/deuh mas"keuhs/, n.a city in and the capital of Syria, in the SW part: reputed to be the oldest continuously existing city in the world. 936,567. French, Damas.
* * *City (pop., 1994: 1,549,932), capital of Syria.Located at an oasis at the base of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, it has been an important population centre since antiquity. Believed to be the world's oldest continuously inhabited city, it has evidence of occupation from the 4th millennium BC. The first written reference to it is found in Egyptian tablets of the 15th century BC, and biblical sources refer to it as the capital of the Aramaeans. It changed hands repeatedly over the centuries, belonging to Assyria in the 8th century BC, then Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome. It remained under the control of Rome and its successor state, the Byzantine Empire, until it fell to the Arabs in 635 AD. Damascus flourished as the capital of the Umayyad dynasty, and the remains of their Great Mosque still stand. Taken by the Ottoman Empire in 1516, it remained under Ottoman rule until it was occupied by France in 1920. It became part of independent Syria in 1946. Today the city is a flourishing trading centre, with many educational and scientific institutions.
* * *▪ SyriaIntroductioncity, capital of Syria. Located in the southwestern corner of the country, it has been called the “pearl of the East,” praised for its beauty and lushness; the 10th-century traveler and geographer al-Maqdisī (Maqdisī, al-) lauded the city as ranking among the four earthly paradises. Upon visiting the city in 1867, Mark Twain (Twain, Mark) wroteTo Damascus, years are only moments, decades are only flitting trifles of time. She measures time not by days and months and years, but by the empires she has seen rise and prosper and crumble to ruin. She is a type of immortality.The city's Arabic name derives from Dimashka, a word of possibly pre-Semitic etymology, suggesting that the beginnings of Damascus go back to a time before recorded history. The city is commonly called al-Shām, the vernacular name of Syria as a whole, which is said to mean “the left” or “the north,” where the region is situated relative to the Arabian Peninsula. Owing to associations of Damascus with Aram, the biblical capital of the Aramaeans, some Arabic sources link Damascus and the Iram dhāt al-ʿimād (“Colonnaded Aram”) mentioned in the Qurʾān, an identification that has long been disputed. Also contended has been the association of Damascus with Jilliq, a fertile pre-Islamic site whose name derives from a word of unknown origin in use by the Ghassānids active there in the 6th century (see Ghassān). The city is still known by its popular epithet al-Fayḥāʾ (“the Fragrant”), earned perhaps for the freshness of its surrounding orchards and gardens. Many scholars believe that, among the ancient cities of the world, Damascus is perhaps the oldest continuously inhabited.Over the centuries, Damascus has been conqueror and conquered, wealthy and destitute, and capital of empire and small states. Its fame has been sustained by its continuous prominence as a commercial and intellectual centre. Its life has been nourished periodically by immigrants from the hinterland and from the Mediterranean Basin and Southwest Asia. Often a focus of contention by powers of East and West, Damascus's fortunes have frequently been linked to those of distant capitals, most notably Ashur, Antioch, Rome, Baghdad, Cairo, and Istanbul. Now a burgeoning metropolis of the Middle East, it retains, as it has through centuries of triumph and disaster, an indomitable spirit and a considerable charm.Area city, 17 square miles (43 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) municipality, 1,669,000.Character of the cityTravelers to Damascus have been struck by the sight of aspens and poplars growing along streams, of fruit (particularly apricot) and nut orchards, and of olive groves and vegetable gardens. A popular story about the Prophet Muhammad's journey to Syria recounts that, upon seeing verdant Damascus, he refused to go in, as man should only enter paradise once. Upon reaching Damascus in 1326, Ibn Baṭṭūṭah, the Arab travel writer from Tangier, said that no words could do justice to the city's charm; he resorted to quoting his Maghribi predecessor, Ibn Jubayr, who sojourned in Damascus in 1184 and wrote that Damascus had “adorned herself with flowers of sweet scented herbs” and “is encircled by gardens as the moon…by its halo.” In 1350 a European traveler, Ludolph van Suchem, wrote of the city as “begirt with gardens and orchards and watered in and out by waters, rivers, brooks, and fountains cunningly arranged to minister to men's luxury.” While the accelerated and often disordered growth of the city since World War II has sharply raised the ratio of buildings to trees and open space, Damascenes still enjoy some of the former splendor of al-Ghūṭah, the fertile belt of irrigated land adjacent to the city.LandscapeCity siteWater and geography