/am fib"ee euhn/, n.1. any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Amphibia, comprising frogs and toads, newts and salamanders, and caecilians, the larvae being typically aquatic, breathing by gills, and the adults being typically semiterrestrial, breathing by lungs and through the moist, glandular skin.2. an amphibious plant.3. an airplane designed for taking off from and landing on both land and water.4. Also called amtrac. a flat-bottomed, armed, military vehicle, equipped with both tracks and a rudder, that can travel either on land or in water, used chiefly for landing assault troops.adj.5. belonging or pertaining to the Amphibia.6. amphibious (def. 2).
* * *Any member of a class (Amphibia) of cold-blooded vertebrate animals that includes more than 4,400 species in three groups: frogs and toads (order Anura), salamanders (order Caudata), and caecilians (order Apoda).Probably evolved from certain fish species of the Early Devonian period (417–391 million years ago), amphibians were the first vertebrates to move from an aquatic environment to land. Most species have an aquatic larval, or tadpole, stage that metamorphoses into a terrestrial adult, but a few species spend their entire life in water. Amphibians are found worldwide, the majority in the tropics.
* * *▪ animalIntroductionany member of the group of vertebrate animals characterized by their ability to exploit both aquatic and terrestrial habitats (habitat). The name amphibian, derived from the Greek amphibios, meaning “living a double life,” reflects this dual life strategy—though some species are permanent land dwellers, while other species have a completely aquatic mode of existence.Nearly 6,200 species of living amphibians are known. First appearing about 340 million years ago during the Upper Mississippian Epoch (Mississippian Subperiod), they were one of the earliest groups to diverge from ancestral fish-tetrapod stock during the evolution of animals from strictly aquatic forms to terrestrial types. Today, amphibians are represented by frogs (frog) and toads (toad) (order Anura), newts (newt) and salamanders (salamander) (order Caudata), and caecilians (caecilian) (order Gymnophiona). These three orders of living amphibians are thought to derive from a single radiation of ancient amphibians, and although strikingly different in body form, they are probably the closest relatives to one another. As a group, the three orders make up subclass Lissamphibia. Neither the lissamphibians nor any of the extinct groups of amphibians were the ancestors of the group of tetrapods (tetrapod) that gave rise to reptiles (reptile). Though some aspects of the biology and anatomy of the various amphibian groups might demonstrate features possessed by reptilian ancestors, amphibians are not the intermediate step in the evolution of reptiles from fishes (fish).Modern amphibians are united by several unique traits. They typically have a moist skin and rely heavily on cutaneous (skin-surface) respiration. They possess a double-channeled hearing system, green rods (rod) in their retinas to discriminate hues, and pedicellate (two-part) teeth. Some of these traits may have also existed in extinct groups.Members of the three extant orders differ markedly in their structural appearance. Frogs and toads are tailless and somewhat squat with long, powerful hind limbs modified for leaping. In contrast, caecilians (Gymnophiona) are limbless, wormlike, and highly adapted for a burrowing existence. Salamanders (salamander) and newts (newt) have tails and two pairs of limbs of roughly the same size; however, they are somewhat less specialized in body form than the other two orders.Many amphibians are obligate breeders in standing water. Eggs (egg) are laid in water, and the developing larvae are essentially free-living embryos (embryo); they must find their own food, escape predators, and perform other life functions while they continue to develop. As the larvae complete their embryonic development, they adopt an adult body plan that allows them to leave aquatic habitats for terrestrial ones. Even though this metamorphosis from aquatic to terrestrial life occurs in members of all three amphibian groups, there are many variants, and some taxa bear their young alive. Indeed, the roughly 6,200 living species of amphibians display more evolutionary experiments in reproductive mode than any other vertebrate group. Some taxa have aquatic eggs and larvae, whereas others embed their eggs in the skin on the back of the female; these eggs hatch as tadpoles (tadpole) or miniature frogs. In other groups, the young develop within the oviduct, with the embryos feeding on the wall of the oviduct. In some species, eggs develop within the female's stomach.General featuresSize range and diversity of structureThe three living orders of amphibians vary greatly in size and structure. The presence of a long tail and two pairs of limbs of about equal size distinguishes newts (newt) and salamanders (salamander) (order Caudata) from other amphibians, although members of the eel-like family Sirenidae (siren) have no hind limbs. Newts and salamanders vary greatly in length; members of the Mexican genus Thorius measure 25 to 30 mm (1 to 1.2 inches), whereas Andrias, a genus of giant aquatic salamanders endemic to China and Japan, reaches a length of more than 1.5 metres (5 feet). Frogs (frog) and toads (toad) (order Anura) are easily identified by their long hind limbs and the absence of a tail. They have only five to nine presacral vertebrae. The West African goliath frog, which can reach 30 cm (12 inches) from snout to vent and weigh up to 3.3 kg (7.3 pounds), is the largest anuran. Some of the smallest anurans include the South American brachycephalids, which have an adult snout-to-vent length of only 9.8 mm (0.4 inch), and some microhylids, which grow to 9 to 12 mm (0.4 to 0.5 inch) as adults. The long, slender, limbless caecilians (caecilian) (order Gymnophiona) are animals that have adapted to fossorial (burrowing) lifestyles by evolving a body segmented by annular grooves and a short, blunt tail. Caecilians can grow to more than 1 metre (3 feet) long. The largest species, Caecilia thompsoni, reaches a length of 1.5 