/suy"teuh plaz'euhm/, n. Cell Biol.the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles. See diag. under cell.[1870-75; CYTO- + -PLASM]
* * *Portion of a eukaryotic cell outside the nucleus.The cytoplasm contains all the organelles (see eukaryote). The organelles include the mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes. The cytoplasm also contains the cytoskeleton and the cytosol (the fluid mass that surrounds the various organelles).
* * *▪ cytologythe semifluid substance of a cell that is external to the nuclear membrane and internal to the cellular membrane, sometimes described as the nonnuclear content of protoplasm. In eukaryotes (eukaryote) (i.e., cells having a nucleus), the cytoplasm contains all of the organelles (organelle). Among such organelles are the mitochondria (mitochondrion), which are the sites of energy production through ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesis; the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of lipid and protein synthesis; the Golgi apparatus, the site where proteins are modified, packaged, and sorted in preparation for transport to their cellular destinations; lysosomes (lysosome) and peroxisomes (peroxisome), sacs of digestive enzymes that carry out the intracellular digestion of macromolecules such as lipids and proteins; the cytoskeleton, a network of protein fibres that give shape and support to the cell; and cytosol, the fluid mass that surrounds the various organelles.
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