- Skinner, B.F.
▪ American psychologistborn March 20, 1904, Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, U.S.died August 18, 1990, Cambridge, MassachusettsAmerican psychologist and an influential exponent of behaviourism, which views human behaviour in terms of responses to environmental stimuli and favours the controlled, scientific study of responses as the most direct means of elucidating human nature.Skinner was attracted to psychology through the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich) on conditioned reflexes, articles on behaviourism by Bertrand Russell (Russell, Bertrand), and the ideas of John B. Watson (Watson, John B.), the founder of behaviourism. After receiving his Ph.D. from Harvard University (1931), he remained there as a researcher until 1936, when he joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, where he wrote The Behavior of Organisms (1938).As professor of psychology at Indiana University, Bloomington (1945–48), Skinner gained some measure of public attention through his invention of the Air Crib baby tender—a large, soundproof, germ-free, mechanical, air-conditioned box designed to provide an optimal environment for child growth during the first two years of life. In 1948 he published one of his most controversial works, Walden Two, a novel on life in a utopian community modeled on his own principles of social engineering.As a professor of psychology at Harvard University from 1948 (emeritus 1974), Skinner influenced a generation of psychologists. Using various kinds of experimental equipment that he devised, he trained laboratory animals to perform complex and sometimes quite exceptional actions. A striking example was his pigeons that learned to play table tennis. One of his best-known inventions, the Skinner box, has been adopted in pharmaceutical research for observing how drugs may modify animal behaviour.His experiences in the step-by-step training of research animals led Skinner to formulate the principles of programmed learning, which he envisioned to be accomplished through the use of so-called teaching machines (teaching machine). Central to his approach is the concept of reinforcement, or reward. The student, learning by use of the machine at his own pace, is rewarded for responding correctly to questions about the material he is trying to master. Learning is thereby presumably reinforced and facilitated.In addition to his widely read Science and Human Behavior (1953), Skinner wrote many other books, including Verbal Behavior (1957), The Analysis of Behavior (with J.G. Holland, 1961), and Technology of Teaching (1968). Another work that generated considerable controversy, Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971), argued that concepts of freedom and dignity may lead to self-destruction and advanced the cause of a technology of behaviour comparable to that of the physical and biological sciences. Skinner published an autobiography in three parts: Particulars of My Life (1976), The Shaping of a Behaviorist (1979), and A Matter of Consequences (1983). The year before his death, Recent Issues in the Analysis of Behavior (1989) was published.
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