metres (5 feet), whereas the smallest species, Idiocranium russeli, is only 90 to 114 mm (3.5 to 5 inches) long.Distribution and abundanceAmphibians occur widely throughout the world, even edging north of the Arctic circle in Eurasia; they are absent only in Antarctica, most remote oceanic islands, and extremely xeric (dry) deserts. Frogs and toads show the greatest diversity in humid tropical environments. Salamanders primarily inhabit the Northern Hemisphere and are most abundant in cool, moist, montane forests; however, members of the family Plethodontidae (lungless salamander), the lungless salamanders (lungless salamander), are diverse in the humid tropical montane forests of Mexico, Central America, and northwestern South America. Caecilians are found spottily throughout the African, American, and Asian wet tropics.For many years, habitat destruction has had a severe impact on the distribution and abundance of numerous amphibian species. Since the 1980s, a severe decline in the populations of many frog species has been observed. Although acid rain, global warming, and ozone depletion (ozonosphere) are contributing factors to these reductions, a full explanation of the disappearance in diverse environment remains uncertain. A parasitic fungus, the so-called amphibian chytrid (Chytridiomycota) (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), however, appears to be a major cause of substantial frog die-offs in parts of Australia and southern Central America and milder events in North America and Europe.Economic importanceAmphibians, especially anurans, are economically useful in reducing the number of insects (insect) that destroy crops or transmit diseases (disease). Frogs are exploited as food, both for local consumption and commercially for export, with thousands of tons of frog legs harvested annually. The skin secretions of various tropical anurans are known to have hallucinogenic effects and effects on the central nervous (nervous system) and respiratory systems (respiration, human) in humans. Some secretions have been found to contain magainin, a substance that provides a natural antibiotic effect. Other skin secretions, especially toxins (toxin), have potential use as anesthetics (anesthetic) and painkillers. Biochemists are currently investigating these substances for medicinal use.Natural historyThe three living groups of amphibians have distinct evolutionary lineages (evolution) and exhibit a diverse range of life histories. The breeding behaviour of each group is outlined below. One similar tendency among amphibians has been the evolution of direct development, in which the aquatic egg and free-swimming larval stages are eliminated. Development occurs fully within the egg capsule, and juveniles hatch as miniatures of the adult body form. Most species of lungless salamanders (lungless salamander) (family Plethodontidae), the largest salamander family, some caecilians (caecilian), and many species of anurans have direct development. In addition, numerous caecilians and a few species of anurans and salamanders give birth to live young ( viviparity).Anurans (Anura) display a wide variety of life histories. Centrolenids (glass frog) and phyllomedusine hylids (tree frog) deposit eggs on vegetation above streams or ponds; upon hatching, the tadpoles (tadpole) (anuran larvae) drop into the water where they continue to develop throughout their larval stage. Some species from the families Leptodactylidae and Rhacophoridae create foam nests for their eggs in aquatic, terrestrial, or arboreal habitats (habitat); after hatching, tadpoles of these families usually develop in water. Dendrobatids (poison frog) and other anurans deposit their eggs on land and transport them to water. Female hylid marsupial frogs (frog) are so called because they carry their eggs in a pouch on their backs. A few species lack a pouch and the tadpoles are exposed on the back; in some species, the female deposits her tadpoles in a pond as soon as they emerge.Inside the egg, the embryo is enclosed in a series of semipermeable gelatinous capsules and suspended in perivitelline fluid, a fluid that also surrounds the yolk. The hatching larvae dissolve these capsules with enzymes (enzyme) secreted from glands on the tips of their snouts. The original yolk mass of the egg provides all nutrients (nutrient) necessary for development; however, various developmental stages utilize different nutrients. In early development, fats (fat) are the major energy source. During gastrulation (gastrula), an early developmental stage in which the embryo consists of two cell layers, there is an increasing reliance on carbohydrates (carbohydrate). After gastrulation, a return to fat utilization occurs. During the later developmental stages, when morphological structures form, proteins (protein) are the primary energy source. By the neurula stage, an embryonic stage in which nervous tissue develops, cilia appear on the embryo, and the graceful movement of these hairlike structures rotates the embryo within the perivitelline fluid. The larvae of direct developing and live-bearing caecilians, salamanders, and some anurans have external gills (gill) that press against the inner wall of the egg capsule, which permits an exchange of gases ( oxygen and carbon dioxide) with the outside air or with maternal tissues. During development, ammonia is the principal form of nitrogenous waste, and it is diluted by a constant diffusion of water in the perivitelline fluid.The development of limbs in the embryos of aquatic salamanders begins in the head region and proceeds in a wave down the body, and digits appear sequentially on both sets of limbs. Salamanders that deposit their eggs in streams produce embryos that develop both sets of limbs before they hatch, but salamanders that deposit their eggs in still water have embryos that develop only forelimbs before hatching. (In contrast, the limbs of anurans do not appear until after hatching.) Soon after the appearance of forelimbs, most pond-dwelling salamanders develop an ectodermal (ectoderm) projection known as a balancer on each side of the head. These rodlike structures arise from the mandibular arch, contain nerves and capillaries, and produce