/kahr"beuhn dayl'/, n.1. a city in SW Illinois. 27,194.2. a city in NE Pennsylvania, near Scranton: coal-mining center. 11,255.
* * *city, Jackson county, southern Illinois, U.S. It is situated at the northern edge of the Illinois Ozarks (Ozark Mountains), about 100 miles (160 km) southeast of St. Louis (Saint Louis), Missouri. Founded in 1852 by Daniel Brush, a mill owner from nearby Murphysboro, in anticipation of the arrival of the Illinois Central Railroad (which reached the city in 1854) and named for the local coalfields, it developed as a mining and agricultural centre. Carbondale's growth was spurred by the opening in 1869 of a normal school (renamed Southern Illinois University in 1947). The university provides the basis for Carbondale's economy, and the city is a regional trade, tourism, and education centre. The university's campus features Shryock Auditorium (1918) and a museum. Carbondale was the home of General John A. Logan (Logan, John A), commander in chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, and was the site of one of the first remembrances of Memorial (Decoration) Day (Memorial Day) (April 29, 1866); a stone in Woodlawn Cemetery commemorates the occasion. John A. Logan (community) College (1967) is in nearby Carterville. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Shawnee National Forest, and Giant City and Lake Murphysboro state parks are nearby. Inc. town, 1856; city, 1873. Pop. (1990) 27,033; (2000) 20,681.city, Lackawanna county, northeastern Pennsylvania, U.S., on the Lackawanna River. Located in a mountain resort region, it is 16 miles (26 km) northeast of the city of Scranton.Settlers first arrived in the area in the early 1800s. The brothers William and Maurice Wurts, who were coal prospectors, discovered coal there in 1814. Previously known as Ragged Island and Barrendale, the site was renamed Carbondale in 1822 for the successful open-pit coal-mining (coal mining) operations established by the Wurtses there. The need for coal transport spurred the development of the Delaware and Hudson Canal (1825) and a gravity railroad, from Carbondale to Honesdale. The Stourbridge Lion (now in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.), the first steam locomotive to operate on a railway in the United States, made its initial run on that line August 8, 1829, but proved impractical. Hauling via horses and mules was resumed. In June 1831 the nation's first underground anthracite mine was opened at Carbondale. With the decline of the coalfields, economic emphasis was switched to light industry. The Elk Mountain Ski Center is 12 miles (19 km) north. Inc. 1831. Pop. (1990) 10,664; (2000) 9,804.
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