- Stevenson, Robert Louis
▪ British authorIntroductionin full Robert Louis Balfour Stevensonborn Nov. 13, 1850, Edinburghdied Dec. 3, 1894, Vailima, SamoaScottish essayist, poet, and author of fiction and travel books, best known for his novels Treasure Island (1881), Kidnapped (1886), Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886), and The Master of Ballantrae (1889). Stevenson's biography of Pierre-Jean de Béranger appeared in the ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (see the Britannica Classic: Pierre-Jean de Béranger).Early lifeStevenson was the only son of Thomas Stevenson, a prosperous civil engineer, and his wife, Margaret Isabella Balfour. His poor health made regular schooling difficult, but he attended Edinburgh Academy and other schools before, at 17, entering Edinburgh University, where he was expected to prepare himself for the family profession of lighthouse engineering. But Stevenson had no desire to be an engineer, and he eventually agreed with his father, as a compromise, to prepare instead for the Scottish bar.He had shown a desire to write early in life, and once in his teens he had deliberately set out to learn the writer's craft by imitating a great variety of models in prose and verse. His youthful enthusiasm for the Covenanters (Covenanter) (i.e., those Scotsmen who banded together to defend their version of Presbyterianism in the 17th century) led to his writing The Pentland Rising, his first printed work. During his years at the university he rebelled against his parents' religion and set himself up as a liberal bohemian who abhorred the alleged cruelties and hypocrisies of bourgeois respectability.In 1873, in the midst of painful differences with his father, he visited a married cousin in Suffolk, England, where he met Sidney Colvin, the English scholar, who became a lifelong friend, and Fanny Sitwell (who later married Colvin). Sitwell, an older woman of charm and talent, drew the young man out and won his confidence. Soon Stevenson was deeply in love, and on his return to Edinburgh he wrote her a series of letters in which he played the part first of lover, then of worshipper, then of son. One of the several names by which Stevenson addressed her in these letters was “Claire,” a fact that many years after his death was to give rise to the erroneous notion that Stevenson had had an affair with a humbly born Edinburgh girl of that name. Eventually the passion turned into a lasting friendship.Later in 1873 Stevenson suffered severe respiratory illness and was sent to the French Riviera, where Colvin later joined him. He returned home the following spring. In July 1875 he was called to the Scottish bar, but he never practiced. Stevenson was frequently abroad, most often in France. Two of his journeys produced An Inland Voyage (1878) and Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes (1879). His career as a writer developed slowly. His essay “Roads” appeared in the Portfolio in 1873, and in 1874 “Ordered South” appeared in Macmillan's Magazine, a review of Lord Lytton's Fables in Song appeared in the Fortnightly, and his first contribution (on Victor Hugo) appeared in The Cornhill Magazine, then edited by Leslie Stephen, a critic and biographer. It was these early essays, carefully wrought, quizzically meditative in tone, and unusual in sensibility, that first drew attention to Stevenson as a writer.Stephen brought Stevenson into contact with Edmund Gosse, the poet and critic, who became a good friend. Later, when in Edinburgh, Stephen introduced Stevenson to the writer W.E. Henley (Henley, William Ernest). The two became warm friends and were to remain so until 1888, when a letter from Henley to Stevenson containing a deliberately implied accusation of dishonesty against the latter's wife precipitated a quarrel that Henley, jealous and embittered, perpetuated after his friend's death in a venomous review of a biography of Stevenson.In 1876 Stevenson met Fanny Vandegrift Osbourne, an American lady separated from her husband, and the two fell in love. Stevenson's parents' horror at their son's involvement with a married woman subsided somewhat when she returned to California in 1878, but it revived with greater force when Stevenson decided to join her in August 1879. Stevenson reached California ill and penniless (the record of his arduous journey appeared later in The Amateur Emigrant, 1895, and Across the Plains, 1892). His adventures, which included coming very near death and eking out a precarious living in Monterey and San Francisco, culminated in marriage to Fanny Osbourne (who was by then divorced from her first husband) early in 1880. About the same time a telegram from his relenting father offered much-needed financial support, and after a honeymoon by an abandoned silver mine (recorded in The Silverado Squatters, 1883) the couple sailed for Scotland to achieve reconciliation with the Thomas Stevensons.Romantic novelsSoon after his return, Stevenson, accompanied by his wife and his stepson, Lloyd Osbourne, went, on medical advice (he had tuberculosis), to Davos, Switz. The family left there in April 1881 and spent the summer in Pitlochry and then in Braemar, Scot. There, in spite of bouts of illness, Stevenson embarked on Treasure Island (begun as a game with Lloyd), which started as a serial in Young Folks, under the title The Sea-Cook, in October 1881. Stevenson finished the story in Davos, to which he had returned in the autumn, and then started on Prince Otto (1885), a more complex but less successful work. Treasure Island is an adventure presented with consummate skill, with atmosphere, character, and action superbly geared to one another. The book is at once a gripping adventure tale and a wry comment on the ambiguity of human motives.In 