a sticky secretion. They keep newly hatched larvae from sinking into the sediment and aid the salamander in maintaining its balance before its forelimbs develop. After the forelimbs appear, the balancers degenerate.During the embryonic and early larval stages in anurans, paired adhesive organs arise from the hyoid arch, located at the base of the tongue. The sticky mucus they secrete can form a threadlike attachment between a newly hatched tadpole and the egg capsule or vegetation. Consequently, the tadpole that is still developing can remain in a stable position until it is capable of swimming and feeding (feeding behaviour) on its own, after which the adhesive organs degenerate.The amphibian larva represents a morphologically distinct stage between the embryo and adult. The larva is a free-living embryo. It must find food, avoid predators, and participate in all other aspects of free-living existence while it completes its embryonic development and growth. Salamander and caecilian larvae are carnivorous (carnivore), and they have a morphology more like their respective adult forms than do anuran larvae. Not long after emerging from their egg capsules, larval salamanders, which have four fully developed limbs, start to feed on small aquatic invertebrates (invertebrate). The salamander larvae are smaller versions of adults, although they differ from their adult counterparts by the presence of external gills, a tailfin, distinctive larval dentition, a rudimentary tongue, and the absence of eyelids. Larval caecilians, also smaller models of adults, have external gills, a lateral-line system (lateral line system) (a group of epidermal sense organs located over the head and along the side of the body), and a thin skin.In anurans, tadpoles are fishlike when they hatch. They have short, generally ovoid bodies and long, laterally compressed tails that are composed of a central axis of musculature with dorsal and ventral fins. The mouth is located terminally (recessed), ringed with an oral disk that is often fringed by papillae and bears many rows of denticles made of keratin. Tadpoles often have horny beaks. Their gills are internal and covered by an operculum. Water taken in through the mouth passes over the gills and is expelled through one or more spiracular openings on the side of an opercular chamber. Anuran larvae are microphagous and thus feed largely on bacteria and algae that coat aquatic plants (plant) and debris.Salamander larvae usually reach full size within two to four months, although they may remain larvae for two to three years before metamorphosis occurs. Some large aquatic species, such as the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) and the mud puppy (Necturus maculosus), never fully metamorphose and retain larval characteristics as adults (see below heterochrony (amphibian)). Tadpole development varies in length between species. Some anuran species living in xeric (dry) habitats, in which ephemeral ponds may exist for only a few weeks, develop and metamorphose within two to three weeks; however, most species require at least two months. Species living in cold mountain streams or lakes often require much more time. For example, the development of the tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) takes three years to complete.Metamorphosis entails an abrupt and thorough change in an animal's physiology and biochemistry, with concomitant structural and behavioral modifications. These changes mark the transformation from embryo to juvenile and the completion of development. Hormones (hormone) ultimately control all events of larval growth and metamorphosis, and in many instances, development is accompanied by a shift from a fully aquatic life to a semiaquatic or fully terrestrial one.Although salamanders undergo many structural modifications, these changes are not dramatic. The skin thickens as dermal glands (gland) develop and the caudal fin is resorbed. Gills are resorbed and gill slits close as lungs (lung) develop and branchial (gill) circulation is modified. Eyelids, tongue, and a maxillary bone are formed, and teeth develop on the maxillary and parasphenoid bones. Changes that occur in caecilians—the closure of the gill slit, the degeneration of the caudal fin, and the development of a tentacle and skin glands—are also minor.Skeletal changes are much more dramatic in anurans because tadpoles make an abrupt and radical transition to their adult form. Limbs complete their development, and the forelimbs break through the opercular wall, early in metamorphosis. The tail shrinks as it is resorbed by the body, dermal glands develop, and the skin becomes thicker. As lungs and pulmonary ventilation develop, gills and their associated blood circulation disappear. Adult mouthparts replace their degenerating larval equivalents, and hyolaryngeal structures develop. All anurans except pipids (family Pipidae) develop a tongue. In the newly differentiated digestive tract, the intestine is shortened. The eyes become larger and are structurally altered; eyelids appear. These extreme changes of anuran metamorphosis clearly demarcate the shift from an aquatic to a terrestrial mode of life. Other less obvious yet nonetheless radical modifications of the larval skull and hyobranchial apparatus (that is, the part of the skeleton that serves as base for the tongue on the floor of the mouth) occur to make room for newly developed sense organs. These modifications also facilitate the transition from larval modes of feeding and respiration to those of the adult.During metamorphosis, the urogenital system of all amphibians is also modified. A mesonephric or opisthonephric kidney—which uses nephrons (nephron) located either in the middle or at the end of the nephric ridge in the developing embryo—replaces the degenerating rudimentary pronephric kidney. This transition is linked to the shift from production of a large volume of dilute ammonia to a small amount of concentrated urea. Gonads and associated ducts also appear and begin their maturation.Neoteny, once a widely used label for the condition of sexually mature larvae, has been discontinued by biologists and replaced by the concept of heterochrony. Heterochrony refers to