/shahr"leuht/, n.1. Grand Duchess (Charlotte Aldegonde Elise Marie Wilhelmine), 1896-1985, sovereign of Luxembourg 1919-64.2. a city in S North Carolina. 314,447.3. a female given name: derived from Charles.
* * *ICity (pop., 2000: 540,828), North Carolina, U.S. The Carolinas' biggest metropolis, it lies near the Catawba River, 15 mi (24 km) north of South Carolina.It was settled с 1748 and named for Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Streliz (later the wife of George III). In the American Revolution it was occupied by Lord Cornwallis, who dubbed it "the hornet's nest." Until the California gold rush that began in 1848, it was the centre of U.S. gold production. In the American Civil War it was the site of a Confederate naval yard. Presidents Andrew Jackson and James Polk were born nearby and received their early schooling there. Its industry includes textiles, machinery, and chemical production, and it is the site of several institutions of higher education.IIorig. Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitzborn May 19, 1744died Nov. 17, 1818Queen consort of George III of England.In 1761 she was selected unseen after the British king asked for a review of all eligible German Protestant princesses. The marriage was a success, and the couple had 15 children, including George IV. After the king was declared insane (1811), Parliament turned to the future George IV, while Charlotte was given custody of her husband.III(as used in expressions)Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg StrelitzCorday d'Armont Marie Anne CharlotteCushman Charlotte SaundersGilman Charlotte Anna Perkins StetsonEmilie Charlotte Le Breton
* * *city, seat (1774) of Mecklenburg county, south-central North Carolina, U.S. It lies just east of the Catawba River in the Piedmont region. Settled about 1750, it was incorporated in 1768 and named for Princess Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, George III's queen. The so-called Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence (a series of anti-British resolutions) was signed there in May 1775. During the American Revolution the town was occupied (1780) by Lord Cornwallis (Cornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess and 2nd Earl, Viscount Brome, Baron Cornwallis of Eye), who received such hostile treatment he dubbed it “the hornet's nest of rebellion” (now the city's official emblem). Charlotte was the centre of gold production in the country until the California Gold Rush (gold rush) of 1849, and a mint was located there (1837–61 and 1867–1913). During the American Civil War the city was the site of a Confederate (Confederate States of America) headquarters and hospital. The last full session of the Confederate cabinet was held there on April 15, 1865.A major wholesale distribution point for the southeastern United States and the Carolinas metropolis, Charlotte has diversified manufacturing (textiles, machinery, metal, and food products) and is one of the nation's largest banking centres. The first college in North Carolina, Queens College in Charlotte, was chartered in 1771, though it was disallowed by English authorities; the present Queens College was chartered in 1857. Other educational institutions in the area include a branch of the University of North Carolina (North Carolina, University of) (1946), Johnson C. Smith University (1867), King's College (1901), and Central Piedmont Community College (1963).Presidents Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew) and James K. Polk (Polk, James K.), born nearby, received their early schooling in Charlotte. The area's history during the American Revolution has inspired several novels, including Inglis Fletcher's Raleigh's Eden (1940) and Burke Davis's Ragged Ones (1951). The Mint Museum of Art, housed in the old U.S. Mint building, features European and American art, period costumes, and pre-Columbian and African artifacts. Charlotte is home to the Panthers professional gridiron football team and the Sting professional women's basketball team. James K. Polk Memorial State Historic Site is in nearby Pineville. Pop. (2000) city, 540,828; Charlotte–Gastonia–Concord MSA, 1,330,448; (2006 est.) city, 630,478; Charlotte–Gastonia–Concord MSA, 1,584,844.▪ grand duchess of Luxembourgin full Charlotte Aldegonde Élise Marie Wilhelmineborn Jan. 23, 1896, Château de Berg, Lux.died July 9, 1985, Château de Fischbachgrand duchess of Luxembourg from 1919 to 1964. Her constitutional reign saw the evolution of Luxembourg into a modern social-democratic state.The second daughter of Grand Duke William IV, Charlotte succeeded her sister Marie-Adélaïde, who abdicated in January 1919 after acquiring a pro-German reputation during World War I. Charlotte immediately called for a referendum, and in September three-quarters of the voters preferred her continued reign to a republic. Six weeks later she married Prince Félix of Bourbon-Parma (d. 1970). They had six children: Jean, Élisabeth, Marie-Adélaïde, Marie-Gabrielle, Charles, and Alix. When Nazi Germany overran Luxembourg in May 1940, Charlotte fled with the government, settling in Montreal for the duration of the war. Her frequent radio messages of encouragement were never forgotten by a grateful people. In April 1961 she granted Prince Jean all of her ducal responsibilities in preparation for abdicating in November 1964.Charlotte's popular reign provided stability during a time of sweeping change. Luxembourg's constitution was twice rewritten (1919 and 1948), providing universal suffrage and abolishing the country's much-violated disarmed neutrality. Labour laws and social-security schemes were passed, and through the Benelux Economic Union, NATO, and the EEC, Luxembourg was integrated into post-World War II western Europe. During this time Charlotte's steadfast patriotism and democratic sympathies made her a symbol of Luxembourg's sovereignty and prosperity.
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