have determined the site and role of Damascus. Early settlers were naturally attracted to a place where a river, the Baradā (Baradā River), rising in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains (Al-Jabal al-Sharqī), watered a large and fertile oasis before vanishing into the desert. This tract, al-Ghūṭah, has supported a substantial population for thousands of years. Damascus itself grew on a terrace 2,250 feet (690 metres) above sea level, south of Mount Qāsiyūn and overlooking the Baradā River. The original settlement appears to have been situated in the eastern part of the walled Old City. City and oasis grew together, and over time Damascus came to dominate the lesser rural settlements surrounding it.The natural endowments of an assured water supply and fertile land made Damascus self-sufficient. Successive colonizers from the 2nd millennium BCE onward developed an intricate irrigation system that fed the city through a system of branches derived from the river, contributing to a steady expansion of al-Ghūṭah, especially to the east and west. Damascus's position on the edge of the desert and at the eastern end of the easiest route through the Anti-Lebanon range made it a trade centre where caravan routes originated and terminated. Since the advent of Islam (Islām), the city has also been the starting point of the northern pilgrimage road, the Darb al-Hajj al-Shāmī, to the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina.ClimateSome 50 miles (80 km) from the sea yet separated from it by two mountain ranges, Damascus receives only about 7 inches (178 mm) of precipitation annually, most of it from November through February. The Anti-Lebanon range gets far greater amounts of both rain and winter snow, which annually replenish the water table that is a source of the Baradā River and other, more minor springs watering Damascus. Owing to the city's elevation, winter is rather cold, with average temperatures of around 40 to 45 °F (5 to 7 °C). A short blossoming spring in March and April is followed by six to seven months of hot dry summer. Temperatures average around 80 °F (27 °C) in midseason, although they occasionally reach 100 °F (38 °C) or above. Summer evenings tend to be tempered by cooler breezes, with temperatures dropping to 65 °F (18 °C). Dust-laden winds blowing in from the desert are somewhat mitigated by small mountain ranges to the east and south of the city.City layoutDamascus was an active commercial centre in the 2nd millennium BCE and developed through different stages of urbanization thereafter, reaching its zenith at the beginning of the 7th century CE when it became the capital of the Umayyad (Umayyad Dynasty) empire. The heart of Damascus's Old City, which contains most of the city's historical monuments, is Hellenistic in origin, with significant Roman additions and modifications. It is a rough oblong about 5,000 feet (1,500 metres) long and 3,300 feet (1,000 metres) wide and is defined by historic walls, of which sizeable stretches still stand, especially in the north and west. Eight gates, seven of which are of Classical derivation, pierce the walls. The long axis of the oblong runs between two gates, Bāb al-Jābiyya (the Roman Jupiter Gate) in the west and Bāb Sharqī (the Roman Sun Gate) in the east. It occupies the former location of the decumanus maximus (main east-west thoroughfare) of the Classical city, which lies some 15 feet (5 metres) below the modern street level; no cardo maximus (main north-south thoroughfare) has been positively identified. Many secondary streets and some of the most prominent features of the Old City owe their positions to the Roman city planners of the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE.The city's orthogonal plan deteriorated during the late Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) period in the 6th and 7th centuries. The Umayyads (661–750) chose Damascus as their capital but did not much change its layout or considerably expand beyond its walls. Although the city was neglected and its population drastically decreased between the 8th and 11th centuries, by the 13th century Damascus had revived and was outgrowing its walls. Two axes of development extra-muros, beyond the city walls, predominated. One linked the city to the northwest with the suburb of Ṣālḥiyyah, which was established in the 12th century by immigrants from Jerusalem on the slopes of Mount Qāsiyūn; the second extended as a long, narrow strip southward along the road leading to the Ḥawrān and Palestine. The Old City was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979.The modern city began with the Ottoman Tanzimat (Reorganization) in the late 19th century. Buildings in pseudo-European styles were constructed along new, straight streets to the west and north of the walled city or in Al-Mujāhirīn, the new quarter for immigrants on Mount Qāsiyūn. Later developments followed a plan originally devised by the French during the mandate period (1920–46), with a number of revisions attempted thereafter. Its