- Ravenscroft, George
▪ English glassmakerborn 1618died 1681English glassmaker, developer of flint glass, a heavy, blown type (shaped by blowing when in a plastic state) characterized by both brilliance and dark shadow.Ravenscroft was commissioned by the Worshipful Company of Glass Sellers to experiment with native raw materials for glass manufacture, because the members, dissatisfied with the quality of the glassware available, hoped to make England independent of foreign sources for both raw materials and finished glass.In 1674 Ravenscroft obtained a patent for a glass with the desirable quality of a resemblance to rock crystal; this glass was made from a formula including transparent, black flint (a hard mineral of the quartz family), which he called “flint crystalline.” Finding that his pieces tended to lose transparency within several months after manufacture, he added lead, usually in the form of red lead, producing a heavier, denser glass with darker colour and greatly increased refractive power, distinguished by the resonant ring produced when hollow glassware was flicked with the thumb and forefinger. He marked pieces made by the later method with a small glass seal impressed with the raven's head borne on his family coat of arms.The new, solid, durable glass gradually achieved a greater market than the more fragile Venetian type, and new techniques, more suitable to the new glass, began to replace methods developed for Venetian glass. Ravenscroft died within a few days after the expiration of his seven-year patent, and other glassmakers immediately began to manufacture flint glass.
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