1881 Stevenson published Virginibus Puerisque, his first collection of essays, most of which had appeared in The Cornhill. The winter of 1881 he spent at a chalet in Davos. In April 1882 he left Davos; but a stay in the Scottish Highlands, while it resulted in two of his finest short stories, “Thrawn Janet” and “The Merry Men,” produced lung hemorrhages, and in September he went to the south of France. There the Stevensons finally settled at a house in Hyères, where, in spite of intermittent illness, Stevenson was happy and worked well. He revised Prince Otto, worked on A Child's Garden of Verses (first called Penny Whistles), and began The Black Arrow: A Tale of the Two Roses (1888), a historical adventure tale deliberately written in anachronistic language.The threat of a cholera epidemic drove the Stevensons from Hyères back to England. They lived at Bournemouth from September 1884 until July 1887, but his frequent bouts of dangerous illness proved conclusively that the British climate, even in the south of England, was not for him. The Bournemouth years were fruitful, however. There he got to know and love the American novelist Henry James. There he revised A Child's Garden (first published in 1885) and wrote “Markheim,” Kidnapped, and Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. The poems in A Child's Garden represent with extraordinary fidelity an adult's recapturing of the emotions and sensations of childhood (children's literature); there is nothing quite like them in English literature. In Kidnapped the fruit of his researches into 18th-century Scottish history and of his feeling for Scottish landscape, history, character, and local atmosphere mutually illuminate one another. But it was Dr. Jekyll—both moral allegory and thriller—that established his reputation with the ordinary reader.In August 1887, still in search of health, Stevenson set out for America with his wife, mother, and stepson. On arriving in New York, he found himself famous, with editors and publishers offering lucrative contracts. He stayed for a while in the Adirondack Mountains, where he wrote essays for Scribner's and began The Master of Ballantrae. This novel, another exploration of moral ambiguities, contains some of his most impressive writing, although marred by its contrived conclusion.Life in the South SeasIn June 1888 Stevenson, accompanied by his family, sailed from San Francisco in the schooner yacht Casco, which he had chartered, on what was intended to be an excursion for health and pleasure. In fact, he was to spend the rest of his life in the South Seas. They went first to the Marquesas Islands, then to Fakarava Atoll, then to Tahiti, then to Honolulu, where they stayed nearly six months, leaving in June 1889 for the Gilbert Islands, and then to Samoa, where he spent six weeks.During his months of wandering around the South Sea islands, Stevenson made intensive efforts to understand the local scene and the inhabitants. As a result, his writings on the South Seas (In the South Seas, 1896; A Footnote to History, 1892) are admirably pungent and perceptive. He was writing first-rate journalism, deepened by the awareness of landscape and atmosphere, such as that so notably rendered in his description of the first landfall at Nuku Hiva in the Marquesas.In October 1890 he returned to Samoa from a voyage to Sydney and established himself and his family in patriarchal status at Vailima, his house in Samoa. The climate suited him; he led an industrious and active life; and, when he died suddenly, it was of a cerebral hemorrhage, not of the long-feared tuberculosis. His work during those years was moving toward a new maturity. While Catriona (U.S. title, David Balfour, 1893) marked no advance in technique or imaginative scope on Kidnapped, to which it is a sequel, The Ebb-Tide (1894), a grim and powerful tale written in a dispassionate style (it was a complete reworking of a first draft by Lloyd Osbourne), showed that Stevenson had reached an important transition in his literary career. The next phase was demonstrated triumphantly in Weir of Hermiston (1896), the unfinished masterpiece on which he was working on the day of his death. “The Beach of Falesá” (first published 1892; included in Island Night's Entertainments, 1893), a story with a finely wrought tragic texture, as well as the first part of The Master of Ballantrae, pointed in this direction, but neither approaches Weir. Stevenson achieved in this work a remarkable richness of tragic texture in a style stripped of all superfluities. The dialogue contains some of the best Scots prose in modern literature. Fragment though it is, Weir of Hermiston stands as a great work and Stevenson's masterpiece.AssessmentStevenson was an indefatigable letter writer, and his letters (edited by Sidney Colvin in 1899) provide a lively and enchanting picture of the man and his life. But Colvin omitted many of the most interesting letters and compressed and dovetailed others, with the result that many important facts about Stevenson's emotional life remained unknown until the true text of all the letters was available. Colvin presented Stevenson's letters to Fanny Sitwell to what is now the National Library of Scotland with the proviso that they were not to be opened until 1949; the revealing and often fascinating letters to Charles Baxter, a friend, were deposited in the Yale University Library. Stevenson's biography suffered from his being early canonized; later writers built up a counterpicture of an immoral swaggerer restrained into reluctant respectability by a jealous wife. Access to the crucial letters yielded a picture of a Stevenson who was neither the “seraph in chocolate” against whom Henley protested nor a low-living rake nor an optimistic escapist nor the happy invalid