basic elements include wide boulevards radiating from squares spread around the Old City, especially in the west and northwest and, later, in the east. New housing has developed in the form of concrete blocks of flats along these boulevards. Government buildings are concentrated in an area west of the walled city around Marjah Square, along Nasr Street, and in several districts west of Ṣālḥiyyah Street. Stimulated by the appeal of modern housing and amenities, well-to-do families began in the 1930s to move to the area northwest of the Old City, whose magnificent courtyard houses were left to poorer tenants recently arrived from the countryside, or to light industry. As the population grew, more and more of the garden and farm area was converted into residential districts, many of them illegal settlements, while mukhalafāt (informal districts, such as upper Al-Muhājirīn and the Kurdish quarter) expanded up the slopes of Mount Qāsiyūn. Ancient farming villages close by, such as Al-Mazzah, Barzah, Kafr Sūsah, Al-Qābūn, and Al-Qadam, were incorporated into the city, both administratively and physically. Government efforts to retain green areas and to zone housing and industry have been plagued not only by overwhelming population growth but also by administrative laxity and corruption. The development of affluent residential suburbs in the 1990s added precious new parks and gardens in the north, northwest, and southeast of the city, yet more than half of the city's green space has been lost since 1945.PeopleDamascus experienced tremendous growth during the second half of the 20th century, with its population estimated to have increased more than tenfold. The city's growth rate is higher than that of the country as a whole, owing mainly to steady migration from rural areas. So heavy has been the influx of young migrants drawn by employment and educational opportunities that the average age of Damascenes has dropped below that of the national level. Among the religious minorities, the ʿAlawites (Alawiteʿ) from the coastal mountain region are notable for their prominence in the army and in the intelligence services (al-mukhābarāt). Other religious and ethnic groups, principally the Druze, Kurds (Kurd), Circassians (Circassian), Twelver Shīʿites, and Ismāʿīlīs (see Islam: Ismāʿīlīs (Islām)) maintain their identity among the majority Arab Sunni (Sunnite) Muslim populace. The city's minorities include a Palestinian community. There is also a substantial Christian population representing various denominations, including Syriac and Armenian, while a once-flourishing Jewish population (Jew) has been greatly decreased. The population decline owes largely to emigration in the late 20th century following pressure on Syria to allow the remainder of its Jewish population—previously subject to limitations on travel, employment, and other restrictions—to leave the country.EconomyManufacturing, finance, and other servicesGovernment is Damascus's most important economic activity. National politics and administration, including large military and secret services establishments, are centred there. Well-known over the centuries for luxurious manufactured wares, especially textiles, the growing city has attracted many new industries since the mid-20th century. All major factories and most strategic industries are state-run, but the private sector began in the 1990s to assert its economic agility in small, service-oriented industries. Textile plants, the chemical industry, cement works, and food-processing factories are principally distributed to the south, east, and northeast. Most of the population's requirements for food, clothing, and the like are met by private businesses. Traditional artisan crafts such as copper engraving, mother-of-pearl-encrusted woodwork, and brocades are still practiced in the Old City.The historical role of Damascus as a “desert port” has changed because of political developments and the scale of modern commerce. Most imports come through Syria's own ports of Latakia, Tartus (Ṭarṭūs), and Bāniyās instead of through Lebanon, as was the case until about the mid-20th century. Goods are transshipped to countries of the Arabian Peninsula. Damascus distributes its own products and imported goods within Syria as well. A large international trade exposition is held there in the autumn. The potential for a highly profitable tourism sector—particularly cultural tourism, for which Damascus is well suited—has been modestly explored since the late 1980s through the active promotion and development of new accommodations and transportation facilities. Attempts to modernize the financial and banking systems and to liberalize trade that took place under Pres. Bashar al-Assad (Assad, Bashar al-) in the early 2000s largely lacked the vigour required for a measurable impact on the economy.TransportationDamascus's traffic problems are relatively few and are largely resolvable. Damascus is adequately connected to its surrounding regions; major highways fan out in all directions, connecting