citrus groves occupy much of central Florida and the east coast, while vast expanses of cattle land spread along the west coast and north and south of the citrus belt. In the southern part of the state, the cultivation of sugarcane and vegetables around Lake Okeechobee (Okeechobee, Lake) has produced the present-day equivalent of plantation agriculture. The small, private farm has little place in these systems, having been superseded by mechanization and the use of migratory labour. The adverse social conditions of migrant workers, which have occasionally given rise to national concern, remain one of the negative aspects of a generally affluent state. The rise of corporate agriculture has led to an inevitable increase in farm size and a corresponding reduction in farm numbers.Florida, famous especially for its oranges, produces the bulk of the country's citrus fruit and is second only to California in vegetable production. Citrus fruits account for a significant portion of farm receipts, and Florida's grapefruit production not only is the highest in the country but also represents a large proportion of the world total. Tomatoes are the leading vegetable crop. Sugarcane is the primary Florida field crop, and the state produces roughly half of the country's total.Forestry activities are supported by about half of the state (mostly in the north), and livestock raising is practiced on the state's large grasslands (mostly in the central and southern areas). Commerical fishing long has been an important element of the state's economy, although productivity started to decline in the 1990s. Aquaculture is also significant and includes the raising of aquatic plants and tropical fish for aquariums as well as various shellfish and finfish for human consumption. Cooperatives exist to help market fish and other aquatic products.ResourcesDirectly or indirectly, Florida's tropical and subtropical climate affects nearly every aspect of the local economy, and it can be quite justifiably considered the state's chief resource. Together with land and water—both of which have contributed to economic development—climate forms the basis of the state's wealth. The water resources, important to the fishing industry and tourism alike, include not only a vast expanse of fresh inland water but also a large area of adjacent salt water.Florida yields several important minerals. Phosphate, which is used in fertilizer and livestock feed and by the chemical industry, is found in the west-central portion of the state. Although production began to decline in the early 21st century, Florida continues to contribute a major portion of the national and global phosphate supply. Ores of titanium, zircon, and such other important heavy minerals as thorium and cerium are mined near Jacksonville, Starke, and Vero Beach and in west-central Florida. Petroleum is produced in the northwest and the southwest. Kaolin (china clay) is mined in Putnam county; fuller's earth comes from the Tallahassee region; and clay, sand, and gravel are mined in numerous locations, with pure silica sand extracted mostly in areas around the 100-foot (30-metre) contour line. Limestone, from the northern portion of the peninsula, is used as building stone and road-surfacing material and in cement, concrete, and fertilizer; peat, used as a soil conditioner, is dug in many areas. The versatility of the marine resources of Florida is indicated by a plant at Port St. Joe on the Gulf Coast for the recovery of magnesium from seawater.ManufacturingManufacturing is less significant to Florida's economy than it is to most states in the South. Florida never developed the textile industry that was so vital to its northern neighbours. The processing of food products was surpassed as Florida's largest industry by the manufacture of computers, electronic supplies, and transportation equipment in the early 21st century. Other important industries have included printing and publishing and the manufacture of machinery, chemicals, and wood products. Together the manufacturing industries employ only a fraction of the labour force. The state was initially somewhat slow to develop high-technology industries, but activity in this area has been increasing rapidly.Construction is also an important industry in the state. The steady growth in population since the 1950s, combined with the periodic need to rebuild following devastating storms, has created great demand for housing and numerous jobs in the construction industry.Services and taxationTourism is the largest income-producing activity in the state. In the early 20th century Florida attracted tourists mainly in the winter months, but since that time tourism has developed into a year-round business. The Atlantic and Gulf Coast beaches that form the basis of the state's popular “vacationland” image are seldom the only destination for the Florida visitor. Other attractions include the large theme parks, professional and collegiate sporting events, golf, hunting and fishing, and an abundance of parkland, including three national parks, two national seashores, a national preserve, as well as several