- Nusa Tenggara Barat
English West Nusa Tenggaraprovinsi (province) of Indonesia, comprising the western Lesser Sunda Islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Moyo, and Sangeang. Nusa Tenggara is Indonesian for “southeast islands.” The province fronts the Indian Ocean to the south, the Bali Sea to the northwest, the Flores Sea to the northeast, Lombok Strait to the west, and the Sape Strait to the east.The islands were ruled by the Buddhist kings of Java in the 7th century and passed under the control of the Hindu Majapahit empire of eastern Java in the 14th century. After the arrival of Islām in the 16th century and the subsequent disintegration of Majapahit in neighbouring Java, local Hindu states thrived on the western Lesser Sunda Islands. The area was governed by the Hindu kingdom on Bali (across Lombok Strait to the west) until 1843, when the Bali king accepted the colonial sovereignty of the Dutch. A revolt by the local Sasak Muslims in 1891 provoked active Dutch intervention. In 1894 the Dutch invaded Lombok and, after bitter fighting, captured Mataram, the capital city, and the town of Cakranegara. The rest of the province capitulated in the first decade of the 20th century. The province, occupied by the Japanese during World War II, became part of the Republic of Indonesia in 1950.Lombok has two parallel rugged mountain chains, the northern volcanic chain rising to Mount Rinjani (12,225 feet [3,726 m]), Indonesia's tallest mountain. Sumbawa is also very mountainous and has active volcanoes; Mount Tambora (Tambora, Mount) (9,350 feet) is the highest peak. Narrow coastal plains and rocky and precipitous coasts are common on the islands. Hillsides have scrub vegetation, and occasional streams flow down the hills during the monsoon season. Lombok in particular has a large area in the extreme south of waterless, barren karst country. Sumbawa is divided nearly in half by Teluk Bay.The principal occupation in the province is agriculture, and the chief crops include rice, coffee, corn (maize), sugarcane, cotton, indigo, and tobacco. Cattle and horses are raised, and deep-sea fishing is important. Industries produce milled rice, beverages, woven cloth, processed tobacco and coffee, pharmaceuticals, transport equipment, and refined sugar. The islands have roads running east-west, mostly parallel to their coasts. Mataram on Lombok is the provincial capital and has an airport; Sumbawa Besar and Raba on Sumbawa also have airports. The population is mostly Sasak, together with some Balinese on Lombok and Sumbawans on Sumbawa. Area 7,790 square miles (20,177 square km). Pop. (1990) 3,369,649; (1995 est.) 3,654,800.
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