- concerto grosso
/keuhn cher"toh groh"soh/; It. /kawn cherdd"taw grddaws"saw/, pl. concerti grossi /keuhn cher"tee groh"see/; It. /kawn cherdd"tee grddaws"see/, concerto grossos.a musical form, common in the Baroque period, in which contrasting sections are played by full orchestra and by a small group of soloists.[1715-25; < It: lit., big concert; see GROSS]
* * *Principal orchestral music of the Baroque era, characterized by contrast between a small group of soloists and a larger orchestra.The small group (concertino) usually consisted of two violins and continuo, the instruments of the older trio sonata, though wind instruments were also used. The larger group (ripieno) generally consisted of strings with continuo. Alessandro Stradella (1642–82) wrote the first known concerto grosso с 1675. Arcangelo Corelli's set of 12 (с 1680–90), Johann Sebastian Bach's Brandenburg Concertos (с 1720), and George Frideric Handel's Opus 6 concertos (с 1740) are the most celebrated examples. From 1750 the concerto grosso was eclipsed by the solo concerto.
* * *▪ musicplural concerti grossicommon type of orchestral music of the Baroque era (c. 1600–c. 1750), characterized by contrast between a small group of soloists (soli, concertino, principale) and the full orchestra (tutti, concerto grosso, ripieno). The titles of early concerti grossi often reflected their performance locales, as in concerto da chiesa (“church concerto”) and concerto da camera (“chamber concerto,” played at court), titles also applied to works not strictly concerti grossi. Ultimately the concerto grosso flourished as secular court music.The typical instrumentation for the concertino was that of the trio sonata, the prevalent genre of chamber music: two violins and continuo (bass melody instrument such as a cello, and a harmony instrument such as a harpsichord); wind instruments also were common. The ripieno normally consisted of a string orchestra with continuo, often augmented by woodwinds or brass instruments.Beginning about 1700 with Arcangelo Corelli, the number of movements varied, although some composers, such as Giuseppe Torelli and Antonio Vivaldi, who were more committed to the solo concerto, adopted a three-movement pattern of fast-slow-fast. Fast movements often used a ritornello structure, in which a recurrent section, or ritornello, alternates with episodes, or contrasting sections, played by the soloists.About 1750, having reached its apogee with George Frideric Handel's Opus 6 (1740), the concerto grosso was eclipsed by the solo concerto. In the 20th century, composers such as Igor Stravinsky and Henry Cowell revived the form.
* * *