Sp. /ah'sooh le"haw, ah'thooh-/; Port. /ah'zooh le"zhoo/, n., pl. azulejos Sp. /-haws/; Port. /-zhoosh/.(in Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries) a glazed and painted tile used as a wainscot or facing.[1835-45; < Sp: blue tile, deriv. of azul blue]
* * *Spanish and Portuguese glazed, polychromed tile produced from the 14th century.Introduced into Spain by the Arabs during the Moorish occupation, azulejos were used in Islamic architecture for facing walls and paving floors. Early designs were geometric and 5–6 in. (13–15 cm) square. In the 15th–16th centuries Portugal imported the tiles from Spain for use in religious and private buildings. The Portuguese exported them in the 17th century to the Azores, Madeira, and Brazil, and the Spaniards introduced them to their American colonies. In the 18th century, interiors and exteriors in Puebla, Mex., were covered with azulejos in brilliant colours on a scale unequaled elsewhere.Azulejos from Seville, late 16th century; in the Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, RotterdamBy courtesy of Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam
* * *▪ art tile(from Arabic az-zulayj, “little stone”), Spanish and later principally Portuguese tiles produced from the 14th century onward. At first the term was used to denote only North African mosaics, but it became the accepted word for an entirely decorated tile about 5 to 6 inches (13 to 15 centimetres) square. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal imported azulejo tiles from Spain, and their use was widespread in religious and private architecture, particularly on facades, such as that of Coimbra cathedral (1510). About 1550 Flemish artists in Lisbon attempted the production of tiles, and the industry developed during the reigns of Philip II, III, and IV to become independent of Spain, which virtually ceased to manufacture them in the 18th century. Portuguese exports of tiles to the Azores, Madeira, and Brazil began in the 17th century; azulejos produced in Puebla, Mex., later were to be the most outstanding in the New World.Initially, one-colour versions of the tiles were used in Portugal in decorative chessboard patterns. Variations included polychrome designs; scenes with military or religious themes; and humorous singeries, which depicted monkeys in human roles. During the height of the azulejo's popularity, from about 1690 to 1750, many exterior and interior walls were faced by complex continuous picture tiles.
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