Taft, Robert A.

Taft, Robert A.

▪ American politician
in full  Robert Alphonso Taft 
born Sept. 8, 1889, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
died July 31, 1953, New York, N.Y.
 Republican leader in the U.S. Senate for 14 years (1939–53) whose espousal of traditional conservatism won him the sobriquet “Mr. Republican”; his failure to receive the presidential nomination in 1948 and 1952 was indicative of the defeat of isolationism by the internationalist wing of the party.

      The son of William Howard Taft (Taft, William Howard), 27th president of the United States (1909–13), Taft was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1913. Specializing in trust and utility cases, he also became a director of several successful businesses. During World War I he served as assistant counsel for the U.S. Food Administration (1917–18) and counsel for the American Relief Administration (1919). He then served in the Ohio House of Representatives (1921–26) and in the state senate (1931–32).

      Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1938, Taft soon established himself as a powerful influence in Washington D.C., denouncing the “socialist trends” of the New Deal and calling for economy in government, a balanced budget, and less centralization of power in the nation's capital. Before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (December 1941), he was an outspoken anti-interventionist; afterward, he threw his weight behind the war effort but was often critical of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's war policies.

      With the election of a Republican majority to Congress in 1946, Taft entered a new phase of power and prestige. He was tireless as chairman of the Republican Senate Policy Committee and well informed on the whole range of legislation before Congress. His most notable achievement was the enactment of the Taft-Hartley Labor Relations Act (1947), which placed restrictions on organized labour and, according to its sponsors, sought to balance the bargaining rights of management and labour. Although he sponsored modified social welfare measures in housing, health, and education, he continued to oppose centralization of power in the federal government.

      A steadfast isolationist, Taft opposed U.S. post-World War II involvement in world affairs through such international organizations as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), founded in 1949. Rather, he joined former president Herbert Hoover in calling for “fortress America” and the “principle of the free hand.” It was on these grounds that Taft was most determinedly opposed for the nomination to the presidency. Already a favourite-son candidate at every national convention since 1936, he came to the 1948 convention with considerable nationwide support but lost to the well-organized forces of the internationalist Thomas E. Dewey. Again in 1952 the nomination was denied him by the strong internationalist coalition, which rallied around the popular wartime general Dwight D. Eisenhower. After his party's victory at the polls Taft became majority leader and Eisenhower's chief adviser in the Senate.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Taft, Robert Alphonso — (1889 1953)    Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Robert A. Taft was the son of William Howard Taft, president of the United States from 1908 to 1912 and chief justice on the Supreme Court from 1921 to 1930. Taft graduated from Yale University in 1910 and …   Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era

  • Taft, Robert A(lphonso) — born Sept. 8, 1889, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. died July 31, 1953, New York, N.Y. U.S. politician. The son of William H. Taft, he served in the Ohio legislature before being elected to the U.S. Senate (1939–53). He became known as a strong advocate… …   Universalium

  • Taft, Robert A(lphonso) — (8 sep. 1889, Cincinnati, Ohio, EE.UU.–31 jul. 1953, Nueva York, N.Y.). Político estadounidense. Hijo de William H. Taft, se desempeñó en el poder legislativo de Ohio antes de ser elegido para integrar el Senado (1939–53). Se dio a conocer como… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Robert Alphonso Taft — (* 8. September 1889 in Cincinnati, Ohio; † 31. Juli 1953 in New York City) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Mitglied der Republikanischen Partei. Er entstammt der berühmten Taft Familie aus Ohio, die seit dem 18. Jahrhundert in Ohio lebt… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert Taft — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Robert Alphonso Taft Retrato de Robert Taft pintado por Rudolf Anton Bernatschke …   Wikipedia Español

  • Robert Taft — Robert Alphonso Taft (8 septembre 1889 31 juillet 1953) était un homme politique américain, membre du parti républicain, sénateur de l Ohio au Sénat des États Unis de 1939 à 1953 et candidat aux primaires présidentielles du parti républicain en… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Taft — bezeichnet: ein Gewebe aus Seide oder Kunstseide; siehe Taft (Gewebe) Drei Wetter Taft, eine Marke für Haarpflegeprodukte des Henkel Konzerns das US amerikanische Taft Hartley Gesetz einen Nebenfluss der Ulster in der Rhön, siehe Taft (Ulster)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Taft — /taft/, n. 1. Lorado /leuh ray doh/, 1860 1936, U.S. sculptor. 2. Robert A(lphonso) /al fon soh/, 1889 1953, U.S. lawyer and political leader (son of William Howard). 3. William Howard, 1857 1930, 27th president of the U.S. 1909 13; Chief Justice …   Universalium

  • Taft — Taft, William Howard * * * (as used in expressions) Taft, Robert A(lphonso) Taft, William Howard Taft Hartley, ley …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Robert Taft — For Robert Taft s son, also a U.S. Senator from Ohio, see Robert Taft, Jr.. For his grandson, a Governor of Ohio, see Bob Taft. For Jesuit priest, see Robert F. Taft. Robert A. Taft United States Senator from Ohio …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”