national monuments and memorials and numerous state parks. Other major service activities in Florida include trade, finance, insurance, real estate, government, information technology, and transportation.Florida has no state income tax on individuals but does tax corporate income, which produces about 5 percent of the total tax revenue. More than half of the total comes from the general sales and use tax. The remainder derives from special taxes on a wide range of items, including unemployment compensation, gasoline, motor vehicles and mobile homes, alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, utilities, insurance premiums, pari-mutuel wagering, and inheritances. A state lottery, established in 1988, offers an additional source of revenue.TransportationFlorida's transportation system is comprehensive, covering the entire state except for certain isolated areas in the Everglades. In general, highway arteries run across the north of the state, from Jacksonville to Pensacola; down the east coast, from Jacksonville to Miami; diagonally across the state, from Jacksonville to Tampa–St. Petersburg on the west coast, bisecting the state from Tampa–St. Petersburg to Daytona Beach; and through the southwestern portion, linking Tampa–St. Petersburg to Miami. Rail and air traffic also follow these patterns. Although there is no direct rail link between Miami and Tampa, there is a heavily traveled air route between the two cities.The primary throughways are the interstate and state turnpike systems that connect all major cities. There are several airports with regularly scheduled flights and numerous private airfields; the international terminals at Tampa, Orlando, and Miami are among the busiest in the country. An extensive rail network provides passenger and freight service to most areas. An integrated system for domestic and foreign shipping is provided by more than a dozen deepwater ports and several lesser ports and harbours, while more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of navigable coastal and inland channels are maintained by the federal government.Florida is home to the country's major spaceport, the John F. Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, which occupies some 220 square miles (570 square km). This spaceport is not only a major Florida industry but has also become a prime tourist attraction.Government and societyConstitutional frameworkFlorida's government is based on a 1968 revision of its constitution of 1885. There are a number of important constitutional prohibitions and tax exemptions, including prohibition against personal income tax and inheritance tax and exemptions that relate to homesteads.The executive branch comprises the governor and an independent cabinet of three elected officers (attorney general, chief financial officer, and commissioner of agriculture). The governor and members of the cabinet each serve four-year terms, with a limit of two consecutive terms. The legislature is composed of a 40-member Senate and a 120-member House of Representatives. Senators serve four-year terms and House members serve two-year terms. The legislature meets each year for 60 days.Judiciary powers are exercised through courts established by the constitution: the Supreme Court, five district courts of appeal, 20 circuit courts, and 67 county courts. Appellate judges are initially appointed by the governor; other judges are elected to office on a nonpartisan ballot.In the late 20th century the state of Florida started to experience a growth in crime that paralleled its population explosion. After a 15-year hiatus, the state resumed in 1979 the regular execution of criminals who had been convicted of capital crimes.Until the last quarter of the 20th century, most Floridians were registered to vote as Democrats. The state legislature was similarly dominated by Democrats, as was the office of governor. By the early 21st century, however, the gap between the number of Democratic (Democratic Party) and Republican voters had narrowed considerably, Republicans (Republican Party) outweighed Democrats in the legislature, and two Republican governors had been elected in succession. Republicans also gained prominence in top-level state executive offices and won many seats in the U.S. Congress. Despite the former strength of the Democratic Party in Florida, the state has since World War II most often voted for Republicans in presidential elections. Since the 1990s, however, races have been won by an ever-shrinking margin; in 2000 the presidential vote was so close that the outcome was highly disputed. The state's political character has bifurcated largely along geographic lines, with northern Florida voting overwhelmingly for Republican candidates and southern Florida tending to vote for Democrats, particularly in the populous Broward (Fort Lauderdale), Dade (Miami), and Palm Beach counties. Although Hispanic voters have provided a strong base of support for the Democratic Party nationally, Cuban Americans, particularly those in Dade county, have voted in large numbers for the Republican Party.Health and welfareSocially, Florida