the change in the timing and rate of developmental events, and it is a widespread feature in amphibian evolution, particularly in salamanders. During development, a structure can begin to develop sooner (predisplacement) or later (postdisplacement) in an organism than it occurred in the ancestral species or parents. Also, a structure may continue to develop beyond the previous embryological sequence (hypermorphosis) or the developmental sequence can stop earlier than normal (progenesis or hypomorphosis). Each of these heterochronic events can produce a structurally or functionally different organism.The classical “neotenic” salamander, the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), is a paedomorphic (paedomorphosis) species (that is, a species that retains aspects of its juvenile form during its adult phase); it retains its larval gills. In the mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum), some populations also display hypomorphic development in which the development of several larval traits to the adult condition is delayed. Since the gonads mature, a population of sexually mature salamanders with a larval morphology is produced. Heterochrony also explains the presence of larval traits in adults of the salamander families Cryptobranchidae (hellbenders (hellbender)) and Proteidae (olms (olm) and mud puppies (mud puppy)).Heterochrony is not confined to salamanders. The different sized eardrums in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) are examples of hypermorphism in male bullfrogs. The development of the eardrums in the male extends beyond that of the female.Many amphibians have a biphasic life cycle involving aquatic eggs (egg) and larvae that metamorphose into terrestrial or semiaquatic juveniles and adults. Commonly, they deposit large numbers of eggs in water; clutches of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) may exceed 5,000 eggs, and large bullfrogs (bullfrog) (R. catesbeiana) may produce clutches of 45,000 eggs. Egg size and water temperature are important factors that influence an embryo's (embryo) development time. Eggs of many anuran species laid in warm water require only one or two days to develop, whereas eggs deposited in cold mountain lakes or streams may not hatch for 30 to 40 days. The development of salamander eggs often requires more time, with hatching occurring 20 to 270 days after fertilization.Food and feedingAdult amphibians consume a wide variety of foods. Earthworms (earthworm) are the main diet of burrowing caecilians, whereas anurans and salamanders feed primarily on insects (insect) and other arthropods (arthropod). Large salamanders and some large anurans eat small vertebrates (vertebrate), including birds (bird) and mammals (mammal). Most anurans and salamanders locate prey (predation) by sight, although some use their sense of smell. The majority of salamanders and diurnal (that is, active during daylight) terrestrial anurans are active foragers, but many other anurans employ a sit-and-wait technique. Caecilians locate their underground prey with a chemosensory tentacle and capture their quarry with a powerful bite (see chemoreception). Aquatic salamanders lunge at their prey with an open mouth and appear to suck the victim in by expanding their buccal (oral) cavity. The terrestrial lunged salamander extends its sticky tongue, which is attached anteriorly to the floor of the mouth, to ensnare a meal. In lungless salamanders (lungless salamander), the hyobranchial apparatus is not part of the process of buccal respiration; this apparatus is modified so that it can project the tongue from the mouth. The end of the tongue is sticky to adhere to prey, and prey can be captured at distances ranging from 40 to 80 percent of the salamander's body length.Primitive anurans have feeding mechanisms that resemble those of the typical terrestrial salamanders. More advanced anurans employ a “lingual flip,” in which the surfaces of the retracted tongue are twisted and inverted in the fully extended tongue. The pipids, which are completely aquatic, are unique among anurans; they lack a tongue and thus must essentially suck food and water into their mouth.Form and functionCommon featuresAlthough the structure of the muscular, skeletal, and other anatomical systems are specifically modified for each group, amphibians are often set apart from other groups of animals by their characteristic skin, or integument, and evolutionary (evolution) advances in vision and hearing.The circulatory (circulation) and respiratory systems (respiration) work with the integument to provide cutaneous respiration. A broad network of cutaneous capillaries facilitates gas exchange and the diffusion of water and ions (ion) between the animal and the environment. Several species of salamanders and at least one species of frog (Barbourula kalimantanensis) are lungless. Amphibians also employ various combinations of branchial and pulmonary strategies to breathe. The buccal pump mechanism, which involves the pushing of air between the lungs and the closed mouth, is present in amphibians and some groups of fishes.In addition to its roles in respiration and maintaining water balance, the integument of amphibians contains poison glands that release toxins (toxin). Specific toxins are found only in amphibians and are used to defend against predators.The eye (eye, human) of the modern amphibian (or lissamphibian) has a lid, associated glands, and ducts. It also has muscles that allow its accommodation within or on top of the head, depth perception, and true colour vision. These adaptations (adaptation) are regarded as the first evolutionary improvements in vertebrate terrestrial vision. Green rods (rod) in the retina, which permit the perception of a wide range of wavelengths, are found only in lissamphibians.The amphibian auditory system (ear, human) is also specially adapted. One modification is the papilla amphibiorum, a patch of sensory tissues that is sensitive to low-frequency sound. Also unique to lissamphibians is the columella-opercular complex, a pair of elements associated with the auditory capsule that transmit airborne (columella) or seismic (operculum) signals.Structural differencesThe