Damascus with such cities as Beirut, Ammān (Amman), Aleppo, and Baghdad. A rail line north to Ḥimṣ (Homs) ties in with the national railroad system; along with the trucking industry, it transports imported products to the city. Damascus International Airport, located some 20 miles (32 km) east of the city, is served by many commercial airlines that offer direct flights to major regional and international cities. Inner-city transportation is largely provided by motor vehicles. Animal-drawn carts, which once gave the city a picturesque aura, have largely disappeared, except in some of the poorer residential quarters. Buses and taxis carry passengers both within the city and to other parts of the country; these are supplemented by the microbus and the “service,” a car or van that travels an established route for a fare. The substantial increase in the number of private cars since the early 1980s with no corresponding expansion of the basic street system has subjected the city to unprecedented congestion, especially in the administrative and commercial centre. New projects aimed at alleviating this problem have included the construction of a highway belt encircling the city, as well as the creation of satellite towns through ventures such as the Dummar Project and the Qurā al-Assad (the Assad Villages) west and northwest of the city.Administration and societyGovernmentThe municipality is administered as a muḥāfaẓah (governorate), one of 14 in the country. The president of Syria appoints a governor who administers the city with the assistance of a council made up of elected and appointed members. The city is divided into quarters (aḥyāʾ), each of which has a mayor appointed by the governor. The post of governor of Damascus is an important one with national implications. Political activity is national, not municipal, as Syria is a centralized state with one party dominating public affairs. The outlying portions of al-Ghūtah and a vast surrounding district constitute another governorate, Rīf Dimashq (Rural Damascus), of which Damascus city is the capital.Municipal services and healthRapid population growth has put a strain on the city's services, health facilities, and water supply. Damascus draws its water mainly from the Baradā (Baradā River) River as well as other, smaller springs, receiving it through a centuries-old system that has been enlarged several times. At the beginning of the 21st century, increasing demand on established water sources forced a steep drop in the surrounding water table. As the water supply crisis grew more urgent, resources were rationed and plans were considered to supply the city with water from the Euphrates River or other sources. The city's electricity is generated locally and also is brought from the hydroelectric station at the Euphrates Dam. Health care has been improving and is better than in much of the country. About half of the country's doctors practice in the capital, dividing their services between government hospitals and private clinics. The ratio of hospital beds to population has been rising but is still low compared to more industrialized countries.EducationOn the whole, Syrian literacy rates are high by regional standards, with more than nine-tenths of males and more than three-fourths of females being literate. Primary education is mandatory; an extensive public school system provides primary and secondary education for the vast majority of Damascene children. Private schools supplement the public schools, and there is a separate system run by the United Nations for Palestinian refugee children. The University of Damascus was founded in 1923 through the joining of four older institutions of higher learning and was a pioneer in the Arab world for introducing Arabic as the sole language of instruction and research. It is the largest and oldest of Syria's universities, and there are several institutes of technical training and advanced research.Cultural lifeDamascus is both Syria's cultural and political centre; the city has long attracted great interest for its numerous sites of historic and cultural significance, including the Great Mosque (Damascus, Great Mosque of) of the Umayyad period and the turbah, or tomb, of Saladin. Under the Ministry of Culture, which supervises most of the formal aspects of the cultural life of the capital, there has been an effort to combine elements of the city's heritage with contemporary developments. The prestigious Arabic Language Academy of Damascus (1919) is a bastion of Arabic language, working both to preserve and modernize the language. The National Museum, established in 1936, boasts an extraordinary collection of artifacts from across the country, representing six millennia of civilization. A military museum occupies the cells of the 16th-century Ottoman takiyyah (monastic complex) of Süleyman I. The small yet impressive Museum of Arabic Calligraphy is housed in a 15th-century Mamlūk madrasah, whereas the Museum of Arts and Popular Traditions is situated in the splendid 