- Clare of Assisi, Saint
1194-1253, Italian nun: founder of the Franciscan order of nuns.Also, Clara of Assisi.
* * *born July 16, 1194, Assisi, duchy of Spoletodied Aug. 11, 1253, Assisi; canonized 1255; feast day August 11Founder of the order of Poor Clares (Clarissines).Born to a noble family, she became devoted to her fellow Assisian St. Francis. She refused to marry and in 1212 fled to the Porziuncola Chapel, where St. Francis received her vows. She later became abbess of a female religious community that included her sister, St. Agnes, and her mother. Her order, the Second Order of St. Francis, or Poor Clares, adopted the absolute poverty of St. Francis but was strictly cloistered, unlike its counterpart, the Franciscans. Still allied with the Franciscans, the Poor Clares are noted for their poverty and their life of penitential prayer led for the good of church and society.
* * *▪ Roman Catholic abbessClare also spelled Clara , Italian Santa Chiara Di Assisiborn July 16, 1194, Assisi, duchy of Spoleto [Italy]died Aug. 11, 1253, Assisi; canonized 1255; feast day August 11abbess and founder of the Poor Clares (Poor Clare) (Clarissines).Deeply influenced by St. Francis of Assisi (Francis of Assisi, Saint), she refused to marry as her parents wished and fled (March 18, 1212) to the Porziuncola Chapel below Assisi, where Francis received her vows, thus marking the beginning of the Second Order of St. Francis. Many joined Clare, including her mother and her sister St. Agnes. Soon the Poor Clares were housed in the church and convent of San Damiano, near Assisi, where Clare became abbess in 1216. Clare's great concern was to obtain a rule reflecting the spirit of Francis to replace the Benedictine rule that Cardinal Ugolino (later Pope Gregory IX) had adapted for her order. Two days before she died Pope Innocent IV approved her definitive rule.Besides its “privilege of perfect poverty,” forbidding the ownership of property even by the community, Clare's order is noted for its apostolic aim: she considered its penitential prayer life a spiritually vitalizing force for church and society. This view was shared by the popes and by the grateful citizens of Assisi, who credited Clare with twice saving their city from destruction. On the first occasion, Clare caused the convent chaplain to elevate the Host at the refectory window, whereupon the Moorish allies of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II, who were storming the walls, fell back. On the second occasion, when a larger force headed by General Vitale d'Aversa besieged Assisi, Clare and her nuns fervently prayed for the Assisians, and a great storm dispersed the attackers. She was credited with other miracles in life and after death. In 1958 Pope Pius XII declared her patron of television, alluding to an incident during her last illness when she miraculously heard and saw the Christmas midnight mass in the basilica of San Francesco on the far side of Assisi.Additional ReadingRegis J. Armstrong (ed. and trans.), Clare of Assisi: Early Documents, rev. and expanded edition (1993, reissued 2006); Ingrid J. Peterson, Clare of Assisi (1993).
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