environment helps to mold the morphology of an organism. The markedly different structural forms of the three living orders demonstrate that each group has had a long, separate evolutionary history.SalamandersSalamanders (salamander) have less-specialized morphologies than do the other two orders. They have small heads and long slender bodies made up of four limbs and a tail. Although the skulls (skull) of most terrestrial salamanders consist of more individual pieces than do those of either caecilians (caecilian) or anurans (Anura), they are arched, narrow, and not well roofed. These skulls have an extra set of articulations with the vertebral column, a characteristic that may have been an evolutionary strategy for stabilizing the head on the axial skeleton ( vertebral column) in terrestrial salamanders; other amphibians developed a specialized trunk musculature to meet this challenge.The hyoid apparatus in the floor of the mouth enables salamanders to capture prey by projecting their fleshy tongues from the buccal cavity, although most are only able to roll their tongues forward over their lower jaws to snare their dinner. Food is held and manipulated in the buccal cavity by the teeth and tongue. This mechanism does not require adaptations to the mandibular and jaw muscles or sturdy, specialized teeth—features that most salamanders lack. Well-developed eyes and nasal organs, however, are needed to locate prey. Because salamanders do not depend on their vocal abilities, their auditory apparatus is less specialized than that of anurans.Most salamander species have a generalized mode of locomotion, which is reflected by a lack of specialization in the musculoskeletal system. Salamanders walk methodically and move the limbs in the standard diagonal-sequence gait of quadrupeds. Aquatic salamanders show the greatest divergence from this generalized morphological pattern. Because they are kept afloat by their aquatic environment, they are often larger, devoid of limbs, and swim via the lateral undulation of the trunk and tail.CaeciliansOf the three living amphibian orders, caecilians show the least divergence in structure and form. All caecilians, except for a few aquatic species, lead subterranean existences and thus have similar specialized morphologies. They have a wormlike appearance, with compact and bony heads in which the centres of ossification have fused to provide a strong, spadelike braincase. While useful in tunneling through the soil, this compact cranium does not allow much room for the jaw muscles to develop. Thus, the lower jaw is attached to the main adductor muscle of the jaw by a retroarticular process outside the cranium, and the caecilian cannot extend its tongue from the buccal cavity.Vision, of little importance in the caecilian's environment, is not acute; however, the nasal organs are well developed, and chemosensory perception is greatly enhanced by the existence of a tentacle (see chemoreception). The sense of hearing is probably less sensitive than that of salamanders or anurans. If the operculum (a feature analogous to auditory stapes) is present, it is incorporated into the columella (the rod made of bone or cartilage connecting the tympanic membrane with the internal ear).Subterranean movement and feeding (feeding behaviour) are aided by alterations of the axial musculoskeletal system. The overlying skin is attached to the axial muscles, and this creates a tough sheath that encases the long, muscular body and covers the posterior part of the skull. Caecilians move through soil by a process called concertina locomotion (locomotion), in which the body alternately folds and extends itself along its entire length, often occurring within the envelope of skin as well as by flexures of the entire body.AnuransAnurans are more widespread, diverse, and numerous than either salamanders or caecilians. Anurans display a broader range of specialization in locomotion, feeding, and reproduction in their adaptation to many different environments and lifestyles. In general, anurans have a broad, flat head—which is almost as wide as their body—and a short trunk that, aside from the sacral area, is relatively inflexible. Long, powerful hind limbs propel the fused head and trunk in a forward trajectory. These leaping movements require more complex pectoral and pelvic girdles (pelvic girdle) than that of salamanders. The pectoral girdle is designed to absorb the shock of the anuran as it lands on its forelimbs; an elastic, muscular suspension connecting the pectoral girdle to the skull and vertebral column provides this ability. The pelvic girdle horizontally flanks the coccyx, the bony rod at the posterior end of the vertebral column. Muscles and ligaments attach the pelvic girdle to the coccyx, sacrum, presacral vertebrae, and proximal part of the hind limb. Thus, when the animal jumps, the pelvic girdle lies in the same plane as the axial column, and, when the animal sits, the posterior end of the girdle is deflected ventrally.In addition to the specializations for leaping, many anurans have developed structures that allow them to burrow or climb trees. These structures primarily involve modifications in limb proportions and iliosacral articulation. Arboreal (tree-dwelling) anurans have long limbs and digits with large, terminal, adhesive pads; anurans that burrow have short sturdy limbs and large spatulate tubercles made of keratin on their feet. The pipids, specialized for their aquatic environment, have little flexibility in their axial skeletons and instead propel their flat, fused bodies through the water with powerful hind limbs and large, fully webbed feet.Anurans depend on their visual acumen for feeding and locomotion, and hence the eyes of most species are large and well developed. Because vocalizing is part of their mating and territorial behaviour, their ears are also well developed. Most species have an external tympanum (eardrum), a structure that is absent in salamanders and caecilians.Evolution and classificationAmphibians were not the first tetrapods (tetrapod), but as a group they diverged from the stock that would soon, in a paleontological sense, become the amniotes (Amniota) and the ancestors of modern reptiles (reptile) and amphibians. Tetrapods are descendants from a group of sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes (fish). Precisely which group of sarcopterygians is still debated, although the consensus has shifted from the lungfishes (lungfish) (order Dipnoi) to an ancestor within a group of related fishes: family Panderichthyidae of order Osteolepiformes or fishes of the order Porolepiformes. The interrelationships of this group of sarcopterygian fishes have various interpretations, although their monophyly (derivation from a common ancestor) is highly probable. This aspect means that they all share a similar morphology and possess traits that served as structural predecessors for the evolution of terrestrial adaptations (adaptation).The first tetrapods were not terrestrial animals. Instead, they were likely fully aquatic and probably lived in shallow water and dense vegetation. It is unknown what evolutionary forces drove the transition from fins to limbs, although one hypothesis suggests that limblike appendages were more effective for helping a stalking predator move through dense vegetation. One alternative hypothesis proposes that fin-limbs were used by early terrestrial vertebrates (vertebrate) to move from drying pool to drying pool; this hypothesis is largely discounted because of other terrestrial adaptations required to survive an arduous and desiccating journey. The transformation of vertebrates from an aquatic lifestyle to a terrestrial one extended over more than 80 million years from the Early Devonian (Devonian Period) into the Early Pennsylvanian (Pennsylvanian Subperiod) Epoch.The sarcopterygian ancestor possessed two traits necessary for the evolution of a limbed terrestrial animal: lungs, which provide the ability to breathe air, and appendages with internal skeletal support extending beyond the muscle mass of the trunk. Lungs appeared in bony fishes well before the fish-tetrapod transition. They existed in the ancestors of both the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) and fleshy-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii). In the former, the lungs or air sacs (air sac) became swim bladders (swim bladder) for buoyancy regulation, and in the latter, the lungs were used for aerial respiration.Aerial respiration requires a cycle of airflow in and out of the lung. This flow refreshes the air and provides a steep diffusion gradient for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the tissue interface separating air and blood. Respiration (that is, ventilation) in fishes uses water pressure, with the fish rising to the surface and gulping air. Closing its mouth, the fish dives; because the head is lower than the air sac, the water pressure on the bottom of the mouth forces the air rearward into the “lungs.” The process is reversed as the fish rises to the surface, expelling the air from the lungs prior to breaking the surface for another gulp of air. From this passive buccal (mouth-cavity) ventilation, the early tetrapods developed a muscle-driven buccal pump mechanism. The buccal pump remains functional in living amphibians.The transition from fins to limbs began in the water and was probably completed in a largely aquatic animal. Because of the buoyancy of water, the evolving limb structure emphasized flexibility (the development of joints that bend at an angle rather than curving) over support. The limbs did not have to support the entire body mass, rather a fraction of the total. Instead of support, the limbs would simply push the fish-tetrapod forward, presumably as the fish walked along the bottom of a body of water. The limb movement sequence would have been the standard diagonal sequence used widely by quadrupedal animals. Presumably, the first changes involved the development of knee, elbow, ankle, and wrist joints. Concurrently, the fin-ray section of the fin would decline in size. Eventually, it would be lost and replaced by skeletal elements. As the animal spent more time out of water, the limbs were required to support the total body weight for longer periods, so natural selection would favour a stronger and tightly linked skeleton.This strengthening required the firm anchoring of the pelvic girdle to the axial skeleton ( vertebral column) because hind limbs must support the body while providing the main propulsive force in tetrapod locomotion. The pectoral girdle attaches to the skull in fishes; however, as the forelimbs became the main steering force in tetrapod locomotion, the animal required a flexible neck, and the pectoral girdle lost its attachment to the skull. Selection also favoured a more rigid vertebral column to counter the full effect of gravity during terrestrial locomotion. The support between the vertebrae paralleled the development of sliding and overlapping processes that firmly link adjacent vertebrae. These processes provided vertical rigidity and permitted lateral flexibility. Changes in the musculature promoted limb extension and flexion, and strongly linked adjacent sets of vertebrae and their girdles to the vertebral column.Other anatomical changes associated with a transition to a terrestrial lifestyle included modifications to feeding (feeding behaviour) structures, skin, and sense organs. Feeding on land required more head mobility to move the mouth to food, and the tongue developed to promote the manipulation of food once in the mouth. Through the development of keratinous tissues, the skin became somewhat more resistant to desiccation ( dehydration) and better equipped to resist the increased frictional abrasion (friction) from the air and particulates (such as sand and dust) of the terrestrial environment. To fit this new environment, natural selection favoured adjustments to sense organs. The lateral-line system (lateral line system) disappeared, and the eyes were adapted for vision through an aerial medium. sound reception became more important, and auditory elements appeared. The nasal chamber became a dual channel: one channel allowed the passage of air for respiration, whereas the other allowed the intake of odours (olfaction (smell)).In shape and habitat, the fish ancestral types such as Eusthenopteron or Panderichthys were somewhat