18th-century al-ʿAẓm Palace. An institute for music instructs in both traditional and Western styles, another institute promotes the theatre arts, and a third sponsors a performing folklore troupe. The Dār al-Assad for Culture and Arts, a major cultural complex featuring a range of dance, musical, and film productions, was inaugurated in 2004.Since the final decades of the 20th century, Damascus has been the centre of a burgeoning artistic movement. The work of both Syrian and international artists is exhibited regularly, increasingly in the private galleries proliferating around Damascus. The arts are subsidized by the government, though artistic expression is impeded by bureaucratic restrictions. State control dominates publishing and journalism, both of which are centred in Damascus. Three national dailies, largely reflecting the state's viewpoints, are edited in the city, as are most of the country's magazines. Damascus also leads the country in book publication, an enterprise that involves the government as the leading publisher and ultimate censor. Al-Assad National Library was inaugurated in 1984. Among other important materials, it contains the precious collection of manuscripts and rare books of Damascus's venerable public library, al-Ẓāhiriyyah. The library associated with the University of Damascus is also significant.Television enjoys considerable appeal; programming includes locally produced material in addition to imports from other Arab countries and from abroad. A number of locally produced television series, especially those treating historical topics, have begun to enjoy immense popularity across the Arab world. Damascus radio broadcasts in Arabic, English, French, Turkish, Hebrew, and other languages. Sports are very popular among Damascenes. Football (soccer) especially is a national pastime, and swimming and basketball, along with wrestling, boxing, and tennis, are among other widespread recreations. The city's stadiums draw large crowds for a heavy schedule of events.HistoryEarly centuriesAlthough Damascus is well-known to be an ancient city, it remains unclear exactly when the oasis was first settled. Excavations in 1950 demonstrated that an urban centre existed in the 4th millennium BCE at Tall al-Ṣālḥiyyah, southeast of Damascus. Pottery from the 3rd millennium BCE has been discovered in the Old City, and mention of “Damaski” was found in a clay tablet at Ebla (present-day Tall Mardīkh) dating to the same period. The first certain written reference to the city is in the hieroglyphic tablets of Tell el-Amarna (Amarna, Tell el-) in Egypt, where it is listed among territories conquered by Thutmose III in 1490 BCE. In the 1st millennium BCE, Damascus became the capital of an Aramaean principality whose history is known mainly through biblical references and Assyrian (Assyria) records. An important material trace from that period is a basalt orthostat (stone slab) depicting a winged sphinx, found during excavations at the Great Mosque (Damascus, Great Mosque of). The Aramaeans (Aramaean), however, also left a legacy in portions of the canal system, place-names in and around the city, and, in one outlying area, the Aramaic language itself, which served as the lingua franca of the wider Levant until the advent of Islam (Islām). In succeeding centuries before Christ, Damascus fell like other capitals of the region to foreign conquerors—to Assyrians in the 8th century, Babylonians in the 7th, Persians in the 6th, Greeks in the 4th, and Romans in the 1st.With Alexander the Great's conquest in 333 BCE, Damascus became part of the Hellenistic world for almost a thousand years. The Aramaean quarters coexisted with a new Greek (ancient Greek civilization) settlement, which followed a Hippodamian, or orthogonal, plan. Incorporation into the Roman Empire (ancient Rome) continued the Hellenistic tradition and gave Damascus the enviable status and endowments of a metropolis under Hadrian (ruled CE 117–138) and of a colonia under Severus Alexander (ruled CE 222–235). The citadel in the northwest corner rests on Roman foundations. About 660 feet (200 metres) east of it is the Great Mosque of Damascus (Damascus, Great Mosque of), built by the Umayyads on the same site as the Byzantine Church of St. John, the Roman Temple of Jupiter (Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Damascenus), and the Aramaean sanctuary of Hadad. Still preserved is Ananias (Hanania) Chapel, commemorating the conversion in Damascus of Saul of Tarsus (Paul, the Apostle, Saint), who became St. Paul (Paul, the Apostle, Saint), the Apostle. It stands near the eastern end of Midhat Pasha Street, also known as the Street Called Straight in the New Testament, which was the decumanus maximus (main east-west thoroughfare) of the Romans.Like the rest of Syria, the city was Christianized by the 4th century. With the division of the Roman Empire in 395, Damascus became an important military outpost for the Byzantine Empire. Doctrinal, theological, and political differences, however, increasingly