/em'feuh see"meuh, -zee"-/, n. Pathol.1. a chronic, irreversible disease of the lungs characterized by abnormal enlargement of air spaces in the lungs accompanied by destruction of the tissue lining the walls of the air spaces.2. any abnormal distention of an organ, or part of the body, with air or other gas.[1655-65; < NL < Gk emphýsema inflation, equiv. to em- EM-2 + physe- (var. s. of physân to blow) + -ma n. suffix denoting result of action]
* * *or pulmonary emphysemaAbnormal distension of the lungs with air, usually associated with cigarette smoking and chronic bronchitis.Elastic tissue degenerates, severely interfering with exhalation. Capillary walls disappear, leaving lung tissue dry and pale. The walls of the pulmonary alveoli (see pulmonary alveolus) break down, so the lung fills with pools of air. Symptoms include severe breathlessness, weight loss, bluish skin, chest tightness, and wheezing. In bullous emphysema, the alveoli form large air cysts that may rupture, causing lung collapse (see atelectasis), or require surgery. Emphysema is irreversible; it normally continues to progress even after the cessation of smoking and may lead to death. See also pulmonary heart disease.
* * *▪ medical disorderalso called pulmonary emphysemacondition characterized by widespread destruction of the gas-exchanging tissues of the lungs (lung), resulting in abnormally large air spaces. Lungs affected by emphysema show loss of alveolar (pulmonary alveolus) walls and destruction of alveolar capillaries (capillary). As a result, the surface available for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between inhaled air and blood traversing the lungs is reduced. In addition, loss of elastic tissue from the walls of the destroyed alveoli causes the lungs to expand within the chest cage. The expanded lungs compress the small bronchi and thus increase resistance to airflow. This is especially evident during expiration, when contraction of the muscles of the chest wall and abdomen increase intrathoracic pressure and further reduce the passage of air through the small bronchi.Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of pulmonary emphysema. In smokers, emphysema generally coexists with chronic obstructive bronchitis. In combination, these two conditions are known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Approximately 15 percent of regular cigarette smokers develop progressive pulmonary emphysema, generally beginning within the fourth or fifth decade of smoking. The reason that emphysema develops in some smokers but not in others is generally unknown. One factor that predisposes some individuals to emphysema is an inherited deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin, an enzyme that normally protects the lungs from injury caused by cigarette smoke. Smokers who inherit an abnormal gene for alpha-1 antitrypsin from both parents often develop progressive, severe emphysema, especially in the lower lungs, beginning before the age of 40. Nonsmokers who have the enzyme deficiency are generally unaffected.Bullous emphysema is characterized by damaged alveoli that distend to form exceptionally large air spaces, especially within the uppermost portions of the lungs. This condition sometimes occurs in otherwise healthy young adults. Bullous emphysema often first comes to attention when an abnormal air space ruptures, leaking air into the pleural space and causing the affected lung to collapse (see pneumothorax). The victim experiences sudden onset of sharp chest pain and shortness of breath. Impaired breathing requires insertion of a tube through the chest wall in order to allow air to escape from the chest cavity. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the areas of the lung that have ruptured.John Hansen-Flaschen
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