different from the earliest tetrapods, Ichthyostega or Acanthostega. Both groups had heavy fusiform bodies (about 1 metre [3 feet] long); heavy, bluntly pointed heads with large mouths; short robust appendages; and thick, finned tails. This transition from fish to tetrapods occurred during the Devonian Period, and the Ichthyostegalia, a group of amphibian-like tetrapods that included Ichthyostega, persisted throughout much of the Late Devonian Epoch. Thereafter, there is a gap in the fossil record. When tetrapods reappear in the Late Mississippian (Mississippian Subperiod) Epoch, the new tetrapods are both amphibians and anthracosaurs, a group of tetrapods with some reptile traits. Dozens of amphibians and anthracosaurs lived from Late Mississippian and Pennsylvanian times. The true amphibians included edopoids, eryopoids, colosteids, trimerorhachoids, and microsaurs. The representatives of the anthracosaurs included the embolomers, baphetids, and limnoscelids. Nectrideans and aistopods are often identified as amphibians, but they might be better grouped with the anthracosaurs or listed separately.The amphibians showed the greatest diversity in structure and lifestyle. The colosteids were small elongated aquatic animals with well-developed limbs. The eel-like aistopods were delicate limbless creatures; all were less than 100 cm (about 39 inches) long and presumably either aquatic or semiaquatic; their fragile skulls probably precluded a burrowing existence. The microsaurs, as the name implies, were small lizardlike (or salamander-like) amphibians, less than 15 cm (6 inches) in total length. All microsaurs had well-developed limbs, although they were sometimes small relative to the body and tail. Their appearance and diversity suggest a varied lifestyle similar to that of modern salamanders.Although most of the amphibians of the Carboniferous Period (359 million years to 299 million years ago) were relatively small and predominately aquatic, some eryopoids—such as Eryops—were strong-limbed, stout-bodied, large (to 2 metres [about 7 feet]) terrestrial animals. Many of the Carboniferous amphibians and anthracosaur groups persisted into the early part of the Permian Period (299 million years to 251 million years ago). The Permian climate became increasing arid, and this change seemed to favour the amniotes, which became progressively more abundant and diverse during this era. As a result of these changing climatic conditions, the ancient amphibian groups largely disappeared by the end of the Permian Period.The Triassic Period (251 million years to 200 million years ago) reveals few amphibian fossils, although one—Triadobatrachus massinoti, from the Early Triassic—is especially important. Though this amphibian has many froglike traits, it is not a true frog. It has the long legs, shortened trunk, and broad head of the typical frog body form. Caudal vertebrae were unfused, not yet forming the rodlike urostyle, but they did lie within the arch formed by elongated ilia. Thereafter, froglike tetrapods disappear from the fossil record until Middle Jurassic times. Frogs from the middle of the Jurassic Period (200 million to 145 million years ago) and thereafter possess the general morphology of extant frogs. This group includes one family, Discoglossidae, which has living species. Most other frog families do not occur in the fossil record until the Paleocene (Paleocene Epoch) or Eocene epochs (Eocene Epoch) between 65 million and 34 million years ago.The salamander-like albanerpetontids appeared contemporaneously with the Jurassic frogs. They persisted throughout the remainder of the Mesozoic Era (251 million to 65 million years ago) and into the early part of the Neogene Period (23 million years ago to the present), but they did not seem to radiate beyond a few species. While they appear salamander-like, the albanerpetontids are at best the sister group of the order Caudata. One group of salamanders, the Batrachosauroididae, appeared in the Late Jurassic and persisted until the Early Pliocene Period. Most modern salamander families did not appear until the early part of the Cenozoic Era (65 million years ago to the present).In contrast, a single caecilian is known from the Early Jurassic Period, and a few caecilian vertebrae have been found in rock layers dating to near the end of the Cretaceous Period (145 to 65 million years ago). Only a scattering of fossil remains has been found in more recent rock layers.Annotated classificationThe following classification derives from Zug, Vitt, and Caldwell (2001), who presented a composite phylogeny from several studies of different ancient amphibian groups. It emphasizes the lineages leading to the living amphibians and does not include all the fossil taxa. As a result of the continued uncertainty of the relationships of many groups of amphibians and the improving, but still incomplete, knowledge of the anatomy in some fossil groups, a definitive phylogenetic classification of the class Amphibia is not attainable at present. In addition, many biologists are abandoning the use of group titles (such as class, order, and superfamily). The new preference is to use an indented hierarchical scheme to reflect the phylogenetic branching pattern; however, this arrangement continues to emerge, and a combined structure is used below. In this classification, Adelospondyli, Aistopoda, Microsauria, and Nectridea are listed as extinct orders within the superorder Lepospondyli, and Temnospondylia and Lissamphibia are listed as separate subclasses. Groups indicated by a dagger (†) are known only from fossils.Class Amphibia (amphibians)Middle Mississippian to present. Skull with a closed otic notch and a squamosal-parietal articulation; mandible of one endochondral and three dermal elements; skull articulates with vertebral column via a specialized atlas vertebrae.†Superorder Lepospondyli (lepospondylians)†Order Adelospondyli (adelospondylians)†Order Aistopoda (labyrinthodont)(aistopodans)Upper Mississippian to Lower Permian. Lepospondylous vertebrae; elongate body with reduced or no limbs; and forked single-headed ribs.†Order Nectridea (nectrideans)Lower Pennsylvanian to Middle Permian. Lepospondylous vertebrae; elongate body with reduced well-differentiated limbs; fan-shaped neural and haemal spines on caudal vertebrae.