divided Constantinople from the Syrians. Furthermore, the Persian wars of the 6th century, fought largely on Syrian soil, ruined the economic life of the country. As a result, Damascus opened its gates not unwillingly to the Muslim armies in 635.Islamic (Islāmic world) cityThough the Muslim Arabs brought with them a budding creed, with its sacred text, tentative worldviews, and still-developing legal framework, they did little to change the physical layout of Damascus. In 661 Muʿāwiyah (Muʿāwiyah I), the first Umayyad (Umayyad Dynasty) caliph, established his court in the Syrian capital and founded a dār al-imārah (centre of government) there. For almost a century thereafter the city functioned as the capital of a widening empire stretching from what is now Spain to the borders of present-day China—the most far-reaching of any achieved in Islamic history. The principal extant monument of this period is the Great Mosque of Damascus (Damascus, Great Mosque of), built by the Umayyad caliph al-Walīd (Walīd, al-) between 706 and 715. Although it has been damaged, burned, and repaired several times, it is still one of the marvels of Islamic architecture. Gilded mosaic once adorned the entirety of its walled surfaces; of those embellishments, only fragments remain. They suggest that the whole composition featured largely vegetal themes and scenes made up of picturesque buildings, suburbs, and villages set in fanciful landscapes. These renditions have been variously interpreted as scenes of paradise or of Damascus as it then was.After the fall of the Umayyads in 750, the successor ʿAbbāsids (Abbāsid Dynastyʿ) moved their capital to Baghdad. Damascus retreated to the status of a provincial town, subjected to punishments by the new dynasty for its numerous revolts. Umayyad buildings were sacked and the city's fortifications dismantled. As trade routes changed, Damascus also lost much of its economic prominence. The situation did not improve with the transfer of sovereignty from Baghdad to Cairo in the late 9th century, or when Turkish adventurers took turns ruling Damascus—whether independently or under the nominal suzerainty of either the Fāṭimids (Fāṭimid Dynasty) or the Seljuqs (Seljuq)—during most of the 11th century. The Crusades posed a serious threat to the city at the end of the 11th century, and although Damascus managed to escape direct occupation, it endured numerous attacks and sieges and lost large parts of its hinterland.During this chaotic period, the city walls were rebuilt with strengthened gates, and a citadel was founded in the northwestern corner of the city. The appearance of homogeneous, introverted, and self-reliant residential quarters emerged in this period. By the 12th century, the city was divided into segregated communities, each neighbourhood equipped with its own amenities, including a mosque, bath, public oven, independent water supply, and small markets. The Great Mosque and central market remained loci of civic unity.A new era opened when Nūr al-Dīn ibn Zangī (Nūr al-Dīn), a powerful Turkish emir (military commander), captured the city in 1154 and made it once again the capital of a strong kingdom and the base for his military campaigns against the Crusaders. The town revived, and its fortifications were strengthened. Religious and civic buildings were erected, new forms of architecture were introduced, and new quarters for immigrants sprang up. Despite some military and economic setbacks, the city continued to flourish under Saladin and his Ayyūbid (Ayyūbid dynasty) successors, who ruled there until 1260. Damascus developed into a major religious and educational centre, with emirs competing to build madrasahs (madrasah) (religious colleges) and qubbahs (funerary domes) and to bestow them with generous waqfs (land held in trust and dedicated to religious or educational purposes) to support their teachers and students. The Ayyūbid patronage was concentrated around the Great Mosque and in the Kurdish quarter on the slopes of Mount Qāsiyūn, where many Kurds, owing to their ethnic affinity with the Ayyūbids, moved to serve in the army.After the devastating Mongol invasion of 1260, much of Syria again became directly dependent on the new rulers in Egypt, the Mamlūks (Mamlūk). Damascus was the seat of the sultan's deputy in Syria, with a miniature court fashioned after that of Cairo. The economy recovered quickly after the Mongol withdrawal in 1260, and it was booming by the beginning of the 14th century, particularly during the governorate of Tankiz (1312–40). The city continued to expand: a new, southern quarter grew along the road leading to Ḥawrān (Damascus's wheat basket), Palestine, and Egypt, where most of the city's exports of foodstuffs and luxury items were traded. Trade travel was facilitated by the numerous khāns (warehouse inns) dotting its main thoroughfare. A new northern quarter, Sūq Sārūja, emerged as a market area around the citadel. Owing to its proximity to the citadel, this area became the Mamlūks' choice residential