Ritschl, Albrecht

Ritschl, Albrecht

▪ German theologian
born March 25, 1822, Berlin
died March 20, 1889, Göttingen, Ger.

      German Lutheran theologian who showed both the religious and ethical relevance of the Christian faith by synthesizing the teaching of the Scriptures and the Protestant Reformation with some aspects of modern knowledge. Most of the results of Ritschl's scholarship were presented in his major work, Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versöhnung (The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation), 3 vol. (1870–74).

      The son and grandson of Lutheran clergymen, Ritschl was trained in theology and philosophy at the universities of Bonn (1839–41) and Halle (1841–43). After receiving his doctorate in 1843, Ritschl joined the ranks of the Tübingen school, a theological movement involved in reconstructing the origins of Christianity and the early history of the church and its theology. Ritschl taught at the University of Bonn (1846–64) and at Göttingen from 1864 until his death. His first significant publication, Die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche (1850; “The Origin of the Old Catholic Church”), revealed both his initial indebtedness to and gradual breach with the Tübingen school, which, in its analysis of the early history of Christianity, he found too indebted to Hegelian presuppositions. Virtually all of his research came to fulfillment in his major work, Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versöhnung, which deals with the historical and biblical materials (vols. 1–2) and with Ritschl's own reconstruction (vol. 3).

      Ritsch's youthful biblical conservatism was shaken by the Hegelianism of the Tübingen theologian Ferdinand Christian Baur (Baur, Ferdinand Christian). In his earliest writings he agreed with Baur that Christianity is a historical development of perfectly logical pattern rather than a dogma revealed once and for all. By the time the second edition of his Die Entstehung der alt-katholischen Kirche appeared in 1857, he had abandoned this position completely. Henceforth, he refused to force the results of historical research into preconceived speculative patterns. He thought that the New Testament history of Jesus Christ, viewed simply as history and not as miracle, can lead to a practical rather than a speculative judgment affirming Jesus' divine mission. Ritschl's was a theology of revelation based on this unity of history with practical moral or value judgments. Influenced heavily by Immanuel Kant (Kant, Immanuel), Ritschl viewed religion as the triumph of the spirit (or moral agent) over humanity's natural origins and environment. But he rejected for use in theology what he understood to be the impersonal generalizations of metaphysics and the natural sciences. The mystical and intuitive elements of the religious life were also completely foreign to his activist outlook; the goal of Christian life, he maintained, is work in and for the Kingdom of God (God, Kingdom of). Against Protestant Pietism, which emphasized the spiritual piety of the individual, Ritschl argued persuasively for the ethical development of man in the context of his community, which for Ritschl took precedence even over the church itself.

      Ritschl shared with Friedrich Schleiermacher the belief that for Christianity God is not known as self-existent; he is known only insofar as he conditions human trust in his self-revelation through Christ. Ritschl rejected such doctrines as original sin, the miraculous birth of Christ, the Trinity, and the Incarnation. His attempt to apply the tenets of Kantian philosophy to Protestant Christianity was typical of an era that had little feeling for the mystery of religion and no dread of a divine judgment. His effort to maintain a theology of divine revelation without the faith in miracles underlying the older dogma was bitterly attacked by both liberal and conservative critics, but his influence on German Protestant theology in the second half of the 19th century was nevertheless immense.

Hans Wilhelm Frei Ed.

Additional Reading
Otto Ritschl, Albrecht Ritschls Leben, 2 vol. (1892–96), is the definitive biography by Ritschl's son, containing a complete bibliography of Albrecht Ritschl's writings from 1842 to 1889. Works discussing his theology are Philip J. Hefner, Faith and the Vitalities of History (1966), an analysis of aspects of Ritschl's theology; David L. Mueller, An Introduction to the Theology of Albrecht Ritschl (1969), an assessment of the major lines of Ritschl's theology, including a statement concerning his relevance today; David W. Lotz, Ritschl & Luther: A Fresh Perspective on Albrecht Ritschl's Theology in the Light of His Luther Study (1974); and Darrell Jodock (ed.), Ritschl in Retrospect: History, Community, and Science (1995).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ritschl, Albrecht — (1822–89)    Theologian.    Ritschl was born in Berlin, Germany, the son of a Protestant pastor. He was educated at Bonne, Halle, Heidelberg and Tübingen and he subsequently became a Professor of Theology first at Bonn and then at Göttingen. He… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Ritschl, Albrecht — ► (1822 89) Teólogo luterano alemán. Fue fundador del llamado ritschlianismo, que funda la religión en juicios de valor …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • RITSCHL, ALBRECHT —    Protestant theologian, born at Berlin; studied at Rome, where in 1853 he became professor extraordinarius of theology, and in 1860 ordinary professor; after which he was in 1864 transferred to Göttingen, where he spent the rest of his life,… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Ritschl — Ritschl, Albrecht …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Albrecht Ritschl (Theologe) — Albrecht Ritschl Albrecht Ritschl (* 25. März 1822 in Berlin; † 20. März 1889 in Göttingen) war ein evangelischer Theologe und Professor in Bonn und Göttingen. Er war der Sohn von Carl Ritschl, Generalsuperintendent und Bischof der Provinz… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ritschl — Ritschl, 1) Friedrich Wilhelm, Philolog, geb. 6. April 1806 in Großvargula bei Erfurt, gest. 9. Nov. 1876 in Leipzig, studierte seit 1825 in Leipzig unter Hermann und seit 1826 in Halle unter Reisig, wurde 1829 Privatdozent und 1832… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Ritschl — Ritschl, Albrecht, prot. Theolog, geb. 25 März 1822 zu Berlin, 1852 Prof. in Bonn, 1864 in Göttingen, gest. das. 20. März 1889; Begründer der sog. Ritschlschen Schule, die unter Ausscheidung der Metaphysik und Philosophie aus dem Bereich der… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Albrecht Ritschl — Le théologien Albrecht Ritschl. Albrecht Ritschl (né à Berlin le 25 mars 1822 †20 mars 1889 à Göttingen) est un théologien protestant qui enseigna dans les universités de Bonn et de Göttingen. Ritschl enseigna d’abord l’histoire ecclésiastique… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Albrecht Ritschl (Wirtschaftshistoriker) — Albrecht Ritschl (* 1959 in München) ist ein deutscher Wirtschaftshistoriker. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Thesen 3 Schriften 4 Weblinks …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Albrecht Ritschl — (March 25, 1822 March 20, 1889) was a German theologian.BiographyRitschl was born in Berlin. His father, Georg Karl Benjamin Ritschl (1783 1858), became in 1810 pastor at the church of St Mary in Berlin, and from 1827 to 1854 was general… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”