regards itself as a progressive state, and a major proportion of the state's financial resources go into those areas that serve the public, especially education, social welfare, health, and hospitals. The Department of Health administers an array of assistance programs for the elderly, the disabled, and families with dependent children. The Department of Children and Families is primarily responsible for child welfare, including the prevention of child neglect and abuse, but also offers services for refugees, the mentally ill, the homeless, and those with drug and alcohol dependencies. Florida's expenditure per capita for health and hospitals exceeds the U.S. average and is among the highest of those of the heavily populated states. Public welfare payments, on the other hand, are among the lowest in the country. Florida ranks at the bottom of all Sunbelt and populous states in this respect. In part, this is a reflection of the public's refusal to offer welfare to the needy of other states who seek refuge in Florida's tropical and subtropical environment.In total personal income, Florida ranks among the top states nationally, and it ranks near the middle in income per capita. Unemployment in Florida usually runs below the national average, and the diversified economy of the state has not been as subject to labour fluctuations as in many other areas where one industry dominates the economy. Major resort areas notwithstanding, the cost of living in Florida is generally below the national urban average.EducationFlorida supports the public school system to the extent that no child is deprived of a minimum standard of education, while the counties are expected to supplement this minimum. Virtually the entire population of Florida is within commuting distance of a state-supported college or university, part of an extensive system of higher education. More than 10 institutions are state-supported universities, the most prominent of which include the University of Florida (Florida, University of) (1853) in Gainesville and Florida State University (1851) and Florida A&M (Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University) (1887; a historically black school) in Tallahassee; several of these institutions offer courses on multiple campuses. In addition to the university system, Florida maintains a large network of community colleges, which offer the first two years of university-equivalent courses in addition to terminal programs in technical areas. While some of these colleges grant bachelor's degrees in certain fields, most offer the baccalaureate in a broad range of disciplines through partnership with larger four-year institutions. Private sources support other institutions of higher learning, ranging from small, highly specialized schools to major universities, such as the University of Miami (Miami, University of).Elementary and secondary education has been challenged both by the rapid increase in enrollments for decades and by the ethnic and cultural diversity of the school population. Even so, state and local governments have managed to fund schools in Florida at a higher level than in most nearby Southern states.Cultural lifeFlorida is well endowed with a variety of cultural activities and institutions, a situation stemming partly from the importance of tourism and partly from the increasing leisure time available to its large number of retired residents. The state itself maintains hundreds of parks and other areas, many of historic or natural interest. Everglades National Park, established in 1980 (formerly a national monument that was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979), contains some 2,350 square miles (6,100 square km) in the heart of a unique natural region. Florida's rich history is preserved in such places as St. Augustine (Saint Augustine), the country's oldest town, portions of which have been restored; its famous 17th-century fort, Castillo de San Marcos, is a national monument.Sarasota is a centre for both art and theatre. The Ringling estate includes the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art (1927), which possesses an internationally famous collection; the Cà d'Zan mansion; a circus museum and hall of fame; and the only 18th-century Italian theatre in the United States—the Historic Asolo Theater. The Florida Museum of Natural History (formerly Florida State Museum; 1906) is located in Gainesville. The Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, an estate built in 1916 by industrialist James Deering, is located in Miami.Among the numerous festivals that fill Florida's cultural calendar are the Greek Orthodox Epiphany (Tarpon Springs; January), the Orange Bowl Festival (Miami; January), the Florida Citrus Festival (Winter Haven; January–February), the Strawberry Festival (Plant City; March), the Festival of States (St. Petersburg; March–April), the Arcadia Rodeo (Arcadia; March and July), and the Fiesta of Five Flags (Pensacola; May–June). The Gasparilla Pirate Fest, comparable to the Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans, is held in Tampa in February, in association