quarter in the 15th century.For more than 150 years, Damascus was the base for the Muslim struggle against the Crusades. The four most celebrated leaders of that struggle—Nūr al-Dīn ibn Zangī, Saladin, al-ʿĀdil (Saladin's brother), and the Mamlūk sultan Baybars I—are interred in the vicinity of the Great Mosque. Their tombs, featuring relatively large domes and tall arched portals with intricate muqarnas—an architectural ornamentation of honeycombed niches—are combined with madrasahs. The tombs are among the city's most prominent medieval buildings and were all restored during the 1990s.Damascus suffered two major disasters in close succession in the middle of the Mamlūk period. The first of these, the outbreak of plague in 1348–49 (see Black Death), wiped out perhaps as much as half of the city's population. The second disaster was the pillage of the city in 1401 by Timur, accompanied by his policy of deporting skilled artisans to his own capital at Samarkand (in present-day Uzbekistan). Coupled with the later Mamlūks' rapacious administration, these calamities resulted in a chronically anemic economy that was reflected negatively in the form and structure of the city. Although the built-up area increased in the 15th century, the expansion was mostly due to migration from depressed rural regions. In addition, the extended urban domain concealed countless deserted plots, called kharāb (“uninhabited,” or “in ruin”) in the waqf documents, where ruins stood as attestations to the bankrupt economy and dismal urban order on the eve of the Ottoman conquest by Sultan Selim I in 1516.Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) periodWith the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) conquest, Damascus lost its political position but retained its commercial importance. The incorporation of the Middle East and the Balkans into one empire facilitated internal trade, but the rise of European preeminence in international commerce diminished the role of Syrian cities as final depots in the overland trade from Asia to the Mediterranean.The main stimulus for the economic activities in Damascus during the Ottoman period was the hajj (pilgrimage) season. Ottoman sultans, having acquired the prestigious title of Protectors of the Two Holy Cities ( Mecca and Medina), were eager to organize and secure the hajj. Damascus, as the last urban centre on the road from Anatolia to Mecca, was designated as the official meeting station for pilgrims coming from the north and east. As a result, accommodating pilgrims during the hajj season became the city's leading commercial activity.Urban development related to the hajj was naturally concentrated on the road to Mecca. Al-Maydān, an entire district encompassing several quarters and villages, developed south of the walled city. The saturation of lucrative trades in the city centre led to an increase in the building of khāns there. This construction boom culminated in two monumental khāns, erected south of the Great Mosque in 1732 and 1751–52, respectively, by two members of the al-ʿAẓm family, Sulaymān Paşa and Asʿad Paşa, who dominated the political scene in the 18th century.The 19th century ushered in a new era in which European global hegemony was felt on the local level through the dual processes of Westernization and modernization. Both were eagerly carried out by Muḥammad ʿAlī Pasha, the semi-independent ruler of Egypt who controlled Syria between 1832 and 1840. After the return of the Ottomans with the help of European powers, the subjugation of the local economy to the markets of Europe intensified, but the process of systematic modernization slowed. The violent outbreak of religious fanaticism in 1860 led to direct European involvement in the region, particularly in the area of modern-day Lebanon.Midhat Paşa (Midhat Pasha), the great Ottoman reformer, became governor in 1878. He made civic improvements, widening streets and improving sanitation. In the early 20th century the Damascus-Medina rail line, which shortened the pilgrims' trip to five days, was built by German engineers. During World War I Damascus was the combined headquarters of Ottoman and German forces.Before and during World War I the rise of Arab nationalism found ready ground in Damascus, which became a centre of anti-Ottoman agitation. Fayṣal (Fayṣal I), son of the grand sharīf of Mecca, made secret visits there to enlist support for the Arab Revolt begun by his father in 1916. In a countermove, Cemal Paşa, the Ottoman commander in chief, hanged 21 Arab nationalists on May 6, 1916, a day that is still commemorated as Martyrs' Day. The Ottomans, however, were defeated by the double-pronged attack of the British and Arab forces and evacuated the city in September 1918. An independent Syrian state was declared in 1919, with Damascus as its capital; Fayṣal was proclaimed king early in 1920.Modern cityThe independence of the Kingdom of Syria was short-lived. During World War I, European powers had held secret negotiations to divide among themselves