but a sensitive and intelligent writer who had no illusions about life and wryly made the best of a world to which he did not profess to have the key.Stevenson's literary reputation has also fluctuated. The reaction against him set in soon after his death: he was considered a mannered and imitative essayist or only a writer of children's books. But eventually the pendulum began to swing the other way, and by the 1950s his reputation was established among the more discerning as a writer of originality and power; whose essays at their best are cogent and perceptive renderings of aspects of the human condition; whose novels are either brilliant adventure stories with subtle moral overtones or original and impressive presentations of human action in terms of history and topography as well as psychology; whose short stories produce some new and effective permutations in the relation between romance and irony or manage to combine horror and suspense with moral diagnosis; whose poems, though not showing the highest poetic genius, are often skillful, occasionally (in his use of Scots, for example) interesting and original, and sometimes (in A Child's Garden) valuable for their exhibition of a special kind of sensibility.David DaichesMajor WorksTales and novels.New Arabian Nights, 2 vol. (1882; the stories in vol. 1 appeared as Latter-Day Arabian Nights, 1878; those in vol. 2 had appeared in The Cornhill and other magazines); Treasure Island (1883; serialized in a slightly different form in Young Folks, 1881–82); More New Arabian Nights, with Fanny Van de Grift Stevenson (1885); Prince Otto (1885); Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886); Kidnapped (1886; in Young Folks, 1886); The Merry Men and Other Tales and Fables (1887), including “Thrawn Janet” and “Olalla”; The Black Arrow: A Tale of the Two Roses (1888; in Young Folks, 1883); The Master of Ballantrae (1889; serialized in Scribner's Magazine, 1888–89); Catriona (1893), a sequel to Kidnapped; The Ebb-Tide, with Lloyd Osbourne (1894; serialized in To-Day, 1893–94); Weir of Hermiston (unfinished 1896); St. Ives, completed by Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, pseudonym “Q” (1897).Essays and miscellaneous.An Inland Voyage (1878); Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes (1879); Virginibus Puerisque (1881), collected essays, mainly from The Cornhill Magazine; Familiar Studies of Men and Books (1882); Memories and Portraits (1887), 16 essays; Across the Plains (1892), 12 essays; Vailima Letters, to Sidney Colvin (1895); From Scotland to Silverado, ed. by J.D. Hart (1966), brings together all Stevenson's previously published and unpublished writings about his trip to California in 1879–80.Poetry.A Child's Garden of Verses (1885); Underwoods (1887), 38 poems in English, 16 in Scots; Ballads (1890); Songs of Travel and Other Verses (1896). Collected Poems, ed. by J. Adam Smith, 2nd ed. (1971), is the standard edition of Stevenson's poetry.Additional ReadingBibliographies of works by and about Stevenson include William F. Prideaux, A Bibliography of the Works of Robert Louis Stevenson, rev. by F.V. Livingston (1917, reprinted 1968); and George L. McKay (comp.), A Stevenson Library . . . , Formed by Edwin J. Beinecke, 6 vol. (1951–64).Of the many collected editions of Stevenson's works the following are notable: Pentland edition, ed. by Edmund Gosse, 20 vol. (1906–07); Swanston edition, 25 vol. (1911–12); Vailima edition, ed. by Lloyd Osbourne, with prefatory notes by Fanny Van de Grift Stevenson, 26 vol. (1922–23, reprinted 1974); Skerryvore edition, 30 vol. (1924–26); Tusitala edition, 35 vol. (1923–24); South Seas edition, 32 vol. (1925). James D. Hart (ed.), From Scotland to Silverado (1966), brings together all of Stevenson's previously published and unpublished writings about his trip to California in 1879–80, with a biographical introduction.The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson to His Family and Friends were edited by Sidney Colvin (2 vol., 1899; 4 vol., 1911, reprinted 1969), but these are far from complete, and the text has sometimes been tampered with. Stevenson's lively and important correspondence with his lifelong friend Charles Baxter, RLS: Stevenson's Letters to Charles Baer, was edited by De Lancey Ferguson and Marshall Waingrow (1956).The official biography of Stevenson is by his cousin Graham Balfour, The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson, 2 vol. (1901, reprinted 1968). This is valuable, but there are serious omissions and evasions. The standard modern biography is Joseph C. Furnas, Voyage to Windward: The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson (1951, reprinted 1980). Malcolm Elwin, The Strange Case of Robert Louis Stevenson (1950, reprinted 1971); Richard Aldington, Portrait of a Rebel (1957); and David Daiches, Robert Louis Stevenson and His World (1974), are lively retellings of the life. Jenni Calder, Robert Louis Stevenson: A Life Study (1980), explores and explains a man and a writer. Henry James and Robert Louis Stevenson: A Record of Friendship and Criticism, ed. by J. Adam Smith (1948), gives an account of the relationship between the two writers and prints both their criticisms of each other's work and their letters to each other.Critical works on Stevenson are David Daiches, Robert Louis Stevenson (1946); Lettice Cooper, Robert Louis Stevenson (1947); Robert Kiely, Robert Louis Stevenson and the Fiction of Adventure (1964); and Edwin M. Eigner, Robert Louis Stevenson and Romantic Tradition (1966). Paul Maixner (ed.), Robert Louis Stevenson: The Critical Heritage (1981), presents reviews and critical assessments from 1878 to 1924 that represent the debate on Stevenson's reputation.
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