with the state fair.Sports flourish in Florida, with large stadiums in Jacksonville, Tampa, and the Miami area attracting major university and professional events. Many Floridians avidly follow collegiate gridiron football each autumn, with the state's major universities typically fielding some of the best teams in the country. The National Football League is represented by teams in Tampa Bay (Buccaneers), Miami (Dolphins), and Jacksonville (Jaguars). The National Basketball Association has teams in Miami (Heat) and Orlando (Magic). Major League Baseball has franchises in Miami (Marlins) and Tampa Bay (Rays), and there are National Hockey League teams in Tampa Bay (Lightning) and the Fort Lauderdale–Miami area (Panthers). The Basque sport of jai alai enjoys great popularity in the state's urban areas. The mild climate allows Florida to host outdoor sporting events year-round. Several of the country's most prestigious annual collegiate football games are held in the state, most notably the Orange Bowl (early January), which is part of the Bowl Championship Series. Many major-league baseball teams hold spring training in the state, and there are major golf tournaments, as well as internationally known auto races at Daytona Beach and Sebring. Horse racing is also important.Commercial attractions proliferate in Florida, many of them educational as well as entertaining. Walt Disney World (Walt Disney World Resort), near Orlando, is among the largest tourist destinations in the country; it includes several theme parks, accommodations, and other attractions. Universal Studios is also a major tourist draw in Orlando. Nearby, Sea World conducts important marine research with sharks, porpoises, and whales, as does Marineland of Florida (near Daytona Beach) and the Miami Seaquarium. At Busch Gardens (Busch Gardens Tampa Bay) in Tampa, visitors observe hundreds of African animals in an open environment.In addition to other cultural offerings, Florida's universities, museums, and educational television stations provide broad programs in continuing and adult education. Several cities maintain symphony orchestras, and there are a number of major performing arts centres that host concerts, Broadway shows, and other events.A few dozen daily newspapers serve the state, including several in Spanish. The Miami Herald and the St. Petersburg Times are among the nationally prominent newspapers.HistoryExploration and settlementAncient Native American peoples entered Florida from the north as early as 12,000 years ago. Although the first evidence of farming dates from about 500 BC, some southern groups remained hunters, fishers, and gatherers until their extinction. Indigenous peoples continued to arrive from the north in small numbers after 500 BC, establishing contacts with Cuba, the Bahamas (Bahamas, The), and, possibly, the Yucatán region of Mexico. At the time of European contact in the 16th century, a population of several hundred thousand Native Americans lived in Florida.The early history of Europeans in Florida reflects the conflicts of the Spanish, French, and English crowns for empire and wealth. Juan Ponce de León (Ponce de León, Juan)'s quest for the Fountain of Youth brought him to the peninsula in 1513 and 1521. Because he landed on the peninsula during the Easter season (Spanish: Pascua Florida [“Season of Flowers”]) and because of the vegetation he found there, Ponce de León named the area Florida. Under the impression that Florida was one of the islands in the Bahamas archipelago, he initially made no attempt to found a settlement and did not appear to have ventured much north of present-day West Palm Beach. After an intermission of eight years, Ponce de León returned to establish a colony in the vicinity of what is now Fort Myers. He was mortally wounded near there in 1521 by the indigenous Calusa and died later the same year in Havana, Cuba.In 1528 Pánfilo de Narváez (Narváez, Panfilo de) landed on the shores of Tampa Bay with more than 400 men, intent on learning how this land was connected to Mexico. Within a year, and while still no closer to Mexico than northern Florida, the force was reduced to 15 survivors. Of this group, four Spaniards—including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar) and Estebán, a Moorish slave who was the first black man known to have entered Florida—reached Culiacán, Mex., in 1536. Hernando de Soto (Soto, Hernando de) came in 1539, landing somewhere between Fort Myers and Tampa, and led another disastrous expedition, this time through western Florida. Nearly 20 years elapsed before Tristán de Luna y Arellano attempted to set up a Spanish colony at Pensacola Bay. The settlement was abandoned in 1561, following its destruction by a hurricane. In 1564 a group of French Protestants (Huguenots (Huguenot)) who originally had been led by Jean Ribault established Fort Caroline on the banks of the River of May (St. Johns River), near modern Jacksonville. The Spaniards saw this group as a threat to their sea-lane from Havana to Spain. An expedition commanded by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (Menéndez