- Ravel, Maurice
▪ French composerIntroductionborn March 7, 1875, Ciboure, Fr.died Dec. 28, 1937, ParisFrench composer of Swiss-Basque descent, noted for his musical craftsmanship and perfection of form and style in such works as Boléro (1928), Pavane pour une infante défunte (1899; Pavane for a Dead Princess), Rapsodie espagnole (1907), the ballet Daphnis et Chloé (first performed 1912), and the opera L'Enfant et les sortilèges (1925; The Child and the Enchantments).Ravel was born in a village near Saint-Jean-de-Luz, Fr., of a Swiss father and a Basque mother. His family background was an artistic and cultivated one, and the young Maurice received every encouragement from his father when his talent for music became apparent at an early age. In 1889, at 14, he entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he remained until 1905. During this period he composed some of his best known works, including the Pavane pour une infante défunte (Pavane for a Dead Princess), the Sonatine for piano, and the String Quartet. All these works, especially the two latter, show the astonishing early perfection of style and craftsmanship that are the hallmarks of Ravel's entire oeuvre. He is one of the rare composers whose early works seem scarcely less mature than those of his maturity. Indeed, his failure at the Conservatoire, after three attempts, to win the coveted Prix de Rome for composition (the works he submitted were judged too “advanced” by ultraconservative members of the jury) caused something of a scandal. Indignant protests were published, and liberal-minded musicians and writers, including the musicologist and novelist Romain Rolland, supported Ravel. As a result, the director of the Conservatoire, Théodore Dubois (Dubois, Théodore), was forced to resign, and his place was taken by the composer Gabriel Fauré (Fauré, Gabriel), with whom Ravel had studied composition.Ravel was in no sense a revolutionary musician. He was for the most part content to work within the established formal and harmonic conventions of his day, still firmly rooted in tonality—i.e., the organization of music around focal tones. Yet, so very personal and individual was his adaptation and manipulation of the traditional musical idiom that it would be true to say he forged for himself a language of his own that bears the stamp of his personality as unmistakably as any work of Bach or Chopin. While his melodies are almost always modal (i.e., based not on the conventional Western diatonic scale but on the old Greek Phrygian and Dorian modes), his harmonies derive their often somewhat acid flavour from his fondness for “added” notes and unresolved appoggiaturas, or notes extraneous to the chord that are allowed to remain harmonically unresolved. He enriched the literature of the piano by a series of masterworks, ranging from the early Jeux d'eau (completed 1901) and the Miroirs of 1905 to the formidable Gaspard de la nuit (1908), Le Tombeau de Couperin (1917), and the two piano concerti (1931). Of his purely orchestral works, the Rapsodie espagnole and Boléro are the best known and reveal his consummate mastery of the art of instrumentation. But perhaps the highlights of his career were his collaboration with the Russian impresario Sergey Diaghilev, for whose Ballets Russes he composed the masterpiece Daphnis et Chloé, and with the French writer Colette, who was the librettist of his best known opera, L'Enfant et les sortilèges. The latter work gave Ravel an opportunity of doing ingenious and amusing things with the animals and inanimate objects that come to life in this tale of bewitchment and magic in which a naughty child is involved. His only other operatic venture had been his brilliantly satirical L'Heure espagnole (first performed 1911). As a songwriter Ravel achieved great distinction with his imaginative Histoires naturelles, Trois poèmes de Stéphane Mallarmé, and Chansons madécasses.Ravel's life was in the main uneventful. He never married, and, though he enjoyed the society of a few chosen friends, he lived the life of a semirecluse at his country retreat at Montfort-L'Amaury, in the forest of Rambouillet, near Paris. He served in World War I for a short time as a truck driver at the front, but the strain was too great for his fragile constitution, and he was discharged from the army in 1917.In 1928 Ravel embarked on a four months' tour of Canada and the United States and in the same year visited England to receive an honorary degree of doctor of music from Oxford. That year also saw the creation of Boléro in its original form as a ballet, with Ida Rubinstein in the principal role.The last five years of Ravel's life were clouded by aphasia, which not only prevented him from writing another note of music but also deprived him of the power of speech and made it impossible for him even to sign his name. Perhaps the real tragedy of his condition was that his musical imagination remained as active as ever. An operation to relieve the obstruction of a blood vessel that supplies the brain was unsuccessful. Ravel was buried in the cemetery of Levallois, a Paris suburb in which he had lived, in the presence of Stravinsky and other distinguished musicians and composers.For Ravel, music was a kind of ritual, having its own laws, to be conducted behind high walls, sealed off from the outside world, and impenetrable to unauthorized intruders. When his Russian contemporary Igor Stravinsky compared Ravel to “the most perfect of Swiss watchmakers,” he was in fact extolling those qualities of intricacy and precision to which he himself attached so much importance.Rollo H. MyersMajor WorksStage works.Ballet: Daphnis et Chloé (first performed 1912; also two suites for orchestra); La Valse (1920); Boléro (1928; also arranged for piano and piano, four hands). Opera: L'Heure espagnole (1911); L'Enfant et les sortilèges (1925).Orchestral works.Orchestra alone: Shéhérazade, overture (1898); Pavane pour une infante défunte (completed 1899); Rapsodie espagnole (1907). Solo instrument and orchestra: Tzigane, for violin and piano or orchestra (1924); Piano Concerto in G Major (1931); Piano Concerto in D Major for Left Hand (1931).Chamber music.String Quartet (1903); Introduction et allegro, for solo harp, string quartet, flute, and clarinet (1905); Trio for Violin, Cello and Piano (1914); Sonata for Violin and Cello (1922); Sonata for Violin and Piano (1927). Piano music: Jeux d'eau, for piano solo (1901); Miroirs (1905, basis for a later ballet); Sonatine (1905); Ma mère l'Oye, piano, four hands (1908, later orchestrated and made into a ballet); Gaspard de la nuit (1908); Le Tombeau de Couperin (1917, later orchestrated); Valses, nobles et sentimentales (1911, later orchestrated and made into a ballet).Vocal music.Song cycles: Shéhérazade, for voice and piano or orchestra (1903); Histoires naturelles, for voice and piano (1906); Trois poèmes de Stéphane Mallarmé, for voice, piano, string quartet, two flutes, and two clarinets (1913); Chansons madécasses, for voice, piano, cello, and flute (1926); Don Quichotte à Dulcinée, for voice and piano (1932).Orchestrations of works by other composers.Menuet pompeux (1918), from Dix pièces pittoresques (1880) by Emmanuel Chabrier; Pictures from an Exhibition (1922), a piano suite by Modest Mussorgsky.Additional ReadingBiographical works, most of which also contain lists of Ravel's compositions, include Roger Nichols, Ravel Remembered (1987); Benjamin Ivry, Maurice Ravel (2000); Deborah Mawer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ravel (2000); Gerald Larner, Maurice Ravel (1996); and Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Music (1975, reissued 1991). Arbie Orenstein (ed.), A Ravel Reader: Correspondence, Articles, Interviews (1990), is an informative collection. Burnett James, Ravel, His Life and Times (1983), explores the works and social background of the composer. Other analyses of Ravel's music include H.H. Stuckenschmidt, Maurice Ravel: Variations of His Life and Work (1968); Laurence Davies, Ravel Orchestral Music (1970); Marguerite Long, At the Piano with Ravel (1973); and Vlado Perlemuter and Hélène Jourdan-Morhange, Ravel According to Ravel (1988).
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