Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping
/dung" show'ping"/; Chin. /dueng" shyow"ping"/
1904-97, Chinese Communist leader and China's de facto leader: held various titles in the Communist Party until his official retirement in 1989.

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or Teng Hsiao-p'ing

born Aug. 22, 1904, Sichuan province, China
died Feb. 19, 1997, Beijing

Chinese communist leader, China's most powerful figure from the late 1970s until his death.

In the 1950s he became a vice-premier of the People's Republic of China and general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). He fell from favour during the Cultural Revolution but was rehabilitated in 1973 under the sponsorship of Zhou Enlai. Though seen as a likely successor to Zhou as premier, Deng was again ousted, this time by the Gang of Four, when Zhou died in 1976. However, Mao Zedong died later that year, and in the ensuing power struggle the Gang of Four was arrested; Deng was rehabilitated for a second time. His protégés Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang became premier and general secretary of the CCP, respectively. Both embraced Deng's wide-reaching reform program, which abandoned many orthodox communist doctrines and introduced free-enterprise elements into the economy. Hu died in April 1989, and Zhao was dismissed from the government after the Tiananmen Square incident in June. Deng gradually relinquished his official posts but continued to guide China behind the scenes until his death.

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▪ 1998

      Chinese revolutionary (b. Aug. 22, 1904, Sichuan province, China—d. Feb. 19, 1997, Beijing, China), transformed China's drab and listless society into a dynamic industrial workforce by compromising traditional communist doctrines and adopting a free-enterprise system "with Chinese characteristics." While studying (1921-24) in France, he joined the fledgling communist movement and then returned to China to indoctrinate and train groups of communist military and political cadres. He joined the historic 10,000-km (6,000-mi) Long March (1934-35), a massive migration of communist forces fleeing to northwestern China to avoid direct confrontation with Chiang Kai-shek's more powerful Nationalist army. Following World War II, Mao Zedong's communist forces launched an all-out war against the Nationalist government and took over the country.

      Three years after Chairman Mao proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Deng was named a vice-premier. He became secretary-general of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 1954 and a member of the party's powerful Political Bureau in 1955. His deep conviction that China's future development depended on well-educated managers and highly skilled technicians brought him into conflict with Mao and led to his political downfall during the early years of the Cultural Revolution (1966-76). He was rehabilitated in 1973 and two years later was appointed vice-chairman of the party's Central Committee, a member of the Political Bureau, and chief of the general staff.

      After the death of Premier Zhou Enlai in January 1976, the Gang of Four, led by Mao's wife, succeeded in ousting Deng from his leadership posts for the second time. Following Mao's death in September, a momentous power struggle ensued. Mao's widow and her three associates were arrested, and Deng was rehabilitated for the second time. By 1981 Premier Hua Guofeng, realizing that he had been outmaneuvered by Deng, yielded the premiership to Zhao Ziyang and the leadership of the CPC to Hu Yaobang. Both willingly embraced Deng's program of reforms, which included long-term economic planning, individual responsibility, material incentives for efficient managers and workers, and advanced training for those needed to direct China's economic development. Deng urged his countrymen to be more concerned about economic progress and less concerned about ideology. His 1979 visit to the United States underscored his determination to forge economic and cultural ties with the West in order to foster trade and encourage foreign investment in China.

      In 1987, satisfied that China would never revert to its old ways, Deng resigned his post on the Central Committee and thereby forced many veteran party members who had opposed or resisted his reforms to follow his example and relinquish their posts of influence. Deng's willingness to experiment and to "seek truth from facts" brought dire warnings from old comrades that the freedoms already granted would spark demands for even greater freedom. The warnings proved prophetic. When political activists gathered peacefully in Beijing's Tiananmen Square in July 1989 to plead for greater democracy, Deng, who was determined that no one ever be allowed to challenge the authority of the CPC, ordered the army to crush "the rebellion." The ensuing bloody massacre, filmed by foreign reporters and shown on television worldwide, permanently tarnished the image of a man who had won wide acclaim at home and abroad for having transformed China into a major force on the world stage by the sheer power of his vision and determination. Despite serious infirmities, Deng remained China's paramount and unchallenged leader until his death.

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▪ Chinese leader
Wade-Giles romanization  Teng Hsiao-p'ing  
born Aug. 22, 1904, Guang'an, Sichuan province, China
died Feb. 19, 1997, Beijing
 Chinese communist leader, who was the most powerful figure in the People's Republic of China from the late 1970s until his death in 1997. He abandoned many orthodox communist doctrines and attempted to incorporate elements of the free-enterprise system into the Chinese economy.