the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Syria was forcibly placed under French mandate, and Damascus fell to the army of Gen. Henri Gouraud on July 25, 1920, following the battle of Maysalūn. Damascus resisted the French takeover, and despite the French bombardment of the city in 1925, the resistance continued until early 1927. A new urban plan was immediately put in place that resulted in a modern residential cordon around the Old City, effectively separating it from al-Ghūṭah, where rebels regularly took refuge. In this modern city, European social, cultural, and architectural norms directly competed with traditional ones, and in time displaced them.Syria's years under French mandate witnessed intense political activities that encompassed the entire ideological spectrum, including liberalism, communism, and—above all—Arab nationalism. Damascenes, along with their fellow countrymen, struggled for their country's independence and for the broader goal of a single Arab state. The Baʿth Party, devoted to this goal, was founded in Damascus during World War II. The mandate period lasted until April 1946, when French troops finally left the country; once again, Damascus was the capital of an independent Syria.The fragile Syrian Republic was ill-equipped to withstand the major political upheavals racking the region, especially the partition of Palestine in 1948 and the first of the Arab-Israeli wars, which followed almost immediately. A series of coups from 1949 to 1970 brought a varied array of leadership to power and the rumble of tanks to the streets. During Syria's short-lived union with Egypt as the United Arab Republic (1958–61), Damascus lost its title of capital to Cairo. In 1963 the Baʿth Party came to power through a coup and embarked on an experiment of socialist reform. In 1970 Ḥafiz al-Assad (Assad, Ḥafiz al-), then the minister of defense, led an internal coup and established himself at the helm of the country for 30 years, to be succeeded on his death in 2000 by his son Bashar (Assad, Bashar al-). Damascus continued to function as a pole of attraction for political forces, economic interests, and rural Syrians seeking a better life in the capital.Contemporary Damascus is a modern metropolis with many of the features—and problems—found in cities around the world. The physical limits of terrain and finite water sources argue for decentralization to satellite communities some distance away. The fragile and invaluable heart of the city, however, requires comprehensive conservation programs that respect both its historic character and its continued vigour. Still, despite rapid modernization, as well as periods of neglect and greed throughout the millennia, Damascus has thus far managed to survive with its unique core intact. Were Ibn Jubayr, Ibn Baṭṭūṭah, or other early visitors to return, they would not exclaim so much over a city set in green gardens. They would, however, recognize the spirit and dynamism of the city that has epitomized urban life since the beginning of history.Additional ReadingA general introduction to Damascus is found in N. Elisséeff, “Dimashk,” in Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed., vol. 2 (1965), pp. 277–291. Comprehensive historical studies include Ross Burns, Damascus: A History (2006); Gérard Degeorge, Damas: des origines aux Mamluks (1997), and Damas: des Ottomans à nos jours (1994); and ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Riḥawī, Damascus, trans. from Arabic by Paul E. Cheveden (1977). The city's ancient history is discussed in Wayne T. Pitard, Ancient Damascus: A Historical Study of the Syrian City-State from Earliest Times Until Its Fall to the Assyrians in 732 BCE (1987). Medieval history is treated in Louis Pouzet, Damas au VIIe-XIIIe siècle: vie et structures religieuses d'une métropole islamique, 2nd ed. (1991). An important early study of the city's urban history is Jean Sauvaget, “Esquisse d'une histoire de la ville de Damas,” Revue des Études Islamiques, 8:421–80 (1934). Its basic hypothesis is refuted in Hugh Kennedy, “From Polis to Madina: Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic Syria,” Past and Present 106: 3–27 (February 1985). A detailed urban history is presented in Dorothée Sack, Damaskus: Entwicklung und Struktur einer orientalisch-islamischen Stadt (1989); also useful is R. Stephen Humphreys, “Urban Topography and Urban Society: Damascus Under the Ayyubids and Mamluks,” in his Islamic History: A Framework for Inquiry (1991), pp. 228–254. A good English introduction to the city's monuments is Ross Burns, Monuments of Syria: An Historical Guide (1999), pp. 75–109. Climate and geography are addressed in Richard Thoumin, Géographie humaine de la Syrie Centrale (1936). A detailed study of al-Ghūṭah is Ṣaffūḥ Khayr, Ghūṭat Dimashq, Dirāsah fī al-jughrāfyah al-zirāʿīyah (1966). The city's contemporary political situation is addressed in Raymond Hinnebusch, Syria: Revolution from Above (2001).Nasser O. Rabbat
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