- Red Cloud
1822-1909; Dakota Indian chief
* * *orig. Mahpiua Lutaborn 1822, on the Platte River, Nebraska Territory, U.S.died Dec. 10, 1909, Pine Ridge Agency, S.D.American Indian leader.The principal chief of the Oglala Teton Dakota (Sioux), he led the opposition of both the Sioux and the Cheyenne to the U.S. government's development of the Bozeman Trail to goldfields in the Montana Territory (1865–67). Relentlessly attacking workers along the route from Fort Laramie (in modern Wyoming) to Montana, he refused offers to negotiate until the U.S. agreed to halt the project, whereupon he laid down his arms and allowed himself to be settled on the Red Cloud Agency in Nebraska.
* * *city, seat (1871) of Webster county, southern Nebraska, U.S. It lies near the Republican River, a few miles north of the Kansas state line, about 35 miles (55 km) south of Hastings. First settled by Capt. Silas Garber (state governor, 1875–79), it was laid out in 1872 and named for the warrior-chief of the Oglala Sioux Indians. The arrival of the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad in 1879 contributed to the growth of the community. Agriculture (cattle, hogs, corn [maize], wheat, sorghum) is important to the economy. The city is best known, however, as the home of Willa Cather (Cather, Willa) (1873–1947), the novelist who was noted for her portrayals of frontier life on the Great Plains. She used Red Cloud as the setting for many of her novels; it made appearances as the towns of Hanover in O Pioneers! (1913), Black Hawk in My Ántonia (1918), and Sweet Water in A Lost Lady (1923). The Willa Cather State Historic Site contains her letters, notes, and family memorabilia. Her childhood home and other sites related to her works, such as the Pavelka Farmstead (home of Annie Pavelka, on whom the title character of My Ántonia was based), have been restored as the Willa Cather Thematic District, recognized as a national historic landmark. Inc. 1872. Pop. (2000) 1,131; (2005 est.) 1,029.▪ Sioux chiefIndian name Mahpiua Lutaborn 1822, on the Platte River, Nebraska Territory, U.S.died Dec. 10, 1909, Pine Ridge Agency, S.D.a principal chief of the Oglala Teton Dakota (Sioux), who successfully resisted (1865–67) the U.S. government's development of the Bozeman Trail to newly discovered goldfields in Montana Territory.Red Cloud had no hereditary title of his own but emerged as a natural leader and spokesman of his people through the force of his own character and through bravery in battle. Determined to protect the Indians' prime hunting grounds, Red Cloud in 1865 led the opposition of both Sioux and Cheyenne when the U.S. government began to build and fortify a road from Fort Laramie, in present Wyoming, by way of the Powder River to Montana. He intercepted the first contingents of army construction troops on the Bozeman Trail that summer, holding them prisoner for more than two weeks. Thereafter, he refused all offers to negotiate and relentlessly attacked workers along the route. The two-year harassment came to be known as Red Cloud's War and did not end until the United States agreed to abandon all posts and to desist from any further effort to open the road. When the garrisons had finally been withdrawn and the forts burned, Red Cloud signed the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie (April 29, 1868), laid down his arms, and allowed himself to be settled on the Red Cloud Agency, in Nebraska.Many of Red Cloud's followers, however, including his own son, scorned his accommodation with the white man and left the agency to pursue the war. While he kept his pledge of peace, Red Cloud defended Indian culture and continued to criticize the policies of the federal government. In 1878 he and his people moved to Pine Ridge Agency, whence he made several trips to Washington, D.C., to publicize his views. He and his wife were baptized as Christians and took the names John and Mary a few years before his death.
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