East China Sea

East China Sea
a part of the N Pacific, bounded by China, Japan, the Ryukyus, and Taiwan. 480,000 sq. mi. (1,243,200 sq. km). Also called Dong Hai.

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Chinese (Wade-Giles)  Tung Hai  or  (Pinyin)  Dong Hai 
 arm of the Pacific Ocean bordering the East Asian mainland and extending northeastward from the South China Sea, to which it is connected by the shallow Taiwan Strait between Taiwan and mainland China. The East China Sea and the South China Sea together form the China Sea. The East China Sea extends to the east to the chain of the Ryukyu Islands; north to Kyushu, which is the southernmost of Japan's main islands; northwest to Cheju Island off South Korea (Korea, South); and hence west to China. This northern boundary, roughly a line from Cheju Island to the mouth of the Yangtze River (Chiang Jiang) on China's eastern coast, separates the East China Sea from the Yellow Sea.

Physical features

 The East China Sea has an area of about 290,000 square miles (750,000 square km) and is largely shallow; almost three-fourths of the sea is less than 650 feet (200 metres), and its average depth is only 1,145 feet (350 metres). Extending alongside the Ryukyu Islands is the deeper part, the Okinawa Trough, with a large section more than 3,300 feet (1,000 metres) deep and a maximum depth of 8,912 feet (2,716 metres). The western edge of the sea is a continuation of the shelf that extends between the South China Sea and the Yellow Sea. A large number of islands and shoals (shoal) dot the eastern boundary as well as the area near the Chinese mainland.

      The shallow shelf areas are covered with sediments from the bordering landmasses deposited mainly by the Yangtze and other rivers near the northern part of the sea. Coarser sediments of sand occur farther out, and rocks, muds, and oozes (ooze) are also found in scattered areas. Seismic profiling indicates that the geologic structure beneath the ocean floor consists of nearly parallel folds, with rock ridges near the northern limits of the East China Sea, near the edge of the continental shelf, and along the Ryukyus. These have afforded barriers for sediment brought down by the great Huang He (Yellow River) and also by the Yangtze. Between the ridges the sediment is up to one mile thick.

      Most of the shelf belongs to the stable Neo-Cathaysian Geosyncline (or Cathaysian Platform), dating back at least 300 million years. The Okinawa Trough is perhaps 10 million years old. The Ryukyus are an island chain with several volcanic islands on the East China Sea side. Many of the volcanoes are still active. Epicentres of earthquakes are found along the axis of the Okinawa Trough and the Ryukyu island arc.

      Weather is dominated by the monsoon wind system, the result of differential heating between land and water. In summer the Asian landmass is much warmer than the sea; in winter it is much colder, particularly in the Plateau of Tibet (Tibet, Plateau of). Summer heating of air masses over Asia builds areas of low pressure and creates the monsoonal winds, which in this season blow predominantly from the southeast. This brings in warm, moist air from the western Pacific, producing a rainy summer season that is accompanied by typhoons (typhoon). In winter the situation is reversed: winds blow predominantly from the north, bringing with them cold, dry air from the continent.

      Winds also influence water circulation of the Kuroshio (Japan Current), the north-flowing western extension of the warm North equatorial current. Some of the Kuroshio enters the eastern part of the East China Sea to form the Tsushima Current, which flows north into the Sea of Japan (Japan, Sea of) (East Sea), while the main part of the current diverts eastward back out into the Pacific south of Kyushu and flows east of Japan. Strengthened by monsoon winds, the Kuroshio is at its widest and fastest in summer, and the axis is displaced well into the East China Sea. This warmed surface water varies from 86 °F (30 °C) in the south to 77 °F (25 °C) in the north. In winter, northerly monsoon winds modify the circulation, and the north-flowing Kuroshio, though still important, is reduced in strength, while southerly flowing coastal currents are strengthened. This brings in colder water, with temperatures of 41 °F (5 °C) in the north to 73 °F (23 °C) in the south. Some warm water also enters the sea via the Luzon and Taiwan straits.

      Because of the constricting nature of the adjoining Yellow Sea and the funnel shape of some of the inlets on the mainland, tidal ranges are especially high along the coast of China. For example, the spring tide range, which is highest in summer and winter, is as much as 23 feet (7 metres) at Sansha Bay and 30 feet (9 metres) at Hangzhou Bay.

Economic aspects
 The East China Sea is a region of high marine-life productivity, and China, Japan, and North (Korea, North) and South Korea actively fish in the area. Most of the fishing is done by small local boats, although larger trawlers are also used. tuna, mackerel, shrimps (shrimp), sardines (sardine), milkfish, sea breams (bream), croakers, shellfish, and seaweeds (seaweed) are the main resources harvested.

      Petroleum and natural gas deposits have been discovered under the sea's continental shelf. These discoveries have led to disputes between the bordering countries over control of areas with potentially exploitable hydrocarbon reserves, particularly the regions around deep trenches, straits, rocks, and uninhabited islands. A small amount of China's oil and natural gas production comes from offshore wells in the East China Sea.

      In addition to the local shipping traffic in and out of Chinese and Korean ports, the East China Sea serves as the main shipping route from the South China Sea to Japanese and other North Pacific ports. The main ports of the East China Sea are Shanghai in China, Nagasaki in Japan, and Chi-lung in Taiwan.

Study and exploration (Earth exploration)
      Although the East China Sea has been known and traveled for hundreds of years, it only became the subject of major oceanographic research in the mid-20th century. Much early study was undertaken by the Chinese, but by the early 21st century the East China Sea had become the focus of numerous international research collaborations. Such initiatives have not only contributed to a broader scientific knowledge of the sea and its currents but have also led to the discovery of offshore petroleum and natural gas reserves.

Eugene C. LaFond

Additional Reading
For the East China sea, see Dennis E. Hayes (ed.), The Tectonic and Geologic Evolution of Southeast Asian Seas and Islands, 2 vol. (1980–83); John M. Wageman, Thomas W.C. Hilde, and K.O. Emery, “Structural Framework of East China Sea and Yellow Sea,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 54(9):1611–1643 (1970); and Choon-Ho Park, East Asia and the Law of the Sea (1983). The periodical Progress in Oceanography (eight times a year) includes, among other relevant writings, selections of papers presented at the workshops of the Japan and East China Seas Study group, which take place from time to time in Japan.Eugene C. LaFond

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Universalium. 2010.

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