de Avilés, Pedro) massacred most of the French colonists in 1565 after founding St. Augustine (Saint Augustine) (San Augustín) nearby.Shifting alliances and allegiancesFor the 250 years following the establishment of St. Augustine, Florida was little more than a wilderness in terms of any permanent European settlement. Its importance as a possession over which European powers fought, however, was considerable. There were frequent raids by English seafarers, including Sir Francis Drake (Drake, Sir Francis) in 1586, and clashes with French colonizers along the northern coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and with English settlers in the Carolina and Georgia colonies. Shifting alliances among the three powers reflected the vicissitudes of European politics, and St. Augustine and the English ports of Savannah and Charleston to the north of Florida were besieged at various times throughout the first half of the 18th century.England received Florida in return for Havana in 1763 and replaced its military government with civilian officials. Expenditures for economic development brought prosperity as well as loyalty from most Floridians during the American Revolution, when the area was used as a base for attacks on colonial coastal cities. Three decades of political and social instability followed Florida's return to Spain after the war, with U.S. expansionist interests in constant conflict with the Spanish presence.By the mid-1700s virtually all of the Native American groups of Florida had been destroyed by disease and wars brought largely by English and indigenous Muskogee raiders from Georgia. The Muskogee, accompanied by a few runaway black slaves and renegade white settlers, ultimately migrated into the Florida area from Georgia and Alabama, where they were collectively called Cimarrones. The name Seminole evolved from cimarrón (Spanish: “wild, unruly, runaway”).From their base at Pensacola, the British employed (or otherwise persuaded) Native Americans to harass U.S. settlements during the War of 1812 (1812, War of). It was the First Seminole War (Seminole Wars) (1817–18), however, that marked the beginning of armed conflict between Native Americans in Florida and the U.S. government. There were roughly 5,000 Seminole in Florida when Gen. Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew) captured Pensacola in 1818. The Spanish subsequently ceded Florida to the United States in a treaty that was ratified in 1821, and in 1832 the Seminole were made to accept a treaty that called for their removal to Oklahoma. When Seminole leader Osceola and a group of his followers refused to give up their land, a series of violent conflicts erupted that came to be known by the white community as the Second Seminole War (Seminole Wars) (1835–42). Native American resistance was finally suppressed, however, and within about a decade most of the Seminole had been transferred to Oklahoma.StatehoodBy 1845, when Florida was admitted to the union, only a few hundred Seminole remained in the state. The Third Seminole War (Seminole Wars) (1855–58) was their final conflict with the federal government.Slave owners in Florida led the state to secede from the United States in 1861 and join the Confederacy. During the American Civil War (1861–65), military action in the state was mostly limited to the capture of coastal cities by Union troops. Florida was occupied by the U.S. Army during Reconstruction (1865–77), to enforce equal rights for African Americans. Black Floridians collaborated with white citizens in the Republican Party, and Republicans dominated the governorship from 1868 to 1877. In 1877, however, Democrats, who were led by former Confederates, regained control of the state government. Over the next several decades they enacted legislation that disenfranchised blacks and established a system of legalized discrimination called segregation.Until the 1880s, Florida's economy had been dominated by small-farm and plantation agriculture; the supplying of naval stores and the production of beef and hides, pork, salt, tobacco, and cotton were the main activities. In 1881 phosphate—the state's most important mineral—was discovered in the Peace River valley, and extensive mining began immediately. In the late 1800s the lumber industry, based in northern and western Florida, grew rapidly. At the same time, in Tampa, cigar manufacturers, originally from Cuba, began producing for the U.S. market.Simultaneously, railroads began to promote economic development. In western Florida a railroad reached Pensacola in 1883, and in the following year Henry B. Plant finished his north-south line on the western side of the Florida peninsula as far as Tampa. Meanwhile, Plant's counterpart on the east coast, Henry M. Flagler (Flagler, Henry M), was building a rail and hotel empire that would soon extend past Miami to Key West. Agricultural development, settlement, industry, and tourism all followed the rails.Growth and changeThe growth of Florida in the early 20th century was frantic, if not chaotic. In the 1920s Florida experienced a land rush with rapidly rising demand and prices and a speculative fever that resulted in a bust for many, bringing rewards for the more fortunate only after some years. World War II spurred a massive investment in the U.S. military and the defense industry as a whole. Defense installations remained important after the war, and the state gained the John F. Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral (Canaveral, Cape). In many ways, Florida remained through the first half of the 20th century a typical Southern state. For the most part, conservative Democrats controlled state and local politics and severely limited the opportunities for African Americans. The Latin American influence remained confined to the Greater Tampa and Greater Miami areas.After World War II, Florida experienced sustained, rapid population growth, propelled first by Americans who were relocating to the state for the warm climate and then in the late 1950s and '60s by the arrival of thousands of Cuban exiles. Since the 1950s the state's population growth rate has consistently been among the fastest in the country. Florida's economic growth has been heavily focused in services, retail, transportation, and construction. The entertainment industry has expanded with year-round tourism, especially in the Miami and Orlando area, and various manufacturing sectors and high-technology industries have been growing rapidly. During the last decades of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st, Florida has been a leader in new job growth.Florida's political life has become more complex with the massive demographic changes. Although there are still many Floridians with a “Southern” orientation, the influx of immigrants has brought the perspectives of both liberal Easterners, many of whom are Jewish, and conservative Latin Americans, many of whom are of Cuban heritage. By welcoming a flood of new residents from northern states and from Canada and accommodating hundreds of thousands of immigrants from the Caribbean area, Florida became the country's fourth most populous state in the late 1980s and retained that ranking into the 21st century. The state also developed an increasingly international focus. Miami has become the economic “capital” of the Caribbean, and Spanish has surpassed English as the primary language in some areas. Floridians take most of these developments in stride, though the problems of rapid growth have resulted in pressure on the natural environment and have taxed the state's social resources. Ironically, the nation's oldest region of European settlement has once again become a frontier.Additional ReadingGeneral information sources include The Florida Handbook (biennial); Del Marth and Martha J. Marth (eds.), The Florida Almanac (biennial); and Federal Writers' Project, Florida: A Guide to the Southernmost State (1939, reprinted as The WPA Guide to Florida, 1984). Robert B. Marcus and Edward A. Fernald, Florida: A Geographical Approach (1975), is comprehensive. Also useful are Edward A. Fernald and Elizabeth D. Purdum (eds.), Atlas of Florida, rev. ed. (1996), and Water Resources Atlas of Florida (1998); and DeLorme Publishing Company, Florida Atlas & Gazetteer, 6th ed. (2000). Geographic and historical background is provided by Bertha E. Bloodworth and Alton C. Morris, Places in the Sun: The History and Romance of Florida Place-Names (1978). Studies of the state's environment include Marjory Stoneman Douglas, The Everglades: River of Grass, rev. ed. (1988; reprinted and updated 2007), an account of one woman's fight to save the Everglades; and Nelson Manfred Blake, Land into Water—Water into Land: A History of Water Management in Florida (1980).The best general histories of the state are Charlton W. Tebeau and William Marina, A History of Florida, 3rd. ed. (1999); and Gloria Jahoda, Florida (1976, reissued 1984). Edwin C. McReynolds, The Seminoles (1957, reprinted 1985), provides an excellent history of the Seminole Indians. Specific topics are discussed in Eugene Lyon, The Enterprise of Florida: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and the Spanish Conquest of 1565–1568 (1976); J. Leitch Wright, Jr., Florida in the American Revolution (1975), a study of an often overlooked period; Virginia Bergman Peters, The Florida Wars (1979), on the attempts to remove the Seminole Indians from Florida; and Jerrell H. Shofner, Nor Is It Over Yet: Florida in the Era of Reconstruction, 1863–1877 (1974). David R. Colburn and Lance DeHaven-Smith, Government in the Sunshine State: Florida Since Statehood (1999); David R. Colburn, Racial Change and Community Crisis: St. Augustine, Florida, 1877–1980 (1985, reissued 1991); Marvin Dunn, Black Miami in the Twentieth Century (1997); and Gary R. Mormino and George E. Pozzetta, The Immigrant World of Ybor City: Italians and Their Latin Neighbors in Tampa, 1885–1985 (1987, reissued 1998), are excellent studies that address aspects of Florida history from the late 19th to the late 20th century. The Florida Historical Quarterly includes scholarly articles on both historical and recent topics.Robert J. Norrell
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