†Order Microsauria (microsaurs)Lower Pennsylvanian to Middle Permian. Lepospondylous vertebrae, i.e., spool-shaped bony cylinder around the notochord.†Subclass Temnospondyli (temnospondyls)Upper Mississippian to Middle Cretaceous. Vertebral centrum of large intercentrum and pair of small pleurocentra.†Superfamily Trimerorhachoidea (trimerorhachoids)Upper Mississippian to Upper Permian. Flattened skull, shortened preorbital and elongate postorbital regions; palatal openings enlarged.†Clade Eryopoidea (eryopoids)Upper Mississippian to Late Permian. Flattened skull, long preorbital and shortened postorbital regions; palatal openings moderate; and palate with bony connection to braincase.†Superfamily Dissorophoidea (dissorophoids)Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Triassic. Vertebrae strongly ossified; dorsal surface often with bony armor.†Family Trematopidae (trematopids)Upper Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian. Vertebrae weakly ossified, large intercentrum.†Family Dissorophidae (dissorophids)Subclass Lissamphibia (lissamphibians)Lower Triassic to present. Skull without roofing bones behind parietal; teeth pedicellate; and monospondylous vertebrae.Clade GymnophionaOrder Gymnophiona (caecilians)Early Jurassic to present. Compact skull for burrowing with many compound bones, e.g., maxillopalatine; few or no caudal vertebrae; and reduced or usually no girdle or limb skeleton. 6 extant families and about 170 living species.Clade Batrachia†Family Albanerpetodonidae (albanerpetodontids)Middle Jurassic to Lower Miocene. A peg and socket syphyseal articulation of the mandible. 1 genus and several species.Middle Jurassic to present. A single frontoparietal and no lacrimal bone in skull; ilium elongated and oriented anteriorly. 2 extinct and 28 or more extant families and over 5,400 living species.Order Caudata (salamander) (salamanders)Middle Jurassic to present. Four-faceted articulation between the skull and vertebral column; an incomplete maxillary arcade lacking a bony connection with neurocranium and palatoquadrate. 10 living and 3 extinct families, and more than 550 living species.Critical appraisalThe Lissamphibia is a well-corroborated monophyletic group containing all the living orders of amphibians. However, the exact placement of the Lissamphibia within an overall classification of the Amphibia remains uncertain, although evidence continues to grow for them as members of the temnospondyl clade. Within the Lissamphibia, there are two major clades, the Gymnophiona and the Batrachia, the latter containing three clades: frogs, salamanders, and albanerpetodontids. The living members of frogs and salamanders are placed in the orders Anura and Caudata, respectively. To accommodate the earlier and now extinct proto-frogs and proto-salamanders, the group names Salientia and Urodela are used.The relationships among the Paleozoic amphibians are highly uncertain and change regularly as new taxa and characters are discovered. The scientific consensus presently accepts edopoids, eryopoids, trematopids, dissorophoids, and several other groups of ancient amphibians as temnospondyls. A sister group relationship of the lissamphibians and microsaurs has less support, and it is entirely possible that the aistopodans and nectrideans are not amphibians, but instead are members of the antrachosaur evolutionary line, or each may represent independent evolutionary branches within the basal tetrapod radiation.Additional ReadingAn accurate introduction to amphibians and reptiles, complete with excellent illustrations and photographs, is provided in Harold G. Cogger and Richard G. Zweifel (eds.), Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians, 2nd ed. (1998). A popular and engaging review of amphibian biology is given in Robert C. Stebbins and Nathan W. Cohen, A Natural History of Amphibians (1995). A college-level textbook covering all aspects of herpetology from fossil history to the conservation of amphibians and reptiles is George R. Zug, Laurie J. Vitt, and Janalee P. Caldwell, Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles, 2nd ed. (2001).More-comprehensive treatments of herpetology include William E. Duellman and Linda Trueb, Biology of Amphibians (1986, reissued 1994); and F. Harvey Pough et al., Herpetology, 3rd ed. (2004). In addition, Martin E. Feder and Warren W. Burggren (eds.), Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians (1992), is a thorough compendium of amphibian physiology.Textbooks with comprehensive and technical reviews of vertebrate paleontology include Michael J. Benton, Vertebrate Paleontology, 2nd ed. (1997); and Robert L. Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution (1988). Hans-Peter Schultze and Linda Trueb (eds.), Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods (1991), reviews tetrapod evolution and classification; and Darrel R. Frost (ed.), Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference (1985), is a useful reference that includes a complete list of the species recognized taxonomically through 1985. At present, it is maintained and updated on the Internet at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php.A number of worthy regional accounts of herpetofauna are also available. Christopher J. Glasby, Graham J.B. Ross, and Pamela L. Beesley (eds.), Amphibia & Reptilia (1993), is a packed but highly readable technical manual with summary accounts of the biology and anatomy of all families of Australian amphibians and reptiles. Roger Conant and Joseph T. Collins, A Field Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America, 3rd ed., expanded (1998), is an excellent guide to the herpetofauna of eastern North America; and Brian I. Crother (ed.), Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, 6th ed. (2008), is an annotated list of all amphibians and reptiles in North America with comments on the validity of each species.G. Kingsley Noble, The Biology of the Amphibia (1931, reprinted 1954), is the classic English-language work on amphibians.William E. Duellman George R. Zug
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