Velvet Underground, the

Velvet Underground, the

▪ American rock group

      American band of the 1960s whose primal guitar sound and urban-noir lyrics, influenced by avant-garde art and modern literature, inspired the punk and alternative rock movements of the 1970s and '80s. The principal members were Lou Reed (Reed, Lou) (original name Lewis Alan Reed; b. March 2, 1942, New York, N.Y., U.S.), John Cale (b. Dec. 5, 1940, Garnant, Wales), Sterling Morrison (in full Holmes Sterling Morrison; b. Aug. 29, 1942, Westbury, N.Y.—d. Aug. 30, 1995, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.), Maureen (“Moe”) Tucker (b. Aug. 26, 1944, Levittown, Long Island, N.Y.), Nico (original name Christa Päffgen; b. Oct. 16, 1938, Cologne, Germany—d. July 18, 1988, Ibiza, Spain), Angus MacLise, and Doug Yule.

      The son of an accountant, Reed grew up on Long Island, New York, made his first record at age 14 (as a member of the Shades), and studied literature and drama at Syracuse (New York) University (Syracuse University), where he came under the influence of poet Delmore Schwartz (Schwartz, Delmore). Trained as a classical musician in London, Welshman Cale came to the United States in 1963 on a Leonard Bernstein scholarship to study composition but soon joined the Dream Syndicate, a pioneering minimalist (minimalism) ensemble founded in New York City by La Monte Young. In 1965, while working as -style staff songwriter for Pickwick Music, Reed formed a group, the Primitives (including Cale), for live performances of a single he had recorded called “The Ostrich.” He also had written songs, such as “Heroin” and “Venus in Furs,” that reflected his interest in the graphic, narrative realism of novelists Raymond Chandler (Chandler, Raymond) and Hubert Selby, Jr. With guitarist Morrison (a Syracuse classmate of Reed's) and percussionist MacLise, Reed on guitar and vocals and Cale on piano, viola, and bass formed a more permanent band to play these songs, ultimately settling on the name the Velvet Underground, taken from the title of a paperback book about deviant sex.

      The band performed live soundtracks for experimental films before making their formal debut, with new drummer Tucker, at a high school dance in December 1965. After seeing the group play in a Greenwich Village club, pop artist Andy Warhol (Warhol, Andy) became the Velvet Underground's manager and patron—introducing them to the exotic German actress, model, and chanteuse Nico; putting the group on tour with his performance art discotheque, the Exploding Plastic Inevitable; and financing and producing the Velvets' first album. Recorded in 1966 but not released until the following year, The Velvet Underground and Nico was one of rock's most important debuts, a pioneering work that applied the disruptive aesthetics of avant-garde music and free jazz (drones, distortion, atonal feedback) to rock guitar. It also presented frank examinations of drug use, sadomasochism, and numbing despair. At a time when the San Francisco scene represented the euphoric apex of 1960s counterculture, the Velvets' harsh dose of New York City-framed reality was scorned by the music industry and ignored by mainstream audiences.

      The Velvet Underground's career was plagued by personal upheaval and financial struggle. Nico embarked on a solo career in 1967. Her unique style of ravishing melancholy was best captured on Chelsea Girls (1968), featuring contributions by Reed, Cale, and Morrison, and The Marble Index (1969), produced by Cale. Also in 1967, Reed dismissed Warhol as the group's manager. Cale was replaced by Doug Yule in 1968, after the release of White Light/White Heat, an album of extraordinary proto-punk ferocity. The 1950s rhythm-and-blues (rhythm and blues) balladry and pop classicism that subtly flavoured Reed's songwriting blossomed on The Velvet Underground (1969) and Loaded (1970). But the strain of commercial failure led Reed to quit in August 1970. A version of the band led by Yule limped into the early 1970s.

      As solo artists, Reed and Cale introduced the Velvet Underground's vision and legacy to a wider audience. Reed had an overdue hit in 1972 with the album Transformer; coproduced by Velvets admirer David Bowie (Bowie, David), it featured “Walk on the Wild Side,” which reached number 16 on the American pop chart. He then established himself as a punk-godfather figure with releases such as the lavish song suite Berlin (1973), the feedback oratorio Metal Machine Music (1975), and the concept album New York (1989). In addition to his own pop and rock solo recordings, Cale produced and collaborated with Velvet Underground-influenced artists such as Iggy and the Stooges, Jonathan Richman, Brian Eno (Eno, Brian), and Patti Smith (Smith, Patti); Cale also composed and released numerous orchestral works and movie scores. In 1989 Reed and Cale reunited to write and record Songs for Drella, an eloquent requiem for their mentor Warhol.

      Morrison and Tucker left the Reed-less Velvet Underground in 1971. Morrison studied medieval literature, then worked as a tugboat captain. Tucker, whose African-heartbeat style of drumming made her an underground-rock icon, raised a family and made occasional solo records. On June 15, 1990, at a celebration of Warhol's art and life in France, Reed, Cale, Morrison, and Tucker performed together for the first time since 1968; they toured Europe in 1993 and recorded a concert album before breaking up again. In 1996 the Velvet Underground were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

David Fricke

Representative Works

Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground and Nico (1967)
White Light/White Heat (1968)
The Velvet Underground (1969)
Loaded (1970)
The Velvet Underground Live at Max's Kansas City (1972)

Lou Reed
Transformer (1972)
Berlin (1973)
Street Hassle (1978)
New York (1989)

John Cale
Paris 1919 (1973)
Fear (1974)
Music For a New Society (1982)

Lou Reed/John Cale
Songs for Drella (1990)

Additional Reading
M.C. Kostek, The Velvet Underground Handbook (1992), provides a detailed, annotated listing of the Velvet Underground's recordings, films, and related materials. Victor Bockris and Gerard Malanga, Up-tight: The Velvet Underground Story, new ed. (1995), is a definitive, talking-book account of the group's career from 1965 to 1970. Lou Reed, Between Thought and Expression: Selected Lyrics of Lou Reed (1991), includes several Velvet Underground songs.

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Universalium. 2010.

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