      Deng was the son of a landowner and studied in France (1920–24), where he became active in the communist movement, and in the Soviet Union (1925–26). He then returned to China and later became a leading political and military organizer in the Jiangxi Soviet, an autonomous communist enclave in southwestern China that had been established by Mao Zedong. Deng participated in the Long March (1934–35) of the Chinese communists to a new base in northwestern China. After serving as the commissar (political officer) of a division of the communists' Eighth Route Army (1937–45), he was appointed a secretary of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1945 and served as chief commissar of the communists' Second Field Army during the Chinese Civil War (1947–49). After the communist takeover of China in 1949, he became the regional party leader of southwestern China. In 1952 he was summoned to Beijing and became a vice-premier. Rising rapidly, he became general secretary of the CCP in 1954 and a member of the ruling Political Bureau in 1955.

      From the mid-1950s Deng was a major policy maker in both foreign and domestic affairs. He became closely allied with such pragmatist leaders as Liu Shaoqi, who stressed the use of material incentives and the formation of skilled technical and managerial elites in China's quest for economic development. Deng thus came into increasing conflict with Mao (Mao Zedong), who stressed egalitarian policies and revolutionary enthusiasm as the key to economic growth, in opposition to Deng's emphasis on individual self-interest.

      Deng was attacked during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76) by radical supporters of Mao, and he was stripped of his high party and government posts sometime in the years 1967–69, after which he disappeared from public view. In 1973, however, Deng was reinstated under the sponsorship of Premier Zhou Enlai and made deputy premier, and in 1975 he became vice-chairman of the party's Central Committee, a member of its Political Bureau, and chief of the general staff. As effective head of the government during the months preceding the death of Zhou, he was widely considered the likely successor to Zhou. However, upon Zhou's death in January 1976, the Gang of Four managed to purge Deng from the leadership once again. It was not until Mao's death in September 1976 and the consequent fall from power of the Gang of Four that Deng was rehabilitated, this time with the assent of Mao's chosen successor to the leadership of China, Hua Guofeng.

      By July 1977 Deng had returned to his high posts. He soon embarked on a struggle with Hua for control of the party and government. Deng's superior political skills and broad base of support soon led Hua to surrender the premiership and the chairmanship to protégés of Deng in 1980–81. Zhao Ziyang became premier of the government, and Hu Yaobang became general secretary of the CCP; both men looked to Deng for guidance.

      From this point on, Deng proceeded to carry out his own policies for the economic development of China. Operating through consensus, compromise, and persuasion, Deng engineered important reforms in virtually all aspects of China's political, economic, and social life. His most important social reform was the institution of the world's most rigorous family-planning program in order to control China's burgeoning population. He instituted decentralized economic management and rational and flexible long-term planning to achieve efficient and controlled economic growth. China's peasant farmers were given individual control over and responsibility for their production and profits, a policy that resulted in greatly increased agricultural production within a few years of its initiation in 1981. Deng stressed individual responsibility in the making of economic decisions, material incentives as the reward for industry and initiative, and the formation of cadres of skilled, well-educated technicians and managers to spearhead China's development. He freed many industrial enterprises from the control and supervision of the central government and gave factory managers the authority to determine production levels and to pursue profits for their enterprises. In foreign affairs, Deng strengthened China's trade and cultural ties with the West and opened up Chinese enterprises to foreign investment.

      Deng eschewed the most conspicuous leadership posts in the party and government. But he was a member of the powerful Standing Committee of the Political Bureau, and he retained control of the armed forces by virtue of his being chairman of the CCP's Central Military Commission. He was also a vice-chairman of the CCP. Owing both to his posts and to the weight and authority of his voice within the party, he remained China's chief policy maker throughout the 1980s. In 1987 Deng stepped down from the CCP's Central Committee, thereby relinquishing his seat on the Political Bureau and its dominant Standing Committee. By so doing he compelled similar retirements by many aged party leaders who had remained opposed or resistant to his reforms.

      Deng faced a critical test of his leadership in April–June 1989. Zhao had replaced the too-liberal Hu as general secretary of the CCP in 1987. Hu's death in April 1989 sparked a series of student demonstrations in Tiananmen Square in Beijing demanding greater political freedom and a more democratic government. After some hesitation, Deng supported those in the CCP leadership who favoured the use of force to suppress the protesters, and in June the army crushed the demonstrations with considerable loss of life. Zhao was replaced as party leader by the more authoritarian Jiang Zemin, to whom Deng yielded his chairmanship of the Military Commission in 1989. Though now lacking any formal post in the communist leadership, Deng retained ultimate authority in the party. Although his direct involvement in government declined in the 1990s, he retained his influence until his death.

      Deng restored China to domestic stability and economic growth after the disastrous excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Under his leadership, China acquired a rapidly growing economy, rising standards of living, considerably expanded personal and cultural freedoms, and growing ties to the world economy. Deng also left in place a mildly authoritarian government that remained committed to the CCP's one-party rule even while it relied on free-market mechanisms to transform China into a developed nation.

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Universalium. 2010.

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