carnelian

carnelian
/kahr neel"yeuhn/, n.
a red or reddish variety of chalcedony, used in jewelry.
Also, cornelian.
[1685-95; var. (with a of CARNATION) of cornelian, ME cornel(ine) ( < MF, prob. equiv. to OF cornele cornel cherry + -ine -INE1) + -IAN]

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Translucent, semiprecious variety of the silica mineral chalcedony that owes its red to reddish brown colour to the incorporation of small amounts of iron oxide.

A closely related variety of chalcedony, sard, differs only in the shade of red. Carnelian was highly valued and used in rings and signets by the Greeks and Romans, some of whose intaglios have retained their high polish better than those made from harder stones. Carnelian is mined principally in India, Brazil, and Australia. Its physical properties are those of quartz.

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also called  cornelian 

      a translucent, semiprecious variety of the silica mineral chalcedony that owes its red to reddish brown colour to colloidally dispersed hematite (iron oxide). It is a close relative of sard, differing only in the shade of red. Carnelian was highly valued and used in rings and signets by the Greeks and Romans, some of whose intaglios have retained their high polish better than many harder stones. Carnelian's colour is enhanced by baking and dyeing with iron salts. Chief localities are Ratnapura, India; Campo de Maia, Brazil; and Warwick, Queensland, Australia. Its physical properties are those of quartz. See silica mineral (table).

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Universalium. 2010.

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