- Amnesty International
an independent worldwide organization working against human-rights violations and for the release of persons imprisoned for political or religious dissent; Nobel peace prize 1977. Abbr.: AI, A.I.
* * *international organization headquartered in London that seeks to inform public opinion about violations of human rights, especially the abridgments of freedom of speech and of religion and the imprisonment and torture of political dissidents, and which actively seeks the release of political prisoners and the relief, when necessary, of their families. In 1977 Amnesty International was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.The organization was founded in London on May 28, 1961, through the principal efforts of Peter Benenson, who had been a defense lawyer for political prisoners in Hungary, South Africa, and Spain and who sought to establish a collective agency for the advancement of human rights. From 1961 to 1975 the chairman of AI's International Executive Committee was Seán MacBride (MacBride, Seán) (recipient of the 1974 Nobel Prize for Peace). By the early 1980s AI consisted of an international secretariat of 150 persons, national “sections,” or offices, in more than 40 countries, and about 200,000 individual members in some 100 countries.Aside from generally publicizing governmental wrongdoing in newsletters, annual reports, and background papers, AI relies strongly on the worldwide distribution of “adoption groups,” each of which, staffed by three to eight persons, takes on a limited number of cases of “prisoners of conscience” and barrages the offending government with letters of protest until the prisoners are released. The research department at London headquarters is in contact with human-rights activists and other interested parties around the world and provides the network of information for all the organization's activities.Amnesty International's logo is a burning candle wrapped in barbed wire.Additional ReadingEgon Larsen, A Flame in Barbed Wire (1978); and Jonathan Power, Amnesty International: The Human Rights Story (1981), a well-illustrated work, chronicle the group's history. Marie Staunton and Sally Fenn (compilers and eds.), The Amnesty International Handbook (1991), delineates the group's three goals and describes volunteer action.
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