(Arabic: “testimony”), the Muslim profession of faith: “There is no god but Allah; Muḥammad is the prophet of Allah.” The shahādah is the first of the five Pillars of Islām (arkān al-Islām). It must be recited by every Muslim at least once in a lifetime, aloud, correctly, and purposively, with a full understanding of its meaning and with an assent of the heart.

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Universalium. 2010.

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