Tarde, Gabriel

Tarde, Gabriel

▪ French sociologist
in full  Jean-Gabriel De Tarde  
born March 12, 1843, Sarlat [now Sarlat-la-Canéda], Dordogne, France
died May 13, 1904, Paris
 French sociologist and criminologist who was one of the most versatile social scientists of his time. His theory of social interaction (“intermental activity”) emphasized the individual in an aggregate of persons and brought Tarde into conflict with Émile Durkheim (Durkheim, Émile), who viewed society as a collective unity.

      Tarde served as a magistrate in the Dordogne and, from 1894, as director of the criminal statistics bureau at the Ministry of Justice in Paris. From 1900 he was professor of modern philosophy at the Collège de France. By 1875 he had developed his basic social philosophy. Holding that invention is the source of all progress, Tarde believed that perhaps 1 person in 100 is inventive. Innovations are imitated, but the imitations themselves differ in degree and kind. Opposition arises both between varied imitations and between the new and the old in culture. The outcome is an adaptation that is in itself an invention. Tarde saw this sequence as an unending cycle constituting the process of social history and explained the phenomenon in Les Lois sociales (1898; Social Laws). He treated the repetition phase in his best-known work, Les Lois de l'imitation (1890; The Laws of Imitation). Tarde's work in this area influenced later thinking about the concepts of social psychology and the diffusion of social ideas.

      In La Criminalité comparée (1886; “Comparative Criminality”) and other works, Tarde attacked the extreme biological-causation theories of Cesare Lombroso (Lombroso, Cesare) and his school, pointing out the importance of environment in criminal behaviour. His two-volume Psychologie économique (1902) stimulated the institutional economics of John Hobson in the United Kingdom and Thorstein Veblen (Veblen, Thorstein) in the United States.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tarde, Gabriel — (1843 1904)    sociologist    Born in Sarlat, Dordogne, Gabriel Tarde, a noted criminologist and sociologist, as well as the author of works on problem of criminality, was the principal French representative of the psychological school of… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Tarde, Gabriel — (1843 1904) A French criminologist, widely regarded as one of the founders of social psychology, a contemporary of Émile Durkheim who debated with him the nature of sociology. Tarde described the basic social processes as those of imitation (or… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Tarde, Gabriel — ► (1843 1904) Sociólogo francés. Estableció la imitación como uno de los fundamentos de la evolución social y una de las causas de la criminalidad …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Tarde — Gabriel Tarde Gabriel Tarde, auch: Gabriel de Tarde (* 12. März 1843 in Sarlat; † 13. Mai 1904 in Paris[1]) war ein französischer Kriminologe, Soziologe und Sozialpsychologe. Nach einem Studium der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gabriel Tarde — Gabriel Tarde, auch: Gabriel de Tarde (* 12. März 1843 in Sarlat; † 13. Mai 1904 in Paris[1]) war ein französischer Kriminologe, Soziologe und Sozialpsychologe. Nach einem Studium der Rechtswissenschaft in Toulouse und Paris arbe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gabriel de Tarde — o simplemente Gabriel Tarde (Sarlat, Francia, 12 de marzo de 1843 París, 13 de mayo de 1904) fue un sociólogo, criminólogo y psicólogo social francés …   Wikipedia Español

  • Gabriel Tarde — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Tarde (homonymie). Gabriel Tarde Juge et sociologue français XIXe siècle …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tarde — (Del lat. tarde.) ► sustantivo femenino 1 Parte del día comprendida entre el mediodía y el anochecer: ■ les gusta salir a pasear por la tarde. 2 Últimas horas del día: ■ hasta la tarde no llega a casa. SINÓNIMO atardecer ► adverbio 3 A hora… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Gabriel García Márquez — en 2009 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tarde (homonymie) — Tarde Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Patronyme Gabriel Tarde (ou de Tarde) (1843 1904), sociologue et criminologue français ; Alfred de Tarde (1880 1925), écrivain et polémiste… …   Wikipédia en Français

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