Saʿīd Pasha

Saʿīd Pasha

▪ Ottoman viceroy of Egypt
born 1822, Cairo, Egypt
died Jan. 18, 1863, Alexandria

      Ottoman viceroy of Egypt (1854–63) whose administrative policies fostered the development of individual landownership and reduced the influence of the sheikhs (sheikh) (village headmen).

      Saʿīd was the fourth son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pasha, viceroy of Egypt (1805–48). While still a child, he was compelled on orders from his father to make daily rounds of the European consuls residing in Egypt in order to overcome his shyness and improve his French. As a result he befriended Ferdinand de Lesseps (Lesseps, Ferdinand, vicomte de), the French consul; their friendship would lead to the construction of the Suez Canal years later. During the reign of his father, Saʿīd became head of the navy, a position he retained during the rule of Abbās Iʿ (1848–54) despite their mutual enmity.

      In 1854 Saʿīd succeeded ʿAbbās as viceroy of Egypt. He was influenced by Western forms of landownership, and, under pressure from Western financiers to change Egypt's traditional system of land tenure, he enacted, in 1855, a law that permitted the male descendants of a peasant to inherit his land. Three years later Saʿīd passed another law limiting land inheritance to Muslims, thus considerably reducing the circle of relatives entitled to an inheritance. Few peasants owned land, however, and these provisions had limited applicability. To correct the situation, an article in the second law provided that a peasant who held a plot of land for five consecutive years and paid the taxes on it would acquire irrevocable ownership and the right to sell, mortgage, or exchange his land.

      This increase in the property rights of peasants was accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the authority of the sheikhs, who lost the right to distribute land among the peasants, either on the death of a peasant or at periodic intervals. Saʿīd abolished the collective responsibility of a village for payment of taxes, a practice that had permitted the sheikhs to divide the village tax burden among the peasants, and he levied taxes directly on individual cultivators. He also confiscated some of the land held by the sheikhs and drafted their sons, who had hitherto been exempt, into the army.

      Saʿīd attempted innovations in other areas. In 1861 he established a commission to work out a municipal code for Egyptian cities; nothing came of this initiative, largely because of the opposition of foreign powers. Saʿīd also unsuccessfully attempted to end the flourishing slave trade by banning the importation of slaves from the Sudan. One of his most momentous acts was to grant a concession to a French company in 1856 for the construction of the Suez Canal. By 1859 both Saʿīd and the Ottoman sultan had come to oppose the plan, and, for the rest of Saʿīd's reign, work continued on the canal without official permission.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pasha — or pacha, formerly bashaw, ( tr. paşa پاشا) (Persian: پاشا) (Armenian: Փաշա) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. As an honorary title, Pasha in one of its various ranks is… …   Wikipedia

  • Pasha (disambiguation) — Pasha refers to:* Pasha, a high rank in the former Ottoman Empire. * Pasha means King in Kurdish. *Pasha as a Russian language diminutive form of the given name Pavel, equivalent to the English Paul. * Pasha River, a river in Leningrad Oblast,… …   Wikipedia

  • Pasha studio — Pasha Studios is a gay adult film producer that began productions in 2000, specializing in bareback gay pornographic video featuring bareback sex. Most of the current movies are very reminiscent of the themes typical of 1970s and early 1980s gay… …   Wikipedia

  • Pasha Apart Hotel — (Кушадасы,Турция) Категория отеля: Адрес: Guvercin Oda Cad. Kadınlar Denizi, 0940 …   Каталог отелей

  • Pasha Hotel — (Черкезкей,Турция) Категория отеля: 3 звездочный отель Адрес: Fevzipasa mah.Guvenis caddesi, B/S/H …   Каталог отелей

  • Pasha Palas Hotel — (Коджаэли,Турция) Категория отеля: 4 звездочный отель Адрес: Demokrasi Bulvarı Yah …   Каталог отелей

  • Pasha Hotel — (Стамбул,Турция) Категория отеля: Адрес: Kucuk Ayasofya Mah. Akburcak Sok. No:8 Sultanahmet, Фатих, 34440 Стамбул, Турция Описание: Отель Pasha предлагает номера с …   Каталог отелей

  • Pasha Motel — (Бодрум,Турция) Категория отеля: Адрес: Zeki Muren Caddesi No 5 , 48400 Бодрум, Турция …   Каталог отелей

  • Pasha Sulina — (Сулина,Румыния) Категория отеля: 4 звездочный отель Адрес: Strada a 3 a, nr. 168, 825400 Сулина …   Каталог отелей

  • Pasha Garni Hotel — (Laktaši,Босния и Герцеговина) Категория отеля: 3 звездочный отель Адрес: Klašnice …   Каталог отелей

  • Pasha Bahadur Disai — was leader of the the Hamesha tribe of people of the Balakh region of Afghanistan circa 711 769. Pasha Bahadur Disai traced his ancestry to the Greek Satraps installed by Alexander the Great. Although most of the Hamesha people retained their… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”