- programmed learning
educational technique characterized by self-paced, self-administered instruction presented in logical sequence and with much repetition of concepts. Programmed learning received its major impetus from the work done in the mid-1950s by the American behavioral psychologist B.F. Skinner (Skinner, B.F.) and is based on the theory that learning in many areas is best accomplished by small, incremental steps with immediate reinforcement, or reward, for the learner. This technique can be applied through texts, so-called teaching machines, and computer-assisted-instruction. No matter what the medium, two basic types of programming are used: linear, or straight-line programming, and branching programming.Linear programming immediately reinforces student responses that approach the learning goal. Responses that do not lead toward the goal go unreinforced. Each bit of learning is presented in a “frame,” and a student who has made a correct response proceeds to the next frame. All students work through the same sequence, and a low rate of error is necessary to ensure continued positive reinforcement of correct responses.Branching, or intrinsic, programming, was initially developed in conjunction with the use of an electronic training device for military personnel. This technique provides the student a piece of information, presents a situation requiring a multiple choice or recognition response, and on the basis of that choice instructs the student to proceed to another frame, where he or she learns if the choice was correct, and if not, why not. A student who responded incorrectly will either be returned to the original frame, or routed through a subprogram designed to remedy the deficiency indicated by the wrong choice. A student who selects correctly advances to the next frame in the program. This process is repeated at each step throughout the program, and a student may be exposed to differing amounts of material depending upon errors made.Text materials often rely on a cardboard mask that the student uses to cover the correct response until a choice is made. There are successful programmed-learning texts for primary-grade pupils, but most such texts have been designed for upper-grade and college-level subjects such as statistics, economics, and foreign languages.
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