/kol"euh nee/, n.The, a city in NE Texas. 11,586.
* * *IIn antiquity, any of the new settlements established in territory conquered by the Greeks (8th–6th century BC), Alexander the Great (4th century BC), and the Romans (4th century BC–AD 2nd century).Greek colonies extended to Italy, Sicily, Spain, the eastern Mediterranean (including Egypt), and the Black Sea. Alexander pushed even farther into Central Asia, South Asia, and Egypt. Roman colonization covered much of the same area and regions south to northern Africa, west to Spain, and north to Britain and Germany. Reasons for colonizing included expansion of trade, acquisition of raw materials, resolution of political unrest or overpopulation, and craving for land and rewards. Colonies retained ties and loyalty to Rome, though rebelliousness was not uncommon. In Roman colonies after 177 BC, colonists retained Roman citizenship and could exercise full political rights. Ancient colonization spread Hellenic and Roman culture to the far reaches of the empires, often assimilating local populations, some of whom acquired Roman citizenship.IIIn zoology, a group of organisms of one species that live and interact closely with each other in an organized fashion.A colony differs from an aggregation, in which the group has no cooperative or organized function. Colonies of social insects (e.g., ants, bees) usually include castes with different responsibilities. Many birds form temporary breeding colonies, in some cases to stimulate reproductive activities, in others to make the best use of a limited breeding habitat and to coordinate efforts in protecting nests from predators. Certain mammals that live in close groups are said to be colonial, though they lack cooperative activities and each maintains a territory.III(as used in expressions)United Colonies of New England
* * *▪ ancient Roman settlementin Roman antiquity, a Roman settlement in conquered territory. The earliest colonies were coast-guard communities, each containing about 300 Roman citizens and their families. By 200 BC a system of such Roman maritime colonies maintained guard over the coasts throughout Italy. The Romans preferred this form of coastal defense to the use of a fleet. The colonists kept their Roman citizenship, with all the rights thereof.The larger Latin colonies were established for defensive purposes outside Roman territory. In 218 BC, for example, about 6,000 colonists, Latin as well as Roman, were settled in Placentia and Cremona to guard the region of the Po River following the conquest of northern Italy. At first, the Romans who moved to such colonies exchanged their Roman citizenship for generous land grants, but after 177 BC Latin colonists were considered Roman citizens. The colonists could exercise full political rights in Rome and elect their own magistrates, who had limited judicial and financial power.By the late 2nd century BC, colonies were established not only for defensive purposes but for offering work to landless freedmen and veterans. Julius Caesar (Caesar, Julius) and Augustus regularized the practice of founding colonies for veterans and proletarians in conquered territories outside Rome. The presence of colonists helped to Romanize the local inhabitants, some of whom assimilated and acquired Roman citizenship. This policy was maintained until the 2nd century AD. Thereafter, colonia became simply the highest rank that a community could attain. Colonies were often named for their founders and later benefactors, which often included the emperors.▪ animal societyin zoology, a group of organisms of one species that live and interact closely with each other. A colony differs from an aggregation, which is a group whose members have no interaction. Small, functionally specialized, attached organisms called polyps in cnidarians and zooids in bryozoans form colonies and may be modified for capturing prey, feeding, or reproduction. Colonies of social insects (social insect) (e.g., ants, bees) usually include castes with different responsibilities.Temporary breeding colonies are formed by many birds (bird). Certain birds may require the presence of many of their kind to stimulate reproductive activities. Others (e.g., gulls) breed in colonies because of a limited breeding habitat and to coordinate their efforts in protecting the nests from predators.
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